Practice Quiz For A&p II (ans, Senses, And Endocrine)

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ANS, Senses, and Endocrine

  
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  • 1. 
    Which of the following is not a parasympathetic ganglion?
    • A. 

      Ciliary ganglion

    • B. 

      Pterygopalatine ganglion

    • C. 

      Submandibular ganglion

    • D. 

      Otic ganglion

    • E. 

      Celiac ganglion


  • 2. 
    Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
    • A. 

      Two nerves from the spinal cord

    • B. 

      Both autonomic and somatomotor nerves

    • C. 

      Both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation

    • D. 

      Nerves from both the brain and the spinal cord

    • E. 

      Two nerves from the spinal cord and both autonomic and somatomotor nerves


  • 3. 
    During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs
    • A. 

      Elevated heart rate

    • B. 

      Elevated blood pressure

    • C. 

      Sweating

    • D. 

      Elevated blood glucose

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 4. 
    Preganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in
    • A. 

      The brain stem

    • B. 

      The lateral gray horns of the spinal cord

    • C. 

      The posterior gray horns of the spinal cord

    • D. 

      Both the brain stem and the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord

    • E. 

      The anterior gray horns of the spinal cord


  • 5. 
    Postganglionic fibers that innervate targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate on neurons within
    • A. 

      Intramural ganglia

    • B. 

      Collateral ganglia

    • C. 

      Sympathetic chain ganglia

    • D. 

      Suprarenal ganglia

    • E. 

      White rami


  • 6. 
    Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function?
    • A. 

      Gagging on food that does not appeal to you

    • B. 

      A violent coughing attack in response to an irritant

    • C. 

      Increased heart rate when you see a person you fear

    • D. 

      Dilation of the pupils when you enter a dark room

    • E. 

      Increased salivation when you smell food that appeals to you


  • 7. 
    Nicotinic receptors
    • A. 

      Respond to epinephrine

    • B. 

      Respond to norepinephrine

    • C. 

      Open chemically gated sodium ion channels

    • D. 

      Open chemically gated calcium ion channels


  • 8. 
    The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is known as the "rest and digest" division
    • A. 

      Sympathetic

    • B. 

      Parasympathetic

    • C. 

      Thoracolumbar

    • D. 

      Visceral

    • E. 

      Somatomotor


  • 9. 
    Stimulation of α1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in
    • A. 

      An increase in the amount of intracellular cAMP

    • B. 

      A decrease in the amount of intracellular cAMP

    • C. 

      Decreased membrane permeability to sodium ion

    • D. 

      Release of calcium ions from intracellular stores


  • 10. 
    The celiac ganglion innervates the
    • A. 

      Stomach

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Pancreas

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 11. 
    A visceral motor neuron whose cell body is within the CNS is called a(n) ________ neuron
    • A. 

      Upper motor

    • B. 

      Lower motor

    • C. 

      Preganglionic

    • D. 

      Postganglionic

    • E. 

      Somatomotor


  • 12. 
    Mary accidentally ate poison mushrooms that contain muscarine. What symptoms would you expect to observe?
    • A. 

      Diarrhea

    • B. 

      Salivation

    • C. 

      Very low heart rate

    • D. 

      Sweating

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 13. 
    Sympathetic nerves
    • A. 

      Provoke feelings of sympathy

    • B. 

      Allow us to relax, rest, and recover

    • C. 

      Are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity

    • D. 

      Control swallowing


  • 14. 
    Preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic neurons are present in all of the following cranial nerves, except N
    • A. 

      III

    • B. 

      VII

    • C. 

      IX

    • D. 

      X

    • E. 

      I


  • 15. 
    A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of
    • A. 

      Sympathetic activation

    • B. 

      Increased levels of epinephrine in the blood

    • C. 

      Increased activity of autonomic centers in the hypothalamus

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 16. 
    Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
    • A. 

      Lateral gray horns of the cervical cord

    • B. 

      Anterior gray horns of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord

    • C. 

      Lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord

    • D. 

      Anterior gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord

    • E. 

      Lateral gray horns of T1 to S2 of the spinal cord


  • 17. 
    The statement "its ganglia are usually near or within the end organ" is
    • A. 

      True only for the parasympathetic nervous system

    • B. 

      True only for the sympathetic nervous system

    • C. 

      True for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

    • D. 

      Not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems


  • 18. 
    Which of these provides preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to structures in the neck and in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?
    • A. 

      Vagus nerves

    • B. 

      Sciatic nerves

    • C. 

      Glossopharyngeal nerves

    • D. 

      Pelvic nerves

    • E. 

      Cervicothoracocabdominopelvic nerves


  • 19. 
    Postganglionic sympathetic axons release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions
    • A. 

      Acetylcholine

    • B. 

      Nitric oxide

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 20. 
    Control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon
    • A. 

      Sympathetic stimulation only

    • B. 

      Parasympathetic stimulation only

    • C. 

      Somatomotor stimulation only

    • D. 

      Both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation

    • E. 

      Sensory receptors sensitive to changes in lung ventilation


  • 21. 
    In general, sympathetic preganglionic fibers are ________ and postganglionic fibers are ________.
    • A. 

      Long; short

    • B. 

      Short; long


  • 22. 
    Parasympathetic stimulation
    • A. 

      Increases heart rate.

    • B. 

      Increases gastric motility.

    • C. 

      Causes sweat glands to secrete.

    • D. 

      Causes blood vessels in the skin to dilate.

    • E. 

      Causes the pupils to dilate.


  • 23. 
    The statement "It controls the diameter of the pupil." is
    • A. 

      True only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

    • B. 

      True only for the sympathetic nervous system.

    • C. 

      True for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

    • D. 

      Not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems


  • 24. 
    Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on
    • A. 

      Visceral reflex responses.

    • B. 

      Motor neurons.

    • C. 

      Ganglionic neurons.

    • D. 

      Sensory neuron neurons.


  • 25. 
    Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia.
    • A. 

      Intramural

    • B. 

      Collateral

    • C. 

      Chain

    • D. 

      Paravertebral

    • E. 

      Suprarenal


  • 26. 
    A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in
    • A. 

      An increase in vessel diameter.

    • B. 

      A decrease in vessel diameter.

    • C. 

      Oscillation in vessel diameter.

    • D. 

      An increase in blood flow through the vessel.

    • E. 

      Both an increase in vessel diameter and an increase in blood flow through the vessel.


  • 27. 
    Sympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder is by way of the
    • A. 

      Celiac ganglion.

    • B. 

      Superior mesenteric ganglion.

    • C. 

      Inferior mesenteric ganglion.

    • D. 

      Pudendal ganglion.

    • E. 

      Pelvic ganglion.


  • 28. 
    The statement "Preganglionic axon terminals release acetylcholine." is
    • A. 

      True only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

    • B. 

      True only for the sympathetic nervous system.

    • C. 

      True for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

    • D. 

      Not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.


  • 29. 
    A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is
    • A. 

      Retinal.

    • B. 

      Opsin.

    • C. 

      Rhodopsin.

    • D. 

      Transducin.


  • 30. 
    Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?
    • A. 

      Sweet

    • B. 

      Peppery

    • C. 

      Sour

    • D. 

      Salty

    • E. 

      Umami


  • 31. 
    The quantity of neurotransmitter that is released by a hair cell
    • A. 

      Responds to almost any mechanical stimulation of the hair cell.

    • B. 

      Is sensitive to which way stereocilia are bent with respect to the kinocilium.

    • C. 

      Determines if a sensory neuron will be excited.

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 32. 
    The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the
    • A. 

      Saccules.

    • B. 

      Ampullae.

    • C. 

      Perilymph.

    • D. 

      Utricles.

    • E. 

      Cupulae.


  • 33. 
    Which of the following is a component of the lamina propria of the olfactory organ?
    • A. 

      Areolar tissue

    • B. 

      Blood vessels

    • C. 

      Nerves

    • D. 

      Olfactory glands

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 34. 
    The external ear ends at the
    • A. 

      Vestibule.

    • B. 

      Cochlea.

    • C. 

      Ossicles.

    • D. 

      Tympanic membrane.

    • E. 

      Pinna.


  • 35. 
    Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves
    • A. 

      IX, X, and XI.

    • B. 

      VII, VIII, and IX.

    • C. 

      VII, IX, and X.

    • D. 

      V, VII, and IX.


  • 36. 
    All of the following are true of the fibrous tunic of the eye, except that it
    • A. 

      Consists of the sclera, limbus, and cornea.

    • B. 

      Provides mechanical support and some protection for the eye.

    • C. 

      Produces aqueous humor.

    • D. 

      Contributes substantial focusing power.

    • E. 

      Is where extrinsic eye muscles insert.


  • 37. 
    The sensory neurons within the olfactory organ are stimulated by ________ in the air.
    • A. 

      Pressure

    • B. 

      Chemicals

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Water

    • E. 

      Dust


  • 38. 
    Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary ________, and sympathetic activation causes ________.
    • A. 

      Dilation; constriction

    • B. 

      Dilation; dilation

    • C. 

      Constriction; dilation

    • D. 

      Constriction; constriction

    • E. 

      Vasoconstriction; vasoconstriction


  • 39. 
    The first step in the process of photoreception is
    • A. 

      The bleaching of rods.

    • B. 

      The bleaching of cones.

    • C. 

      Absorption of a photon by a visual pigment.

    • D. 

      Inhibition of the sodium pumps.

    • E. 

      Release of neurotransmitter.


  • 40. 
    Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
    • A. 

      Produces a rushing sound.

    • B. 

      Allows us to hear low tones.

    • C. 

      Signals rotational movements.

    • D. 

      Signals body position with respect to gravity.

    • E. 

      Signals linear acceleration.


  • 41. 
    Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?
    • A. 

      Gelatinous fluid that fills posterior chamber

    • B. 

      Secreted in bright light

    • C. 

      Constantly produced and recycled

    • D. 

      Converts to vitreous humor with age


  • 42. 
    In the retina, the correct sequence of neural wiring is
    • A. 

      Rod - bipolar cell — ganglion cell - thalamus

    • B. 

      Cone - bipolar cell — pigmented cell - inferior colliculus

    • C. 

      Cone - bipolar cell - horizontal cell — pigmented cell

    • D. 

      Rod - bipolar cell — pigmented cell - thalamus

    • E. 

      Rod - bipolar cell - amacrine cell — pigmented cell


  • 43. 
    The ciliary muscle contracts to
    • A. 

      Control the amount of light reaching the retina.

    • B. 

      Adjust the shape of the lens for distant vision.

    • C. 

      Adjust the shape of the lens for close vision.

    • D. 

      Control the production of aqueous humor.

    • E. 

      Adjust the shape of the cornea and vitreous.


  • 44. 
    Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it
    • A. 

      Allows ANS neurons to be silent under normal conditions.

    • B. 

      Allows ANS neurons to increase activity on demand but not decrease their activity.

    • C. 

      Allows ANS neurons to decrease their activity on demand but not increase their activity.

    • D. 

      Allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options.


  • 45. 
    Muscarinic receptors
    • A. 

      Are normally activated by acetylcholine.

    • B. 

      Are found mostly in autonomic ganglia.

    • C. 

      Always produce an excitatory response.

    • D. 

      Control sodium channels in the affected membrane.

    • E. 

      Are blocked by norepinephrine.


  • 46. 
    Which of the following statements about adrenergic receptors is true?
    • A. 

      They are proteins in the plasma membrane.

    • B. 

      Epinephrine activates both alpha and beta types.

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine activates mainly the alpha type.

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 47. 
    Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, except
    • A. 

      Decrease in the rate of cardiac contraction.

    • B. 

      Constriction of the pupils

    • C. 

      Dilation of the airways.

    • D. 

      Stimulation of urination.

    • E. 

      Stimulation of defecation.


  • 48. 
    Which of the following statements concerning the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is false?
    • A. 

      Preganglionic neurons are located in the brainstem and sacral region of the spinal cord.

    • B. 

      Ganglionic neurons are located in ganglia within or near to effectors.

    • C. 

      Preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long.

    • D. 

      The actions of the parasympathetic division are more localized than those of the sympathetic division.

    • E. 

      The ganglionic neurons always release acetylcholine.


  • 49. 
    All of the following are true of olfactory pathways, except
    • A. 

      They project first to the mamillary bodies and then to the thalamus.

    • B. 

      The first synapse is in the olfactory bulb.

    • C. 

      Information flows to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system.

    • D. 

      They reach the forebrain without first synapsing in the thalamus.

    • E. 

      They exhibit a considerable amount of convergence.


  • 50. 
    Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to
    • A. 

      Contact a specialized olfactory cell.

    • B. 

      Bind to receptors in olfactory cilia.

    • C. 

      Gate open ion channels.

    • D. 

      Respond to applied pressure.

    • E. 

      Be transported to the olfactory bulbs.


  • 51. 
    Which of the following descriptions best matches the term basilar membrane?
    • A. 

      Moves up and down when the stapes moves back and forth

    • B. 

      Transmits movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear

    • C. 

      Supports the olfactory organ

    • D. 

      Tiny duct necessary for the static sense of equilibrium

    • E. 

      Covers over the oval window


  • 52. 
    In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater?
    • A. 

      A round lens

    • B. 

      A flat lens


  • 53. 
    There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated
    • A. 

      Red, yellow, and blue.

    • B. 

      Red, green, and blue.

    • C. 

      Red, green, and yellow.

    • D. 

      Yellow, red, and blue.


  • 54. 
    The ________ convey(s) information about head position with respect to gravity.
    • A. 

      Cochlea

    • B. 

      Utricle

    • C. 

      Ampulla

    • D. 

      Saccule

    • E. 

      Utricle and saccule


  • 55. 
    The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the
    • A. 

      Conjunctiva

    • B. 

      Cornea.

    • C. 

      Iris.

    • D. 

      Pupil

    • E. 

      Canthus


  • 56. 
    How would a molecule that mimics cAMP affect an olfactory receptor?
    • A. 

      It would increase sodium permeability.

    • B. 

      It would open chemically gated sodium channels.

    • C. 

      It would depolarize the olfactory receptor.

    • D. 

      It could trigger an action potential.

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 57. 
    Which of the following descriptions best matches the term ossicles?
    • A. 

      Move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth

    • B. 

      Transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear

    • C. 

      Bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells

    • D. 

      Tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium


  • 58. 
    The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the
    • A. 

      Basilar membrane.

    • B. 

      Tectorial membrane.

    • C. 

      Stapedius.

    • D. 

      Perilymph.

    • E. 

      Endolymph.


  • 59. 
    Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
    • A. 

      Splanchnic nerves

    • B. 

      Facial nerves

    • C. 

      Vagus nerves

    • D. 

      Glossopharyngeal nerves

    • E. 

      Trigeminal nerve


  • 60. 
    The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?
    • A. 

      Somatic division

    • B. 

      Craniosacral division

    • C. 

      Resting division

    • D. 

      Thoracolumbar division

    • E. 

      Both somatic division and craniosacral division


  • 61. 
    The statement "there is always a synapse in a peripheral ganglion between the CNS and the effector organ" is
    • A. 

      True only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

    • B. 

      True only for the sympathetic nervous system.

    • C. 

      True for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

    • D. 

      Not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.

    • E. 

      True only for the somatic nervous system.


  • 62. 
    Injury to the cervical sympathetic chain ganglia would affect the function of the
    • A. 

      Heart.

    • B. 

      Pupils.

    • C. 

      Salivary glands.

    • D. 

      Lungs.

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 63. 
    The statement "Its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter." is
    • A. 

      True only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

    • B. 

      True only for the sympathetic nervous system.

    • C. 

      True for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

    • D. 

      Not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.

    • E. 

      True only for the somatic nervous system.


  • 64. 
    The external ear ends at the
    • A. 

      Vestibule

    • B. 

      Cochlea

    • C. 

      Ossicles

    • D. 

      Tympanic membrane.

    • E. 

      Pinna.


  • 65. 
    Which of the following descriptions applies/apply to the term myopia?
    • A. 

      Nearsightedness

    • B. 

      Corrected with diverging lens

    • C. 

      Image focused in front of retina

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 66. 
    The frequency of a perceived sound depends on
    • A. 

      The frequency of stereocilia vibration.

    • B. 

      The number of hair cells that are stimulated.

    • C. 

      Which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated.

    • D. 

      The movement of perilymph in the cochlear duct.

    • E. 

      The frequency of vibration of the tectorial membrane.


  • 67. 
    A sudden rise of room brightness would cause
    • A. 

      Contraction of the pupillary constrictor muscles.

    • B. 

      Contraction of the pupillary dilator muscles.

    • C. 

      Conversion of 11-trans to 11-cis retinal.

    • D. 

      A decrease in the size of the pupil.


  • 68. 
    In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater?
    • A. 

      An object 10 inches away from your nose

    • B. 

      An object 20 feet away


  • 69. 
    The neural tunic
    • A. 

      Contains ganglion cells.

    • B. 

      Contains the photoreceptor cells.

    • C. 

      Contains axons.

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 70. 
    The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
    • A. 

      Moving up and down.

    • B. 

      Moving in and out.

    • C. 

      Changing shape.

    • D. 

      Opening and closing.

    • E. 

      Dilating and constricting.


  • 71. 
    The vitreous body
    • A. 

      Fills the anterior cavity.

    • B. 

      Helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.

    • C. 

      Is removed and recycled every few hours.

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 72. 
    When a rod is stimulated by light,
    • A. 

      Ganglion cells pick up changes in activity in the bipolar cells.

    • B. 

      The retinal changes to a more linear shape.

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitter release changes.

    • D. 

      Na+ permeability changes.

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 73. 
    The gelatinous material found in the posterior cavity is the
    • A. 

      Vitreous humor.

    • B. 

      Aqueous humor.

    • C. 

      Ora serrata.

    • D. 

      Perilymph.

    • E. 

      Posterior cavity.


  • 74. 
    Gustatory receptors are located
    • A. 

      In the eye.

    • B. 

      In the ear.

    • C. 

      On the surface of the tongue.

    • D. 

      In the nose.

    • E. 

      On the skin.


  • 75. 
    What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
    • A. 

      Aqueous humor

    • B. 

      Ciliary body

    • C. 

      Iris

    • D. 

      Extrinsic eye muscles


  • 76. 
    The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex produces
    • A. 

      Androgens

    • B. 

      Glucocorticoids.

    • C. 

      Mineralocorticoids.

    • D. 

      Epinephrine.

    • E. 

      Norepinephrine.


  • 77. 
    The most complex endocrine responses that integrate the nervous and endocrine system involve the
    • A. 

      Thyroid gland.

    • B. 

      Pancreas.

    • C. 

      Adrenal glands.

    • D. 

      Hypothalamus.


  • 78. 
    The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces
    • A. 

      Androgens

    • B. 

      Glucocorticoids

    • C. 

      Mineralocorticoids.

    • D. 

      Epinephrine

    • E. 

      Norepinephrine.


  • 79. 
    The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces
    • A. 

      Androgens

    • B. 

      Glucocorticoids

    • C. 

      Mineralocorticoids

    • D. 

      Epinephrine

    • E. 

      Norepinephrine


  • 80. 
    Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
    • A. 

      Kidneys

    • B. 

      Heart

    • C. 

      Thyroid gland.

    • D. 

      Gonads

    • E. 

      Pituitary gland.


  • 81. 
    The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
    • A. 

      Decreased resistance to disease and infection.

    • B. 

      Increasing ability to produce glucose from glycogen.

    • C. 

      Increased pumping effectiveness of the heart.

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 82. 
    The hypophyseal portal system
    • A. 

      Has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins.

    • B. 

      Carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary.

    • C. 

      Carries ADH and oxytocin.

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 83. 
    Hormones like Epinephrine and Melatonin are
    • A. 

      Lipids

    • B. 

      Peptides.

    • C. 

      Steroids

    • D. 

      Amino acid derivatives.

    • E. 

      Derivatives of reproductive glands.


  • 84. 
    The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Glucagon.

    • C. 

      Somatostatin

    • D. 

      Cortisol

    • E. 

      Peptide P.


  • 85. 
    Cells can respond to BLANK hormone(s) at a time.
    • A. 

      Only one

    • B. 

      One or two

    • C. 

      Two

    • D. 

      Several


  • 86. 
    Growth hormone does all of the following, except that it
    • A. 

      Promotes bone growth.

    • B. 

      Promotes muscle growth.

    • C. 

      Causes fat accumulation within adipocytes.

    • D. 

      Is glucose sparing.

    • E. 

      Promotes amino acid uptake by cells.


  • 87. 
    If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the BLANK phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
    • A. 

      Alarm

    • B. 

      Resistance

    • C. 

      Exhaustion

    • D. 

      Extension

    • E. 

      Prolonged


  • 88. 
    Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include
    • A. 

      Peptides

    • B. 

      Lipid derivatives

    • C. 

      Amino acid derivatives.

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 89. 
    The pituitary hormone that controls the release of steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex is
    • A. 

      TSH

    • B. 

      ACTH.

    • C. 

      FSH

    • D. 

      LH.

    • E. 

      GH


  • 90. 
    The posterior pituitary gland secretes
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      TSH.

    • C. 

      ACTH.

    • D. 

      ADH.

    • E. 

      MSH.


  • 91. 
    Hormones can operate on the BLANK level of organization.
    • A. 

      Cellular

    • B. 

      Tissue

    • C. 

      Organ

    • D. 

      Organismic

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 92. 
    When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the
    • A. 

      Hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.

    • B. 

      Cell membrane becomes depolarized.

    • C. 

      Second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.

    • D. 

      Cell becomes inactive.

    • E. 

      Hormone is transported to the nucleus where it alters the activity of DNA.


  • 93. 
    The adrenal medulla produces the hormones
    • A. 

      Synephrine and neosynephrine.

    • B. 

      Epinephrine and norepinephrine.

    • C. 

      Corticosterone and testosterone.

    • D. 

      Androgens and progesterone.

    • E. 

      Norcortisol and cortisol.


  • 94. 
    The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
    • A. 

      Stimulates the formation of white blood cells.

    • B. 

      Increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.

    • C. 

      Increases the level of sodium ions in the blood.

    • D. 

      Increases the level of potassium ions in the blood.

    • E. 

      Increases the level of glucose in the blood.


  • 95. 
    The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      7

    • D. 

      9

    • E. 

      16


  • 96. 
    Peptide hormones are
    • A. 

      Composed of amino acids.

    • B. 

      Produced by the adrenal glands.

    • C. 

      Derived from the amino acid tyrosine.

    • D. 

      Lipids.


  • 97. 
    Parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn't
    • A. 

      Stimulate osteoclast activity.

    • B. 

      Inhibit osteoblast activity.

    • C. 

      Build up bone.

    • D. 

      Stimulate the formation and secretion of calcitriol at the kidneys.

    • E. 

      Enhance the reabsorption of calcium at the kidneys.


  • 98. 
    Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be BLANK when released into the bloodstream, but BLANK when released at synapses.
    • A. 

      Hormones; neurotransmitters

    • B. 

      Neuropeptides; neurotransmitters

    • C. 

      Neurotransmitters; hormones

    • D. 

      Neurotransmitters; neuropeptides

    • E. 

      Neuropeptides; neurohormones


  • 99. 
    Which of the following substances acts as a second messenger?
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      ACTH

    • C. 

      Epinephrine

    • D. 

      Cyclic AMP


  • 100. 
    Endocrine structures
    • A. 

      Are a type of nerve cell.

    • B. 

      Release their secretions onto an epithelial surface.

    • C. 

      Release their secretions directly into body fluids.

    • D. 

      Contain few vesicles.

    • E. 

      Are modified connective-tissue cells.


  • 101. 
    Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except
    • A. 

      Epinephrine

    • B. 

      Norepinephrine

    • C. 

      Thyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Thyroid-stimulating hormone

    • E. 

      Melatonin


  • 102. 
    The pancreatic islets ( islets of langerhorns )
    • A. 

      Contain four types of endocrine cells

    • B. 

      Make up almost half of the pancreas

    • C. 

      Produce some digestive enzymes

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 103. 
    The exocrine portion of the panceas produces
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Parathyroid

    • C. 

      Somatotropin

    • D. 

      Digestive enzymes

    • E. 

      Bile


  • 104. 
    All of the following are true of steroid hormones, except that they
    • A. 

      Are produced by the adrenal medulla

    • B. 

      Are derived from cholesterol

    • C. 

      Are produced by reproductive glands

    • D. 

      Bind to receptors within the cell


  • 105. 
    Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Parathyroid hormone

    • C. 

      Insulin

    • D. 

      Growth hormone

    • E. 

      Epinephrine


  • 106. 
    The "F" cells of the pancreatic islets produce
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Glucagon

    • C. 

      Pancreatic polypeptide

    • D. 

      Cortisol

    • E. 

      GH-TH


  • 107. 
    The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      ADH

    • C. 

      TSH

    • D. 

      MSH

    • E. 

      ACTH


  • 108. 
    The part of the eye that determines eye color is the
    • A. 

      Conjunctiva

    • B. 

      Cornea.

    • C. 

      Iris

    • D. 

      Pupil.


  • 109. 
    The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the
    • A. 

      Tectorial membrane.

    • B. 

      Basilar membrane.

    • C. 

      Membranous labyrinth.

    • D. 

      Vestibular duct.

    • E. 

      Tympanic membrane.


  • 110. 
    The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the
    • A. 

      Membranous endolymph.

    • B. 

      Organ of Schlemm.

    • C. 

      Inner ear.

    • D. 

      Bony labyrinth.

    • E. 

      Perilymph.


  • 111. 
    Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the
    • A. 

      Medulla oblongata.

    • B. 

      Medial geniculate.

    • C. 

      Cerebral cortex.

    • D. 

      Olfactory bulb.

    • E. 

      Olfactory tract.


  • 112. 
    A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
    • A. 

      Parathyroid hormone.

    • B. 

      Thyroxine.

    • C. 

      Calcitonin.

    • D. 

      Glucagon.

    • E. 

      Oxytocin.


  • 113. 
    The F cells of the pancreatic islets produce
    • A. 

      Insulin

    • B. 

      Glucagon.

    • C. 

      Pancreatic polypeptide.

    • D. 

      Cortisol.

    • E. 

      GH-IH.


  • 114. 
    The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
    • A. 

      Insulin.

    • B. 

      Glucagon.

    • C. 

      Growth hormone.

    • D. 

      Parathyroid hormone.

    • E. 

      Thyroid hormone.


  • 115. 
    The hypothalamus controls secretion by the anterior pituitary by
    • A. 

      Direct neural stimulation.

    • B. 

      Indirect osmotic control.

    • C. 

      Secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.

    • D. 

      Altering ion concentrations and pH in the anterior pituitary.


  • 116. 
    When a G protein becomes activated and causes an activation of enzymes,
    • A. 

      ATP is consumed.

    • B. 

      CAMP is formed.

    • C. 

      CAMP is broken down.

    • D. 

      ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.


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