Reading Comprehension: Social Science

20 Questions  I  By Presencia422
Reading Comprehension: 20 questions / 30 minutes (After 30 minutes, the window will be closed.) Check you select right topic according to your major. Topic for Social Science (major: sociology, psychology, education, anthropology, archeology )

  
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Question Excerpt

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1.  Choose the meaning that is closest to the meaning of the verb underlined. The teacher had her class writie a composition.
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2.  * Choose the meaning that is closest to the meaning of the verb underlined. Mrs. Wilson made the children wash their hands before dinner.
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3.  * Read the descriptions of some TV news programs. Choose the correct words and phrases. < Regional Recap > Are you addicted to the news? This Friday morning program features all of your favorite stories from the previous week, so you can enjoy them all again. Especially useful for busy people who didn’t catch all of the details of their favorite stories during the week. < All news is Good News! > If you need to (1) _______ from negative news stories, you’ll appreciate our coverage of only positive stories. We (2) ________ stories about success, lucky breaks, and ordinary people who have become heroes in their communities. Join us for our daily message of hope and happiness. Q) Fill the blank 1)
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4.  Q) Fill the blank (2)
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5.  Q) Fill the blank 3)
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6.  < The San Andreas Fault > Chapter 1: Southern and central segments. Chapter 2: Northern Segments Chapter 3: Notable Earthquakes Chapter 4: Scientific Research Chapter 5: Pop Culture Reference Chapter 6: The Next Big one. Q) The reader is looking for a description of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The reader would probably find this information most quickly and easily by looking first in which part of the book?
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7.  Choose one sentence which is not relate to the main idea of the passage. The discovery of America was an accident. It was the result of Europe’s desire for trade with China and India. In 1492, Christopher Columbus set out under the flag of Spain to find a direct sea route to the rich trading areas of the Far East. (1) He hoped to find a shorter route to China and India. (2) So he sailed due west across the Atlantic. (3) Instead, he found two huge continents that were until then unknown to Europe. (4) They blocked his way to the Far East. (5) These two continents were North America and South America.
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8.  * Read the passage and answer the question. It is easy to say, “Enlarge your vocabulary: first, that you may enter upon the privileges of a cultivated person: and second, that you may be able to to tell the truth easily and accurately.” But it is another and more difficult matter to prescribe the means by which this is to be done. Every student must, to a large degree, work out his or her own method. the reading of the best books and conversation with cultivated people are both helps to the free use of words. The dictionary is the best friend for your task. Never allow a strange word to pass unchallenged. Usually, it is wide to look it up at the moment. If that is impossible, it must be written firmly on the memory and traced at the first opportunity. It is good to encourage in yourself the habit of dawdling a little over the dictionary. It is the only place where dawdling reaps a harvest. To learn two new words a day-thoroughly to learn them, so that their use will not have a foreign accent-is to insure a large vocabulary before you reach middle age. Q) The paragraph states that you can enlarge your vocabulary by:
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9.  * Read the passage and answer the question. Talking with a young man about success and a career, Doctor Samuel Johnson advised the youth to “know something about everything, and everything about something.” The advice was good--in Doctor Johnson’s day, when London was an isolated village, and it took a week to get the news from Paris, Rome, and Berlin. Today, if a man were to take all knowledge for his province and try to know something about everything, the allotment of time would give one minute to each subject, and soon the youth would flit from topic to topic as a butterfly from flower to flower, and life would be about as evanescent as the butterfly, that lives for the present honey and moment. Today commercial, literary, or inventive success means concentration. Q) In order to be successful, the writer would probably advise youth:  
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10.  * Read the passage and answer the question. Chemical weapons were first used by Germany during World War 1. Britain, France, and the United States soon followed suit. Soldiers suffocated in poisonous clouds of chlorine; when the gas mask was invented, combatants deployed the more pervasive and persistent mustard gas, which caused severe blistering, clouded eyes, seared lungs, and if the victim survived, a greater chance of developing cancer. Immediately following the war, members of the League of Nations began formulating a comprehensive international ban on chemical weapons, although many signatories reserved the right to produce them as a retaliatory measure. The United States did not add its signature until fifty years later, in 1975. Q) We can conclude from the last sentence that the United States:
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11.  * Rearrange the order of the following sentences to make one complete paragraph. 1. Then, too, my mother wanted me to stay close to my sister. 2. I argued that two years of study abroad would help me a lot at this stage of my career. 3. For one thing, my father was not well. 4. Finally my sister offered to stay at home along during my absence. 5. I found it hard to leave my home and travel to another land. 6. This made some of my problems begin to vanish.
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12.  [ Question 12-15 ] Read the passage below and answer the FOUR questions that follow. Before one begins to read an unfamiliar work of literature, it is often helpful to know what kind of work it is--that is, what genre it belongs to. If we know what expectations we should have, we are less likely to misunderstand what the author is trying to accomplish. The Lord of the Rings is a work of fiction written in the middle of this century about a world that greatly resembles medieval times in Europe. It is unmistakably a novel, yet the real significance of the events and the characters will be clearer to readers who know something about the literary tradition, or genre, called the epic, and who have read, for example, The Odyssey or Beowulf. Moreover, there is a special kind of pleasure in the recognition of familiar patterns of events and characterization, which are varied and even deliberately reversed. The skillful interplay of a great storyteller like Tolkien. No one, of course, knows exactly what the Middle Ages were really like, but readers get an illusion in The Lord of the Rings of being in an ancient world which is in some mysterious way part of the history of our own world. Then, after the fashion of the epic tradition, they will expect that the story will follow the movements of a particular person who is of heroic stature (physically and mentally) and who embodies the ideals and values of a particular people. Readers feel sure that the hero will, like the heroes in The Odyssey and Beowulf, go on a journey and experience a variety of adventures, which he will survive after many hardships and will then return to his own home and people. Q) Which of the following is probably the intended audience for this passage?
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13.  [ Question 12-15 ] Q) The central point of the passage is best summarized as follows:
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14.  [ Question 12-15 ] Q) The author implies which of the following about the conclusion of The Lord of the Rings?
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15.  [ Question 12-15 ] Q) It may be inferred that readers who expect The Lord of the Rings to contain elements of the epic tradition will:
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16.  Topic C. Social science (major: sociology, psychology, education, anthropology, archeology ) [ Text ] (1)  Vicious crimes can contribute to a sense of unease among citizens who feel defenseless against the perpetrators. Continued concern over public protection has triggered recurring discussions about violence in media, political and social arenas, and the proliferation of a plentitude of theories about the cause of violence, which attribute it variously to war, drug addiction, class or race frustrations, even suggesting that it is inherently present in cultural identity. As part of an effort to understand the predispostions to violence, scientists have attempted to speculate on a biological explanation for this behavior. (2)  Some scientists have considered a direct relationship between the likelihood a person will commit a violent crime and the level of serotonin, an organic compound believed to play an integral role in the regulation of mood, sleep, sexuality, and appetite, present in the brain. In the central nervous system, serotonin is part of the biochemistry that is related to several psychological conditions; depression, migraines, bipolar disorder, and anxiety are all linked to an overproduction or underproduction of the compound. If violent behavior could be clinically linked to an imbalance in brain chemicals, then scientists would be able to control aggressive tendencies through medication before the behavior escalates. (3)  The first government sponsored study into the possibility of inherited propensity for violence was conducted in 1998 by the Violence Initiative Project, which was led by two Columbia University professors, covering a wide scope of interdisciplinary subjects such as biochemistry, neurophysiology, and genetics. The team chose to examine the brains of 34 young boys, none of whom had previously committed a violent act. They were selected because each had an older sibling (all boys) who had been incarcerated for a violent crime. The scientists assumed that the younger brothers would display a similar inclination toward violence as their older siblings and thus hypothesized that they would exhibit low levels of serotonin, which is genetically determined. During the test, the subjects fasted for 12 hours, drank only water, and were administered an oral dose of fenfluramine hydroxide, a volatile chemical that, when consumed, heightens serotonin levels in normal brains and produces severe mood-related side effects, such as the abnormally high incidences of fatigue, headache, and irritability. By introducing the chemical, researchers claimed that they would be capable of raising their subjects’ supposedly low serotonin levels to those of average brains and that medication would, regardless of race, class, or any other environmental stressors, inhibit their desire for executing violent acts. (4)  While withdrawing hourly blood samples of the subjects to test brain chemistry, the scientists disproved their own theories because the medicated younger siblings, 44% African-American and 56% Hispanic, in fact, began to show some of the side effects of the drug, indicating that fenfluramine hydroxide had not balanced serotonin levels, but actually produced an abrupt spike. A complete post-trial review, which compared pre-trial samples with the hourly samples, revealed that the boys did not possess the expected lower than average serotonin levels, challenging the professors’ main argument. (5)  Social scientists examining the clinical tests promptly suggested that the main reason for the failure of the professors to link serotonin to violence was because aggressive behavior is determined through a variety of mitigating factors, including a prior history of offensive behavior, childhood experiences, and socio-economic status. According to common social theories, children who are exposed to violence and situations in which they are hurt either physically or emotionally often display tendencies toward hurting others, and sociologists are quick to point out that this is based not on biology, but rather on circumstances. In fact, studies with twins raised in different households, one violent and one non-violent, evidently show that the causation is exposure, not genetic similarity. In addition, criminologists warn that heredity cannot be seen as a driving force behind the predisposition to violence because it denies personal responsibility of the perpetrator, makes judgements of individuals who have never committed a violent act based on biology, and fails to address a myriad of social agents influencing behavior. (6)  According to social scientists, any scientific study that excludes data about the test subject’s historical and social background should be considered reductionists, having a tendency to use an inadequately simple set of structures to explain a more complex one. In response, clinical researchers have adjusted many of their clinical trials to account for differences in social and historical context. C-16. The word unease in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
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17.  Topic C. Social science (major: sociology, psychology, education, anthropology, archeology ) C-17 . It is implied in paragraph 2 that the goal of research into the biological cause of violent behavior is to:
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18.  Topic C. Social science (major: sociology, psychology, education, anthropology, archeology ) C-18. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
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19.  Topic C. Social science (major: sociology, psychology, education, anthropology, archeology ) C-19. According to the passage, the author implies that the research done with twins
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20.  Topic C. Social science (major: sociology, psychology, education, anthropology, archeology ) C-20. Complete the summary by selecting three answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Studies on violence have focused on finding an underlying cause. 1) 2) 3)
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