Psychology Final

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Psychology Final

  
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1.  Optimism is associated with all of the following EXCEPT ____________________.
A.
B.
2.  The difference between implicit and explicit memories is that it is difficult to bring explicit memories into consciousness, whereas implicit memories can be forgotten, but always have the potential to be made conscious
A.
B.
3.  In Asch's black line experiment, participants ____________________.
A.
B.
4.  Marjorie took a personality test in April. She took the same test in June and got a very similar score. This personality test is ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
5.  According to Freud, the desired outcome of the phallic stage of psychosexual development is
A.
B.
C.
6.  Description involves ________ a person's behavior
A.
B.
7.  This carries messages from the senses to the spinal cord.
A.
B.
C.
8.  Although some researchers have found evidence for a high degree of accuracy in flashbulb memories of major events, others have found that flashbulb memories are just as subject to decay and alterations over time as other kinds of memories.
A.
B.
9.  Within the field of psychology, mental processes refer to ____________________.
A.
B.
10.  In psychology, researchers try to find the answers to ________ questions.
A.
B.
C.
11.  Talking, facial expressions, and movements are elements of ____________________.
A.
B.
12.  Optimists use ________, a process of comparing their performance to those that are less competent.
A.
B.
13.  The group most likely to become a scapegoat is the group ____________________.
A.
B.
14.  Prejudice is to ____ as discrimination is to _______
A.
B.
15.  ________ is the technique to use when dealing with uncontrollable stressors.
A.
B.
16.  A stimulus that has no effect on the desired response is a/an ____________________.
A.
B.
17.  According to Sternberg's theory, when intimacy and passion are combined the result is _____, which is often the basis for a more lasting relationship.
A.
B.
18.  Lauren withdraws from social situations because she does not know how to enter a group conversation. To help her, Lauren's therapist has her watch several videos in which people demonstrate, step-by-step, how to enter conversations, and then Lauren imitates the people in the videos. Lauren's therapist is using a technique called ____________________.
A.
B.
19.  The surfacing and resurfacing of forbidden thoughts and ideas cause maladaptive behaviors in those individuals trying to keep those thoughts away. This is how the cognitive perspective views the onset of abnormality in people.
A.
B.
20.  Cones are the special cells responsible for ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
21.  Gestalt psychology ____________________.
A.
B.
22.  In a survey on the sources of hassles, children aged 3-5 rated ________ as the biggest daily hassle.
A.
B.
C.
23.  A(n) ________ specifically names the steps that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment.
A.
B.
C.
24.  An example of biological preparedness is ____________________.
A.
B.
25.  Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of manufacturing other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear are ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
26.  Terman determined that gifted people ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
27.  F a jury member voted "guilty" because the defendant had "shifty eyes" and not because of any of the evidence presented, he or she is demonstrating ____________________.
A.
B.
28.  Messages from other cells are received by the ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
29.  Stronger attitudes are more likely to predict behavior than weaker ones.
A.
B.
30.  In most employment situations, people are paid on a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement rather than on a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.
A.
B.
31.  Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once. Donyelle's experience illustrates ____________________.
A.
B.
32.  People who are blind from birth, but later have their sight restored, are unlikely to develop ____________________.
A.
B.
33.  John's boss yells at him. As John walks meekly out of the boss's office, Dana walks past him and says, "hello!" John yells at Dana and proceeds to berate her for the job she did on the last contract. Freud would say John is using ________ as a way of dealing with his stress.
A.
B.
C.
34.  Which of the following is a feature of the storage stage of memory?
A.
B.
35.  This brain structure serves as a relay station for sensory information.
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B.
36.  Researchers were unable to duplicate Vicary's 1957 study showing that sales of popcorn and Coca-Cola ________ after the message "Eat Popcorn" and "Drink Cola" were flashed briefly on a screen without audience awareness.
A.
B.
37.  Kohler's chimp experiment involved ____________________.
A.
B.
38.  Once a message has been received, a cell ____________________.
A.
B.
39.  ________ was denied a Ph.D degree because she was a woman.
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B.
C.
40. 
Self-actualizing tendency refers to ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
41.  The psychodynamic model sees anxiety as the result of ____________________.
A.
B.
42.  Pavlov's work with dogs focused on the concept of ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
43.  When Rashid graduated from college, he believed he had finally achieved his full potential. Maslow called this ____________________.
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B.
C.
44.  The Rorschach inkblot test ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
45.  Which of the following is NOT true with respect to sleep?
A.
B.
46.  Ivan Pavlov was a Russian _____ who spent his life studying classical conditioning.
A.
B.
47.  How many primary taste sensations have been identified by researchers?
A.
B.
C.
48.  The olfactory bulbs are located ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
49.  There appears to be a slight correlation between bipolar disorder and ADHD in adolescence, although most people with ADHD do not develop bipolar disorder later in life.
A.
B.
50.  _____ is a disorder that is found primarily in Japan and includes excessive fear and anxiety over the possibility of offending someone.
A.
B.
51.  Which perspective focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics?
A.
B.
52.  In the ________ model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning are thought to be stored physically near each other in the brain.
A.
B.
53.  Dropping out of school or quitting a job are forms of ____________________.
A.
B.
54.  _______ theorists link depression to learned helplessness.
A.
B.
55.  Afferent neurons, efferent neurons and inter neurons make up the ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
56.  Over the years it has been widely accepted to prescribe antidepressants to relieve depression in children and adolescents
A.
B.
57.  Which of the following statements correctly summarizes the results of studies that attempted to verify the existence of ESP?
A.
B.
58.  Humanistic therapy can be impractical in the treatment of severe mental disorders where the individual is not very verbally expressive
A.
B.
59.  Marginalized individuals do not have the security of the familiar culture of origin and may suffer a loss of ____________________.
A.
B.
60.  Obesity is a condition in which the body weight of a person is ________ percent or more over the ideal weight for that person's height.
A.
B.
C.
61.  The diagnosis of mental retardation depends on all of the following criteria EXCEPT ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
62.  Recognition is much easier than recall because the cue is the actual object, word, or sound that one is simply trying to detect as familiar.
A.
B.
63.  The blind spot in the eye is due to ____________________.
A.
B.
64.  Hippocrates thought that _______ was/were responsible for all maladaptive behaviors or mental illnesses.
A.
B.
65.  Erik solved a crossword puzzle on Monday. By Thursday, he could not remember the words in the puzzle. On Thursday night when he was playing a word game with his best friend, however, he unconsciously used words that were in the puzzle. Erik's experience is an example of ____________________.
A.
B.
66.  Someone with an IQ score of 60 has ________ developmental delay.
A.
B.
C.
67.  The mental events that take place inside a person's mind while behaving are known as ____________________.
A.
B.
68.  In ________, the minority person gives up the old cultural identity and completely adopts the majority culture's ways.
A.
B.
69.  ________ memory is like a giant filing system in which the "files" are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion.
A.
B.
70.  According to humanistic therapists, the closer a person's real self and the ______ match, the happier and more well-adjusted that person will be.
A.
B.
71.  One important advantage of an MRI over a CT scan is that the MRI ____________________.
A.
B.
72.  Natasha has severe mood swings. One week she's energetic and excessively happy and then the following week she has a major depressive episode. Natasha may be exhibiting ____________________.
A.
B.
73.  Freud proposed that there is a(n) ________ mind into which we repress threatening urges and desires.
A.
B.
C.
74.  Post-traumatic stress disorder ____________________.
A.
B.
75.  Alfred Adler believed that the defense mechanism of compensation is used by individuals who ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
76.  Archaeologists have found human skulls that bear the sign of ancient surgeries. This surgery has been termed ____________________.
A.
B.
77.  Assie's mother suffered a stroke. Since then, she sometimes says strange things, such as, "I need to go to the store to buy some canaries," when she means to say that she needs groceries. Cassie's mother seems to be suffering from ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
78.  If life gives a Type A personality lemons, he or she will ____________________.
A.
B.
79.  The three components of attitude are _____, thoughts and actions.
A.
B.
80.  The removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response is called ____________________.
A.
B.
81.  Putting the care of the family ahead of your own care is called ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
82.  Children respond to observing aggression the same whether a show depicts an aggressive model as being punished or the program makes a "hero" out of the aggressive model.
A.
B.
83. 
The visual centers of the brain area are contained in the ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
84.  As new memories are created in long-term memory, old memories are more likely to be changed or altered in some way
A.
B.
85.  Alzheimer's disease is the least common type of dementia found in the elderly population
A.
B.
86.  All of the following are influential perspectives in personality theory EXCEPT the
A.
B.
C.
87.  An action therapy that is based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behaviors is ____________________.
A.
B.
88.  In his later studies, Bandura added the condition of _____ into his studies of children and the Bobo doll.
A.
B.
89.  After medication and psychotherapy did not relieve Maria's severe depression, she tried to commit suicide. Maria's doctor suggested she consider undertaking a different biomedical therapy. Which of the following is her doctor most likely to recommend?
A.
B.
90.  The role of a humanistic therapist is to get clients to look at and test their beliefs to see how accurate their beliefs really are.
A.
B.
91.  Many psychological disorders are really ordinary variations in human behavior taken to an extreme.
A.
B.
92.  Research suggests strongly that once people learn something, it is always present somewhere in memory.
A.
B.
93.  The information-processing model assumes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory in which it is stored.
A.
B.
94.  Axis III includes ____________________.
A.
B.
95.  Kohler's idea of animal insight was controversial because other researchers, like Thorndike, did not believe that animals demonstrated that trait.
A.
B.
96.  When Maxine's husband died, the members of her church brought her food and stayed with her children while she made funeral arrangements. This is an example of a(n) ________ support system.
A.
B.
97.  William James was responsible for developing the theory of ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
98.  A person who experiences a great deal of subjective discomfort in his or her daily routine or behaviors may be displaying a sign of behavioral abnormality.
A.
B.
99.  The Social Readjustment Rating Scale measures the amount of stress ____________________.
A.
B.
100.  ________ are personal judgments based on beliefs rather than facts.
A.
B.
C.
101.  The textbook discusses a study conducted by Pezdek and Hodge (1999) who asked children to read five different summaries of childhood events. Two of these events were false, but only one of the two false events were plausible. The children were all told that all of the events happened to them as small children. The results of this study indicated ____________________.
A.
B.
102.  Which professional has a doctorate degree and works with humans or animals in a variety of settings?
A.
B.
103.  ________ analyzes personality through handwriting.
A.
B.
C.
104.  A warm and caring relationship between therapist and client, characterized by empathy and understanding, is called ____________________.
A.
B.
105.  Another name for a depressive disorder is a mood disorder
A.
B.
106.  The first step in the scientific method is ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
107.  Which is an example of a recognition task?
A.
B.
C.
108.  A therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques is called ____________________.
A.
B.
109.  Sound wavelengths interpreted by the brain as frequency are called ____________________.
A.
B.
110.  ______ was one of the first researchers to look at the laws involved in learning voluntary responses.
A.
B.
111.  A major factor in how stressful a particular stressor becomes is ____________________.
A.
B.
112.  If your eyeball is too short, you may have trouble with ____________________.
A.
B.
113.  Kinesthetic sense involves ____________________.
A.
B.
114.  _____ occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.
A.
B.
115.  The type of stress experienced when positive events require the body to adapt is called ____________________
A.
B.
116.  When a neuron receives a stimulus that is very strong, the result is ____________________.
A.
B.
117.  A phobia which literally means "fear of the marketplace" is ____________________.
A.
B.
118.  The cell that sends and receives messages in the nervous system is called the ____________________.
A.
B.
119.  Which of the following memory phenomena has been supported in impression formation?
A.
B.
120.  Joseph Breuer devised a technique for revealing the unconscious mind. He encouraged his patients to freely say whatever came to their mind. This technique has become known as
A.
B.
121.  The first efforts to treat the mentally ill with kindness and guidance occurred in ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
122.  Melatonin and thyroxin are examples of ____________________.
A.
B.
123.  Don's psychoanalyst believes that if she and Don can correctly interpret the hidden meanings behind the events in Don's dreams they will reveal
A.
B.
124.  The area of the brain that controls aggressive responses is the ____________________.
A.
B.
125.  Ryan sees a woman collapse in the mall. He doesn't run over to help her because he assumes there is probably someone else in the crowd who is a doctor or nurse and who can provide better assistance. This is an example of ____________________.
A.
B.
126.  Ross does not do well in school, so he spends his time surfing. Which defense mechanism is Ross using?
A.
B.
127. 
Because the term schizophrenia literally means "split mind," it has often been confused with ____________________.
A.
B.
128.  Roger Sperry was looking for a cure for this disease when researching differentiation of the left and right hemispheres of the brain
A.
B.
129.  Seligman connects learned helplessness to ____________________.
A.
B.
130.  Amie has the ability to look quickly at a page in a book, then focus on a blank piece of paper and "read" the words from the image of the page in the book that still lingers in his sensory memory. Jamie's ability is an example o
A.
B.
131.  The type of therapy where the goal is for patients to better understand the motives behind their actions is ________ therapy.
A.
B.
132.  Cho never feels there is enough time to study, even though she has straight As. She finds it hard to relax because she always feels she should be studying. What personality type is Cho?
A.
B.
133.  Group therapy does not have permanent leaders. Someone tends to volunteer on a monthly basis to lead the discussion.
A.
B.
134.  Layla's new puppy keeps chewing the bottoms of her favorite curtains. Now, whenever Layla sees the puppy begin chewing, she turns on a device that makes a continuous loud, annoying sound. She will not turn it off until the puppy stops chewing. Layla is using which technique to change the puppy's behavior?
A.
B.
135.  The disorder that brings most people to the attention of a psychologist is diagnosed along which axis?
A.
B.
136.  Normal aging causes loss of hair cells in the ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
137.  One criticism of Freud's psychoanalytic theory is that it ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
138.  Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden, he thinks, "Was that man wearing a bright purple suit?" As a result of this thought, he looks back at the man to see if it is true. Which type of memory is responsible for Eduardo's behavior?
A.
B.
139.  Four-year-old Joshua reacts with anxiety to the sound of thunder. A chair slides across the wooden floor making a sound similar to thunder. Joshua reacts with some slight anxiety. This is an example of ____________________.
A.
B.
140. 
When Stephen looks out at a field of red, purple and yellow tulips, he can only see shades of gray. His condition is ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
141.  In Sternberg's model, intimacy, passion and commitment are all present in ____________________.
A.
B.
142.  Temperament refers to
A.
B.
C.
143.  Animals are used in about ________ of all psychological studies.
A.
B.
C.
144.  Information that is rehearsed long enough may actually find its way into long-term memory.
A.
B.
145.  Juliana had decided to have chocolate cake for dessert, but when the waiter mentioned apple pie, she was torn between the two. What type of conflict was Juliana experiencing?
A.
B.
146.  Freud believed that there was a portion of the brain that remained hidden from the individual except in symbolic form in dreams and other behaviors. This portion of the brain is called the
A.
B.
C.
147.  Wayne's doctor has prescribed lithium for his bipolar disorder. Because of the way lithium affects nerve and muscle cells, the doctor cautions Wayne to ____________________.
A.
B.
148.  ______ is the insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain of animals through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire.
A.
B.
149.  Personality disorders are different from other psychological disorders in that personality disorders ____________________.
A.
B.
150.  The ________ passes messages from the ear to the brain.
A.
B.
151.  ________ suggests that behavioral responses are reinforced when rewarded with pleasurable consequences.
A.
B.
152. 
One way to reduce prejudice is to promote personal involvement with people from other groups that is cooperative and occurs when all groups are equal in terms of power or status. This is known as ____________________.
A.
B.
153.  Noah is a junior in college and has always been an average student. This semester, he has a political science class for which he feels very passionate, and he sees himself pursuing a career in politics. For the first time, he wants to do well so that he can get an "A." This is an example of which element of observational learning?
A.
B.
154.  Deirdre is having problems with depression following the recent birth of her baby. Her therapist believes Deirdre would gain emotional support and practical coping skills from other women who are also facing postpartum depression. Her therapist is recommending ____________________
A.
B.
155.  Studies have found no correlation between violent video games and aggressive behavior in young children and adolescents.
A.
B.
156.  ________ is a developmental delay related to living in poverty conditions and one that usually produces relatively mild retardation.
A.
B.
C.
157.  Quincy recently learned the names of the planets in the solar system. His semantic memory for the names of the planets is stored in which parts of the brain?
A.
B.
158.  Which is NOT a strategy to minimize the possibility of groupthink?
A.
B.
159.  ________ is also called a muscular cue.
A.
B.
160.  Which statement most accurately explains the difference in functioning between the right hemisphere of the brain and the left hemisphere?
A.
B.
161.  Concentrative meditation ____________________.
A.
B.
162.  Which theorists believes the individual who is experiencing magnification tends to exaggerate all the negative experiences in his or her life?
A.
B.
163.  The ________ illusion tends to occur more in societies with lots of buildings.
A.
B.
164.  ________ pain is detected in the organs
A.
B.
165.  Researchers found that reciprocity of liking doesn't work when ____________________.
A.
B.
166.  "Packets" of light waves are referred to as ____________________.
A.
B.
167.  ________ refers to the tendency of observers to see what they expect to see.
A.
B.
168.  Gestalt therapy is a(n) ______ therapy perspective.
A.
B.
169.  Some psychologists believe that every experience can be broken down into its individual emotion and sensation. This is known as ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
170.  If the pancreas secretes too little insulin, it results in ________. If it secretes too much insulin, it results in ________.
A.
B.
171.  Jason has schizophrenia. One of his symptoms is he doesn't cry in sad situations or laugh in funny situations. He shows no emotion. This is known as ____________________.
A.
B.
172.  With respect to suicide,
A.
B.
173.  These sensory receptors are triggered by chemicals substances.
A.
B.
174.  Micah's husband tells her how much happier he would be if she stayed home to raise their children. She believes he would stop loving her if she decided to take a job. Micah's husband is offering ____________________
A.
B.
C.
175.  Which part of the eye receives sensory signals, and relays that information to the brain?
A.
B.
C.
176.  According to the College Undergraduate Stress Scale, which of the following is considered to be the most stressful?
A.
B.
C.
177.  According to Freud, the ________ stage occurs from age 6 to the onset of puberty.
A.
B.
C.
178.  Lashonda is a gifted pianist and is looking for a boyfriend who loves music. Lashonda is focusing on which factor of interpersonal attraction?
A.
B.
179.  A student in a fourth-grade class keeps talking out of turn, no matter how many times the teacher tells her to stop. Finally, in desperation, the teacher sends the student to the principal's office. This action of sending the student to the principal's office is a form of ____________________.
A.
B.
180.  Closure refers to the tendency to ____________________.
A.
B.
181.  When talking about schizophrenia, a positive symptom is ____________________.
A.
B.
182.  The tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event is known as misinformatio
A.
B.
183.  Crying has the possible effect of ____________________.
A.
B.
184.  In John Watson's experiment with "Little Albert," he demonstrated that ____________________.
A.
B.
185.  If an environmental group is trying to persuade the public to join its cause, it needs to focus on the ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
186.  Adrenal glands produce hormones called ____________________.
A.
B.
187.  When Diana remodeled her kitchen she moved the clock from one wall to another. Now every time she enters the kitchen she looks at the blank wall to see the time. Diana is experiencing ____________________.
A.
B.
188.  The psychological defense mechanism of projection is when someone ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
189.  The individual that is diagnosed with ______ personality disorder usually has very intense and unstable relationships with others
A.
B.
190.  The term given to an anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic known factor is ____________________.
A.
B.
191.  ________ sense is the body process most to blame if you become dizzy after a long ride on a carousel at the amusement park
A.
B.
C.
192.  Personality may be defined as the sum total of who you are and the unique ways that you think, feel and
A.
B.
C.
193.  In the "Robber's Cave" study, prejudice was created between two groups of boys at a summer camp by dividing them up into separate housing and keeping them apart during daily activities.
A.
B.
194.  According to Cattell's 16PF self-report inventory, airline pilots, when compared to writers, tend to be more ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
195.  Bandura defined ________ as a person's expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance.
A.
B.
C.
196.  Which type of research provides evidence that genetics influences a great deal of personality development?
A.
B.
C.
197.  Jackson has decided that the best way to help his friend who just lost his job is to loan him some money. What stage of the helping decision process has Jackson just completed?
A.
B.
198.  The central idea of toilet training a cat is breaking down the process into a series of small stages. This is an example of ____________________.
A.
B.
199.  Marc is worried about his upcoming job interview, but he has practiced interview questions and researched the company, so he feels he will be able to handle the stress. According to Lazarus, Marc is using ____________________.
A.
B.
200.  Dara tends to have motion sickness while spinning around during her gymnastics routine. Her teacher advises her that she can avoid this problem by ____________________.
A.
B.
201.  After he was hit in the head with a baseball, Fred was unable to remember things that happened after the accident. He was suffering from ____________________.
A.
B.
202.  To be described as unreliable, lazy, careless, and negligent, one would receive a low score on the trait known as ____________________
A.
B.
C.
203.  A syndrome caused by antipsychotic drugs that causes repetitive involuntary jerks and movements of the face, lips, legs, and body is ____________________.
A.
B.
204.  The second group of rats in Tolman's maze experiment were not reinforced for finding the exit until the tenth day. Once they started getting reinforcement, the rats ____________________.
A.
B.
205.  ________ can produce lowered blood pressure in people with hypertension.
A.
B.
206.  Which type of brain wave measured by an EEG indicates deepest sleep?
A.
B.
207.  After drinking alcohol, participants in one study became more willing to administer electric shock to another person.
A.
B.
208.  In the past, individuals with mental illnesses were often thought to be possessed by the devil or evil spirits.
A.
B.
209.  One of the four barriers to effective psychotherapy regarding differing cultures or ethnic backgrounds is ____________________.
A.
B.
210.  If you are experiencing habituation,
A.
B.
211.  _____ is the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
A.
B.
212.  _____ is the tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea or situation.
A.
B.
213.  According to Goleman, ________ is a more powerful influence on success in life than more traditional views of intelligence.
A.
B.
C.
214.  The risk of getting a cold virus ________ as the months of exposure to a stressor increases.
A.
B.
215.  Ruth was in a car accident which resulted in an injury to her head. She cannot remember the events that occurred several hours prior to the accident. Ruth is experiencing ____________________.
A.
B.
216.  In this rare type of schizophrenia, it's as if the person has two "speeds:" totally off or totally on.
A.
B.
217.  Twice a week, Jerry meets for discussion and support with a group of people who, like him, are trying to stay away from using drugs. Jerry's group is not lead by a therapist or counselor. Jerry is participating in ____________________.
A.
B.
218.  Natalie sees a beautiful flower, so she walks over to touch and smell it. She is using the ____________________.
A.
B.
219.  The peripheral nervous system is made up of ____________________.
A.
B.
220.  When Jane Elliot divided her class into two groups based on eye color,
A.
B.
221.  After a neurotransmitter travels through the ______, it fits into a place on the dendrite of another neuron called the _________.
A.
B.
222.  A ________ is a tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observation.
A.
B.
C.
223.  A modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response is ____________________.
A.
B.
224.  The _______ is to involuntary muscles as the _______ is to voluntary muscles.
A.
B.
225.  Which of the following is a way of transferring information from short-term memory into long-term memory by making the information meaningful in some way?
A.
B.
226.  Marco's mom gives him a treat every night after dinner when he picks up his plate and places it in the dishwasher. Marco's mom uses
A.
B.
227.  Endorphins help the body ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
228.  According to Bandura's four elements of observational learning, learning can take place even when the learner is not paying attention.
A.
B.
229.  ________ is known as the "father of psychology."
A.
B.
230.  Many of the "teachers" in the Milgram study followed the commands of the authority figure even though they begged to be allowed to stop.
A.
B.
231.  Dr. Ann Sutton performed some tests and believes the abnormal behaviors Richard is displaying are caused by a chemical imbalance. She is writing a prescription for a pill she believes will restore the balance that he needs. Dr. Sutton is in favor of a ______ treatment.
A.
B.
232.  If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, that test has ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
233.  Rational-emotive behavior therapy was developed by ____________________.
A.
B.
234.  The venom of a black widow spider causes neurons to release a flood of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This excess of acetylcholine can lead to ____________________
A.
B.
C.
235.  A gender difference in personality disorders includes more ____________________.
A.
B.
236.  Nick wanted his friend Jason to go skiing with him for the day. Jason didn't want to go because he said it would cost too much money. Nick said it would just cost $20. When they got there, lift tickets cost $20 as Nick said, but Jason also had to pay for ski rentals and rental insurance. Nick used the ____________________.
A.
B.
237.  Many modern day psychoanalysts are much more _______ than Freud would have been.
A.
B.
238.  N classical conditioning, the actual response involved in a CR and a UCR are the same. (For example, it might be salivation in both cases.) But what makes that response (salivation) considered conditioned or unconditioned depends on ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
239.  ________ is the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved.
A.
B.
240.  When you smell an odor, which aspect of the substance you are smelling actually enters your nose to create the sensation of smell?
A.
B.
241.  The _____ part of the spinal cord transmits messages to and from the brain. The ____ part controls lifesaving reflexes such as pain response.
A.
B.
C.
242.  In spite of the loud music and many conversations at the party, Rachel was able to hear her friend say her name. Rachel's ability to hear her name regardless of the background noise is an example of ____________________.
A.
B.
243.  Terms such as diagnosis, mental patient and remission are examples of the ______ model's influence on the language used to describe disorders.
A.
B.
244.  Thomas Young's theory of color vision ____________________.
A.
B.
245.  Fishing is an example of an activity with a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement.
A.
B.
246.  Early asylums for the mentally ill were more like prisons than "places of safety."
A.
B.
247.  Manny was talking to his friend as he was walking out the door. A few minutes later, Manny asked his friend about the conversation they had few minutes earlier, while walking out the door. Since his friend was not paying attention to him, he could not recall what Manny had said. Manny's friend experienced ____________________.
A.
B.
248.  Which of the following is the strongest correlation?
A.
B.
C.
249.  The process of objectively examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities is known as ____________________.
A.
B.
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