Quiz 4,5,7

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  • 1. 
    Charles Colley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships using the term:
    • A. 

      Primary group

    • B. 

      Expressive group

    • C. 

      Secondary group

    • D. 

      Instrumental group


  • 2. 
    Soloman Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed:
    • A. 

      That people defined as "leaders" have great power over their subjects

    • B. 

      That people tend to see most things differently

    • C. 

      That people seek out friends with whom they tend to agree

    • D. 

      The power of group membership to generate conformity


  • 3. 
    What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue caused by group conformity?
    • A. 

      Groupthink

    • B. 

      Tunnel vision

    • C. 

      Doublethink

    • D. 

      Bureaucratic ritualism


  • 4. 
    A secondary group is a social group that:
    • A. 

      We experience late in life

    • B. 

      Is generally much smaller than a primary group

    • C. 

      Is impersonal and tries to accomplish some specific goal

    • D. 

      Engages in unimportant activities


  • 5. 
    The term "bureaucracy" refers to:
    • A. 

      A small, primary organization

    • B. 

      An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

    • C. 

      An organizational model that operates informally

    • D. 

      Any source of inefficiency in organizational operation


  • 6. 
    What is th term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
    • A. 

      Expressive leadership

    • B. 

      Instrumental leadership

    • C. 

      Secondary leadership

    • D. 

      Democratic leadership


  • 7. 
    Which of the following defines who and what we are in relation to others?
    • A. 

      Role set

    • B. 

      Status

    • C. 

      Ideal culture

    • D. 

      Role


  • 8. 
    In what way do men and women typically differ in their use of space?
    • A. 

      Women commenly seek to control more space than men

    • B. 

      Older women use more space than younger men

    • C. 

      There is no difference: Men and women use space in the same way

    • D. 

      Men commonly seek to control more space than women


  • 9. 
    The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as:
    • A. 

      Dramaturgical analysis

    • B. 

      Ethnomethodology

    • C. 

      The social construction of reality

    • D. 

      The Thomas theorem


  • 10. 
    The Thomas theorem states that:
    • A. 

      A role is as a role does

    • B. 

      Situations defined as real are real in their consequences

    • C. 

      People act out only the roles that thier culture provides

    • D. 

      People know the world only through their language


  • 11. 
    What is the term for a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily taken on later in life?
    • A. 

      Master status

    • B. 

      Passive role

    • C. 

      Ascribed status

    • D. 

      Achieved status


  • 12. 
    What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?
    • A. 

      A crowd

    • B. 

      A dyad

    • C. 

      A social group

    • D. 

      A micro-system


  • 13. 
    People riding together on a subway are correctly called a social group
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 14. 
    Stanley Milgram's research withe the "teacher-learner" demonstrated that only sociopathic German Nazis would engage in harmful behavior like the holocaust
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 15. 
    The idea of "getting" a joke, according to the text, depends on:
    • A. 

      Understanding why someone is telling a joke

    • B. 

      Having a different social background than the joke teller

    • C. 

      Understanding the two realities presented in the joke and approaching their difference

    • D. 

      Knowing the joke teller well


  • 16. 
    Being an honors student is an example of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Asribed status

    • B. 

      Role set

    • C. 

      Role status

    • D. 

      Achieved status


  • 17. 
    In Sociology, the term "status" refers to the level of importance of a person
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 18. 
    A person's sex or racial identity is an asribed status
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 19. 
    A master status refers to being the best in one's occupational field
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 20. 
    Passengers sitting in an airport gate area and waiting to board a plane are an example of a:
    • A. 

      Group

    • B. 

      Population

    • C. 

      Crowd or aggregate

    • D. 

      Category


  • 21. 
    Which of the following is typically true of a social network?
    • A. 

      Networks are "fuzzy" groups containing people we "know of" rather than those we "know"

    • B. 

      Networks are built on primary relationships

    • C. 

      Networks have clear boundaries defining membership

    • D. 

      Networks foster a strong sense of membership


  • 22. 
    As groups increase in size, interaction becomes more intense and more personal
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 23. 
    Oligarchy refers to the rule of the many by the few
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 24. 
    Georg Simmel referred to a group of three as a dyad
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 25. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the traits of bureaucracy noted by Max Weber?
    • A. 

      Favoring kin (relatives) over strangers

    • B. 

      Specialization

    • C. 

      Rules and regulations

    • D. 

      Hierarchy of offices


  • 26. 
    Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator," showed that:
    • A. 

      People become angry towards those who disagree with them, even if it is a teaching-learning situation

    • B. 

      The ability to tolerate pain varies withe cultural background, and the type of task assigned to them

    • C. 

      The conclusions of Soloman Asch's research were incorrect

    • D. 

      Ordinary people will follow the orders of a "legitimate" authority figure, even if it cause pain to another


  • 27. 
    What is the term for a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily taken on later in life?
    • A. 

      Passive role

    • B. 

      Ascribed status

    • C. 

      Master status

    • D. 

      Achieved status


  • 28. 
    Which of the following statements linking nature and nurture is correct?
    • A. 

      Nature is far more important than nurture

    • B. 

      Humans have powerful instincts the same way other animals do

    • C. 

      For Human beings, nurture is more important

    • D. 

      None of the above is correct


  • 29. 
    Which of the four assertions about the social foundation of devience below is FALSE?
    • A. 

      Norms and the way people define situations involve social power

    • B. 

      Peopld become deviant as others define them that way

    • C. 

      Deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms

    • D. 

      Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere


  • 30. 
    Mr. Lapota has worn a clown nose in class:
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 31. 
    Emile Durkheim's basic insight is that deviance is:
    • A. 

      Less common in modern societies

    • B. 

      Defined by the rich and used against the poor

    • C. 

      A dysfunctional element of social organization

    • D. 

      A normal element of social organization


  • 32. 
    In his strain theory, Robert Merton would use which of the following term to desribe people, including alcholics and drug addicts, who "drop out"
    • A. 

      Retreatist

    • B. 

      Innovator

    • C. 

      Rebel

    • D. 

      Ritualist


  • 33. 
    What is Erving Goffman's term for a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?
    • A. 

      Stigma

    • B. 

      Secondary identity

    • C. 

      Deviant ritual

    • D. 

      Degradation ceremony


  • 34. 
    Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to:
    • A. 

      How others respond to the behavior in question

    • B. 

      How able a person is to contain deviant impulses

    • C. 

      The amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question

    • D. 

      How others respond to the race, ethnicity, gender, and class or the individual


  • 35. 
    According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based primarly upon:
    • A. 

      Patterns of inequality and who has more power

    • B. 

      The moral foundation of the culture

    • C. 

      How often the act occurs

    • D. 

      How harmful the act is to the public as a whole


  • 36. 
    What is the term for crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupations?
    • A. 

      Organized crime

    • B. 

      Victimless crime

    • C. 

      Street crime

    • D. 

      White-collar crime


  • 37. 
    Which justification uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminality?
    • A. 

      Retribution

    • B. 

      Deterence

    • C. 

      Rehabilitation

    • D. 

      Social protection


  • 38. 
    What is normal or deviant is mostly the same all around the world
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 39. 
    According to Robert Merton's model, a drug dealer would be a good example of a deviant "innovator."
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 40. 
    The stigma of deviance can encourage further deviance in an individual
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


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