Psychology Final

249 Questions  I  By Mygreenstars
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1.  Researchers found that reciprocity of liking doesn't work when ____________________.
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B.
2.  Description involves ________ a person's behavior
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B.
3.  If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, that test has ____________________.
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B.
C.
4.  Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden, he thinks, "Was that man wearing a bright purple suit?" As a result of this thought, he looks back at the man to see if it is true. Which type of memory is responsible for Eduardo's behavior?
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B.
5.  To be described as unreliable, lazy, careless, and negligent, one would receive a low score on the trait known as ____________________
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B.
C.
6.  Because the term schizophrenia literally means "split mind," it has often been confused with ____________________.
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B.
7.  Twice a week, Jerry meets for discussion and support with a group of people who, like him, are trying to stay away from using drugs. Jerry's group is not lead by a therapist or counselor. Jerry is participating in ____________________.
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B.
8.  Rational-emotive behavior therapy was developed by ____________________.
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B.
9.  Archaeologists have found human skulls that bear the sign of ancient surgeries. This surgery has been termed ____________________.
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B.
10.  The cell that sends and receives messages in the nervous system is called the ____________________.
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B.
11.  Terms such as diagnosis, mental patient and remission are examples of the ______ model's influence on the language used to describe disorders.
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B.
12.  According to the College Undergraduate Stress Scale, which of the following is considered to be the most stressful?
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B.
C.
13.  In psychology, researchers try to find the answers to ________ questions.
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B.
C.
14.  Putting the care of the family ahead of your own care is called ____________________.
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B.
C.
15.  Ryan sees a woman collapse in the mall. He doesn't run over to help her because he assumes there is probably someone else in the crowd who is a doctor or nurse and who can provide better assistance. This is an example of ____________________.
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B.
16.  A student in a fourth-grade class keeps talking out of turn, no matter how many times the teacher tells her to stop. Finally, in desperation, the teacher sends the student to the principal's office. This action of sending the student to the principal's office is a form of ____________________.
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B.
17.  The mental events that take place inside a person's mind while behaving are known as ____________________.
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B.
18.  Which theorists believes the individual who is experiencing magnification tends to exaggerate all the negative experiences in his or her life?
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B.
19.  Kinesthetic sense involves ____________________.
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B.
20.  In his later studies, Bandura added the condition of _____ into his studies of children and the Bobo doll.
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B.
21.  Roger Sperry was looking for a cure for this disease when researching differentiation of the left and right hemispheres of the brain
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B.
22.  William James was responsible for developing the theory of ____________________.
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C.
23.  In most employment situations, people are paid on a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement rather than on a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.
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B.
24.  Prejudice is to ____ as discrimination is to _______
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B.
25.  ________ suggests that behavioral responses are reinforced when rewarded with pleasurable consequences.
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B.
26.  Kohler's idea of animal insight was controversial because other researchers, like Thorndike, did not believe that animals demonstrated that trait.
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B.
27.  Crying has the possible effect of ____________________.
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B.
28.  Post-traumatic stress disorder ____________________.
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B.
29.  An action therapy that is based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behaviors is ____________________.
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B.
30.  The risk of getting a cold virus ________ as the months of exposure to a stressor increases.
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B.
31.  ________ is the technique to use when dealing with uncontrollable stressors.
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B.
32.  Which of the following statements correctly summarizes the results of studies that attempted to verify the existence of ESP?
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B.
33.  If the pancreas secretes too little insulin, it results in ________. If it secretes too much insulin, it results in ________.
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B.
34.  ________ was denied a Ph.D degree because she was a woman.
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35.  One criticism of Freud's psychoanalytic theory is that it ____________________.
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36.  An example of biological preparedness is ____________________.
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B.
37.  ______ was one of the first researchers to look at the laws involved in learning voluntary responses.
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B.
38.  Within the field of psychology, mental processes refer to ____________________.
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B.
39.  Many of the "teachers" in the Milgram study followed the commands of the authority figure even though they begged to be allowed to stop.
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B.
40.  ________ can produce lowered blood pressure in people with hypertension.
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B.
41.  Correct The visual centers of the brain area are contained in the ____________________.
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B.
C.
42.  Thomas Young's theory of color vision ____________________.
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B.
43.  Nick wanted his friend Jason to go skiing with him for the day. Jason didn't want to go because he said it would cost too much money. Nick said it would just cost $20. When they got there, lift tickets cost $20 as Nick said, but Jason also had to pay for ski rentals and rental insurance. Nick used the ____________________.
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B.
44.  Over the years it has been widely accepted to prescribe antidepressants to relieve depression in children and adolescents
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B.
45.  F a jury member voted "guilty" because the defendant had "shifty eyes" and not because of any of the evidence presented, he or she is demonstrating ____________________.
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B.
46.  ________ is a developmental delay related to living in poverty conditions and one that usually produces relatively mild retardation.
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B.
C.
47.  Which of the following is a feature of the storage stage of memory?
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B.
48.  Natalie sees a beautiful flower, so she walks over to touch and smell it. She is using the ____________________.
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B.
49.  According to humanistic therapists, the closer a person's real self and the ______ match, the happier and more well-adjusted that person will be.
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B.
50.  The individual that is diagnosed with ______ personality disorder usually has very intense and unstable relationships with others
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B.
51.  How many primary taste sensations have been identified by researchers?
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B.
C.
52.  Another name for a depressive disorder is a mood disorder
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B.
53.  In John Watson's experiment with "Little Albert," he demonstrated that ____________________.
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B.
54.  In the "Robber's Cave" study, prejudice was created between two groups of boys at a summer camp by dividing them up into separate housing and keeping them apart during daily activities.
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B.
55.  Someone with an IQ score of 60 has ________ developmental delay.
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B.
C.
56.  The second group of rats in Tolman's maze experiment were not reinforced for finding the exit until the tenth day. Once they started getting reinforcement, the rats ____________________.
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B.
57.  ________ are personal judgments based on beliefs rather than facts.
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B.
C.
58.  Stronger attitudes are more likely to predict behavior than weaker ones.
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B.
59.  The group most likely to become a scapegoat is the group ____________________.
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B.
60.  According to Cattell's 16PF self-report inventory, airline pilots, when compared to writers, tend to be more ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
61.  According to Bandura's four elements of observational learning, learning can take place even when the learner is not paying attention.
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B.
62.  Dara tends to have motion sickness while spinning around during her gymnastics routine. Her teacher advises her that she can avoid this problem by ____________________.
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B.
63.  Which is NOT a strategy to minimize the possibility of groupthink?
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B.
64.  Micah's husband tells her how much happier he would be if she stayed home to raise their children. She believes he would stop loving her if she decided to take a job. Micah's husband is offering ____________________
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B.
C.
65.  This carries messages from the senses to the spinal cord.
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B.
C.
66.  In ________, the minority person gives up the old cultural identity and completely adopts the majority culture's ways.
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B.
67.  The three components of attitude are _____, thoughts and actions.
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B.
68.  Four-year-old Joshua reacts with anxiety to the sound of thunder. A chair slides across the wooden floor making a sound similar to thunder. Joshua reacts with some slight anxiety. This is an example of ____________________.
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B.
69.  Terman determined that gifted people ____________________.
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C.
70.  The role of a humanistic therapist is to get clients to look at and test their beliefs to see how accurate their beliefs really are.
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B.
71.  Recognition is much easier than recall because the cue is the actual object, word, or sound that one is simply trying to detect as familiar.
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B.
72.  With respect to suicide,
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B.
73.  Correct One way to reduce prejudice is to promote personal involvement with people from other groups that is cooperative and occurs when all groups are equal in terms of power or status. This is known as ____________________.
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B.
74.  A syndrome caused by antipsychotic drugs that causes repetitive involuntary jerks and movements of the face, lips, legs, and body is ____________________.
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B.
75.  These sensory receptors are triggered by chemicals substances.
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B.
76.  Freud believed that there was a portion of the brain that remained hidden from the individual except in symbolic form in dreams and other behaviors. This portion of the brain is called the
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B.
C.
77.  Temperament refers to
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C.
78.  _______ theorists link depression to learned helplessness.
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B.
79.  The diagnosis of mental retardation depends on all of the following criteria EXCEPT ____________________.
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B.
C.
80.  A therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques is called ____________________.
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B.
81.  Jackson has decided that the best way to help his friend who just lost his job is to loan him some money. What stage of the helping decision process has Jackson just completed?
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B.
82.  Seligman connects learned helplessness to ____________________.
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B.
83.  Wayne's doctor has prescribed lithium for his bipolar disorder. Because of the way lithium affects nerve and muscle cells, the doctor cautions Wayne to ____________________.
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B.
84.  Optimism is associated with all of the following EXCEPT ____________________.
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B.
85.  Assie's mother suffered a stroke. Since then, she sometimes says strange things, such as, "I need to go to the store to buy some canaries," when she means to say that she needs groceries. Cassie's mother seems to be suffering from ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
86.  A modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response is ____________________.
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B.
87.  The Rorschach inkblot test ____________________.
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B.
C.
88.  Early asylums for the mentally ill were more like prisons than "places of safety."
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B.
89.  Ivan Pavlov was a Russian _____ who spent his life studying classical conditioning.
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B.
90.  When Jane Elliot divided her class into two groups based on eye color,
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B.
91.  When Rashid graduated from college, he believed he had finally achieved his full potential. Maslow called this ____________________.
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B.
C.
92.  Marco's mom gives him a treat every night after dinner when he picks up his plate and places it in the dishwasher. Marco's mom uses
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B.
93.  ________ is the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved.
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B.
94.  The area of the brain that controls aggressive responses is the ____________________.
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B.
95.  One important advantage of an MRI over a CT scan is that the MRI ____________________.
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B.
96.  The olfactory bulbs are located ____________________.
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B.
C.
97.  Layla's new puppy keeps chewing the bottoms of her favorite curtains. Now, whenever Layla sees the puppy begin chewing, she turns on a device that makes a continuous loud, annoying sound. She will not turn it off until the puppy stops chewing. Layla is using which technique to change the puppy's behavior?
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B.
98.  Afferent neurons, efferent neurons and inter neurons make up the ____________________.
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B.
C.
99.  ________ is also called a muscular cue.
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B.
100.  If life gives a Type A personality lemons, he or she will ____________________.
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B.
101.  Research suggests strongly that once people learn something, it is always present somewhere in memory.
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B.
102.  Personality disorders are different from other psychological disorders in that personality disorders ____________________.
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B.
103.  In Asch's black line experiment, participants ____________________.
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B.
104.  Personality may be defined as the sum total of who you are and the unique ways that you think, feel and
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B.
C.
105.  A(n) ________ specifically names the steps that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment.
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B.
C.
106.  Gestalt psychology ____________________.
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B.
107.  Although some researchers have found evidence for a high degree of accuracy in flashbulb memories of major events, others have found that flashbulb memories are just as subject to decay and alterations over time as other kinds of memories.
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B.
108.  In this rare type of schizophrenia, it's as if the person has two "speeds:" totally off or totally on.
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B.
109.  If an environmental group is trying to persuade the public to join its cause, it needs to focus on the ____________________.
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B.
C.
110.  Bandura defined ________ as a person's expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance.
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B.
C.
111.  Erik solved a crossword puzzle on Monday. By Thursday, he could not remember the words in the puzzle. On Thursday night when he was playing a word game with his best friend, however, he unconsciously used words that were in the puzzle. Erik's experience is an example of ____________________.
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B.
112.  The central idea of toilet training a cat is breaking down the process into a series of small stages. This is an example of ____________________.
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B.
113.  ________ pain is detected in the organs
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B.
114.  Hippocrates thought that _______ was/were responsible for all maladaptive behaviors or mental illnesses.
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B.
115.  After drinking alcohol, participants in one study became more willing to administer electric shock to another person.
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B.
116.  Ross does not do well in school, so he spends his time surfing. Which defense mechanism is Ross using?
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B.
117.  Optimists use ________, a process of comparing their performance to those that are less competent.
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B.
118.  According to Freud, the ________ stage occurs from age 6 to the onset of puberty.
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B.
C.
119.  The ________ illusion tends to occur more in societies with lots of buildings.
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B.
120.  Group therapy does not have permanent leaders. Someone tends to volunteer on a monthly basis to lead the discussion.
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B.
121.  After he was hit in the head with a baseball, Fred was unable to remember things that happened after the accident. He was suffering from ____________________.
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B.
122.  Which part of the eye receives sensory signals, and relays that information to the brain?
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B.
C.
123.  This brain structure serves as a relay station for sensory information.
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B.
124.  The peripheral nervous system is made up of ____________________.
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B.
125.  Researchers were unable to duplicate Vicary's 1957 study showing that sales of popcorn and Coca-Cola ________ after the message "Eat Popcorn" and "Drink Cola" were flashed briefly on a screen without audience awareness.
A.
B.
126.  Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of manufacturing other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear are ____________________.
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B.
C.
127.  The psychological defense mechanism of projection is when someone ____________________.
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B.
C.
128.  Some psychologists believe that every experience can be broken down into its individual emotion and sensation. This is known as ____________________.
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B.
C.
129.  The venom of a black widow spider causes neurons to release a flood of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This excess of acetylcholine can lead to ____________________
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B.
C.
130.  Gestalt therapy is a(n) ______ therapy perspective.
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B.
131.  All of the following are influential perspectives in personality theory EXCEPT the
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B.
C.
132.  N classical conditioning, the actual response involved in a CR and a UCR are the same. (For example, it might be salivation in both cases.) But what makes that response (salivation) considered conditioned or unconditioned depends on ____________________.
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B.
C.
133.  When talking about schizophrenia, a positive symptom is ____________________.
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B.
134.  Closure refers to the tendency to ____________________.
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B.
135.  John's boss yells at him. As John walks meekly out of the boss's office, Dana walks past him and says, "hello!" John yells at Dana and proceeds to berate her for the job she did on the last contract. Freud would say John is using ________ as a way of dealing with his stress.
A.
B.
C.
136.  In the ________ model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning are thought to be stored physically near each other in the brain.
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B.
137.  When you smell an odor, which aspect of the substance you are smelling actually enters your nose to create the sensation of smell?
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B.
138.  Fishing is an example of an activity with a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement.
A.
B.
139.  Information that is rehearsed long enough may actually find its way into long-term memory.
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B.
140.  The difference between implicit and explicit memories is that it is difficult to bring explicit memories into consciousness, whereas implicit memories can be forgotten, but always have the potential to be made conscious
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B.
141.  Which type of research provides evidence that genetics influences a great deal of personality development?
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B.
C.
142.  Which professional has a doctorate degree and works with humans or animals in a variety of settings?
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B.
143.  A stimulus that has no effect on the desired response is a/an ____________________.
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B.
144.  Many psychological disorders are really ordinary variations in human behavior taken to an extreme.
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B.
145.  Which perspective focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics?
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B.
146.  Children respond to observing aggression the same whether a show depicts an aggressive model as being punished or the program makes a "hero" out of the aggressive model.
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B.
147.  The ________ passes messages from the ear to the brain.
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B.
148.  _____ is a disorder that is found primarily in Japan and includes excessive fear and anxiety over the possibility of offending someone.
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B.
149.  Joseph Breuer devised a technique for revealing the unconscious mind. He encouraged his patients to freely say whatever came to their mind. This technique has become known as
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B.
150.  Juliana had decided to have chocolate cake for dessert, but when the waiter mentioned apple pie, she was torn between the two. What type of conflict was Juliana experiencing?
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B.
151.  _____ occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.
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B.
152.  Noah is a junior in college and has always been an average student. This semester, he has a political science class for which he feels very passionate, and he sees himself pursuing a career in politics. For the first time, he wants to do well so that he can get an "A." This is an example of which element of observational learning?
A.
B.
153.  After medication and psychotherapy did not relieve Maria's severe depression, she tried to commit suicide. Maria's doctor suggested she consider undertaking a different biomedical therapy. Which of the following is her doctor most likely to recommend?
A.
B.
154.  Which of the following is a way of transferring information from short-term memory into long-term memory by making the information meaningful in some way?
A.
B.
155.  The blind spot in the eye is due to ____________________.
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B.
156.  The first step in the scientific method is ____________________.
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B.
C.
157.  A person who experiences a great deal of subjective discomfort in his or her daily routine or behaviors may be displaying a sign of behavioral abnormality.
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B.
158.  The term given to an anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic known factor is ____________________.
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B.
159.  Which is an example of a recognition task?
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B.
C.
160.  Sound wavelengths interpreted by the brain as frequency are called ____________________.
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B.
161.  ________ analyzes personality through handwriting.
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B.
C.
162.  _____ is the tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea or situation.
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B.
163.  The type of therapy where the goal is for patients to better understand the motives behind their actions is ________ therapy.
A.
B.
164.  ________ memory is like a giant filing system in which the "files" are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion.
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B.
165.  One of the four barriers to effective psychotherapy regarding differing cultures or ethnic backgrounds is ____________________.
A.
B.
166.  ________ sense is the body process most to blame if you become dizzy after a long ride on a carousel at the amusement park
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B.
C.
167.  Which type of brain wave measured by an EEG indicates deepest sleep?
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B.
168.  According to Goleman, ________ is a more powerful influence on success in life than more traditional views of intelligence.
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B.
C.
169.  Axis III includes ____________________.
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B.
170.  According to Freud, the desired outcome of the phallic stage of psychosexual development is
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B.
C.
171.  A warm and caring relationship between therapist and client, characterized by empathy and understanding, is called ____________________.
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B.
172.  Don's psychoanalyst believes that if she and Don can correctly interpret the hidden meanings behind the events in Don's dreams they will reveal
A.
B.
173.  When Diana remodeled her kitchen she moved the clock from one wall to another. Now every time she enters the kitchen she looks at the blank wall to see the time. Diana is experiencing ____________________.
A.
B.
174.  Correct When Stephen looks out at a field of red, purple and yellow tulips, he can only see shades of gray. His condition is ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
175.  The information-processing model assumes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory in which it is stored.
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B.
176.  Which statement most accurately explains the difference in functioning between the right hemisphere of the brain and the left hemisphere?
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B.
177.  Quincy recently learned the names of the planets in the solar system. His semantic memory for the names of the planets is stored in which parts of the brain?
A.
B.
178.  In a survey on the sources of hassles, children aged 3-5 rated ________ as the biggest daily hassle.
A.
B.
C.
179.  Which of the following memory phenomena has been supported in impression formation?
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B.
180.  Jason has schizophrenia. One of his symptoms is he doesn't cry in sad situations or laugh in funny situations. He shows no emotion. This is known as ____________________.
A.
B.
181.  Lashonda is a gifted pianist and is looking for a boyfriend who loves music. Lashonda is focusing on which factor of interpersonal attraction?
A.
B.
182.  The textbook discusses a study conducted by Pezdek and Hodge (1999) who asked children to read five different summaries of childhood events. Two of these events were false, but only one of the two false events were plausible. The children were all told that all of the events happened to them as small children. The results of this study indicated ____________________.
A.
B.
183.  The _______ is to involuntary muscles as the _______ is to voluntary muscles.
A.
B.
184.  Kohler's chimp experiment involved ____________________.
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B.
185.  Cones are the special cells responsible for ____________________.
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B.
C.
186.  People who are blind from birth, but later have their sight restored, are unlikely to develop ____________________.
A.
B.
187.  The removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response is called ____________________.
A.
B.
188.  Dr. Ann Sutton performed some tests and believes the abnormal behaviors Richard is displaying are caused by a chemical imbalance. She is writing a prescription for a pill she believes will restore the balance that he needs. Dr. Sutton is in favor of a ______ treatment.
A.
B.
189.  ________ is known as the "father of psychology."
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B.
190.  Messages from other cells are received by the ____________________.
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B.
C.
191.  There appears to be a slight correlation between bipolar disorder and ADHD in adolescence, although most people with ADHD do not develop bipolar disorder later in life.
A.
B.
192.  The process of objectively examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities is known as ____________________.
A.
B.
193.  Correct Self-actualizing tendency refers to ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
194.  Many modern day psychoanalysts are much more _______ than Freud would have been.
A.
B.
195.  In the past, individuals with mental illnesses were often thought to be possessed by the devil or evil spirits.
A.
B.
196.  Which of the following is the strongest correlation?
A.
B.
C.
197.  Manny was talking to his friend as he was walking out the door. A few minutes later, Manny asked his friend about the conversation they had few minutes earlier, while walking out the door. Since his friend was not paying attention to him, he could not recall what Manny had said. Manny's friend experienced ____________________.
A.
B.
198.  Cho never feels there is enough time to study, even though she has straight As. She finds it hard to relax because she always feels she should be studying. What personality type is Cho?
A.
B.
199.  Pavlov's work with dogs focused on the concept of ____________________.
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B.
C.
200.  According to Sternberg's theory, when intimacy and passion are combined the result is _____, which is often the basis for a more lasting relationship.
A.
B.
201.  The psychodynamic model sees anxiety as the result of ____________________.
A.
B.
202.  Normal aging causes loss of hair cells in the ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
203.  A phobia which literally means "fear of the marketplace" is ____________________.
A.
B.
204.  Lauren withdraws from social situations because she does not know how to enter a group conversation. To help her, Lauren's therapist has her watch several videos in which people demonstrate, step-by-step, how to enter conversations, and then Lauren imitates the people in the videos. Lauren's therapist is using a technique called ____________________.
A.
B.
205.  Marjorie took a personality test in April. She took the same test in June and got a very similar score. This personality test is ____________________.
A.
B.
C.
206.  Melatonin and thyroxin are examples of ____________________.
A.
B.
207.  The surfacing and resurfacing of forbidden thoughts and ideas cause maladaptive behaviors in those individuals trying to keep those thoughts away. This is how the cognitive perspective views the onset of abnormality in people.
A.
B.
208.  Obesity is a condition in which the body weight of a person is ________ percent or more over the ideal weight for that person's height.
A.
B.
C.
209.  A gender difference in personality disorders includes more ____________________.
A.
B.
210.  Endorphins help the body ____________________.
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B.
C.
211.  A major factor in how stressful a particular stressor becomes is ____________________.
A.
B.
212.  Talking, facial expressions, and movements are elements of ____________________.
A.
B.
213.  The Social Readjustment Rating Scale measures the amount of stress ____________________.
A.
B.
214.  If you are experiencing habituation,
A.
B.
215.  _____ is the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
A.
B.
216.  Ruth was in a car accident which resulted in an injury to her head. She cannot remember the events that occurred several hours prior to the accident. Ruth is experiencing ____________________.
A.
B.
217.  The type of stress experienced when positive events require the body to adapt is called ____________________
A.
B.
218.  Marc is worried about his upcoming job interview, but he has practiced interview questions and researched the company, so he feels he will be able to handle the stress. According to Lazarus, Marc is using ____________________.
A.
B.
219.  The _____ part of the spinal cord transmits messages to and from the brain. The ____ part controls lifesaving reflexes such as pain response.
A.
B.
C.
220.  Deirdre is having problems with depression following the recent birth of her baby. Her therapist believes Deirdre would gain emotional support and practical coping skills from other women who are also facing postpartum depression. Her therapist is recommending ____________________
A.
B.
221.  ________ refers to the tendency of observers to see what they expect to see.
A.
B.
222.  When Maxine's husband died, the members of her church brought her food and stayed with her children while she made funeral arrangements. This is an example of a(n) ________ support system.
A.
B.
223.  Dropping out of school or quitting a job are forms of ____________________.
A.
B.
224.  Once a message has been received, a cell ____________________.
A.
B.