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Pgcc Psychology 1010 Final Exam Study Guide

57 Questions
Pgcc Psychology 1010 Final Exam Study Guide

Based on the PGCC Psychology 1010 Study Guide

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Psychoanalysis:
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      John B. Watson

    • C. 

      Jean Piaget

    • D. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • E. 

      Charles Darwin

  • 2. 
    Behaviorism:
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Jean Piaget

    • C. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • D. 

      John B. Watson

    • E. 

      Charles Darwin

  • 3. 
    Cognitivism:
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Jean Piaget

    • C. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • D. 

      John B. Watson

    • E. 

      Charles Darwin

  • 4. 
    This person focused on individuals who were "self-actualized," especially historical figures
    • A. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • B. 

      Stanley Milgram

    • C. 

      Ivan Pavlov

    • D. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • E. 

      Jean Piaget

  • 5. 
    The classic laboratory studies of "obedience" were performed by
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Jean Piaget

    • C. 

      Stanley Milgram

    • D. 

      John B. Watson

    • E. 

      Ivan Pavlov

  • 6. 
    Classical Conditioning was discovered by
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Jean Piaget

    • C. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • D. 

      John B. Watson

    • E. 

      Ivan Pavlov

  • 7. 
    ____________ is a chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron.
    • A. 

      Neurotransmitter

    • B. 

      Axiom

    • C. 

      Synapse

    • D. 

      Dendrite

    • E. 

      Synaptic Vesicle

  • 8. 
    This debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities vs. personal experiences, causing differences in physical and behavioral traits
    • A. 

      Nature vs. Nurture

    • B. 

      Roger's Model of Personality

    • C. 

      Observational Learning & Control

    • D. 

      Humanistic Model of Personality

  • 9. 
    _________ refers to the process of sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell.  This information is sent to our brains in raw form where perception comes into play. 
    • A. 

      Sensation

    • B. 

      Perception

    • C. 

      Personality

    • D. 

      Auditory

    • E. 

      Optic

  • 10. 
    ___________ is the way we interpret sensations and therefore make sense of everything around us.  
    • A. 

      Perception

    • B. 

      Sensation

    • C. 

      Auditory

    • D. 

      Behavior

    • E. 

      Optic

  • 11. 
    Operant Conditioning was discovered by
    • A. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Jean Piaget

    • C. 

      B.F. Skinner

    • D. 

      John B. Watson

    • E. 

      Ivan Pavlov

  • 12. 
    ___________________   focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successful chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an association between his behavior of fetching the ball and receiving the desired reward. The behavior is involuntary.
    • A. 

      Classical Conditioning

    • B. 

      Operant Conditioning

    • C. 

      Conditioned Response

    • D. 

      Unconditioned Response

    • E. 

      Conditioned Stimulus

    • F. 

      Unconditioned Stimulus

  • 13. 
    _______________________  involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response. The behavior is involuntary.
    • A. 

      Classical Conditioning

    • B. 

      Operant Conditioning

    • C. 

      Conditioned Response

    • D. 

      Unconditioned Response

    • E. 

      Conditioned Stimulus

    • F. 

      Unconditioned Stimulus

  • 14. 
    This type of memory is also called "working memory," and generally only lasts about 20 seconds.  Additionally, it can usually only retain about 7 stimuli max.
    • A. 

      Short-Term Memory

    • B. 

      Long-Term Memory

    • C. 

      Decay Memory

    • D. 

      Reconstructive Memory

    • E. 

      Span of Memory

  • 15. 
    This type of memory is sent to the hippocampus and may be retained forever.
    • A. 

      Short-Term Memory

    • B. 

      Long-Term Memory

    • C. 

      Decay Memory

    • D. 

      Reconstructive Memory

    • E. 

      Span of Memory

  • 16. 
    When trying to recall an event, the ____________________ nature of memory allows it to build from pieces of memory rather than to reproduce it.
    • A. 

      Constructive

    • B. 

      Duration

    • C. 

      Span

    • D. 

      Capacity

    • E. 

      Sensory

  • 17. 
    What does DSM stand for?
    • A. 

      Diagnostic & Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders

    • B. 

      Diagnosis Street Manual

    • C. 

      Diagram of Select Mental Disorders

    • D. 

      Diagnostic Stress Manual for Mental Disorders

  • 18. 
    What book is used for the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders?
    • A. 

      DSM-IV

    • B. 

      DSM

    • C. 

      TAT

    • D. 

      PDR

    • E. 

      Inkblot Test Book

  • 19. 
    _____________   _______________ may be defined as behavior that is disturbing (socially unacceptable), distressing, maladaptive (or self-defeating), and often the result of distorted thoughts (cognitions).
    • A. 

      Abnormal behavior

    • B. 

      Cultural relativism

    • C. 

      Social learning

    • D. 

      Self-actualized behavior

    • E. 

      Conscious behavior

  • 20. 
    The idea of ___________ ____________suggests that beliefs about abnormality differ between cultures and sub-cultures. What may be considered as perfectly acceptable behaviour in one culture may be seen as abnormal in another. Researchers have only recently begun to consider the implications of multi-cultural experiences on health and illness (including physical health).
    • A. 

      Cultural Relativism

    • B. 

      Openness Strategy

    • C. 

      Cultural Regression

    • D. 

      Universal Behavior

    • E. 

      Cultural Integrity

  • 21. 
    A person encounters or witnesses a trumatic event, such as front-line combat, earthquake or sexual assault.  (Physically dangerous or life-threatening.)  Additionally, the person's response must involve intense fear, helplessness, or horror.
    • A. 

      Phobias

    • B. 

      PTSD

    • C. 

      Major Depression

    • D. 

      Bipolar Disorder

    • E. 

      Schizophrenia

  • 22. 
    _______________ is when a person experiences a lingering depressed mood or dimished interest in pleasurable activities, along with symptoms that include weight loss and sleep difficulities.
    • A. 

      Phobias

    • B. 

      PTSD

    • C. 

      Major Depression

    • D. 

      Bipolar Disorder

    • E. 

      Schizophrenia

  • 23. 
    ________________ is a condition marked by one or more manic episodes.
    • A. 

      Phobias

    • B. 

      PTSD

    • C. 

      Major Depression

    • D. 

      Bipolar Disorder

    • E. 

      Schizophrenia

  • 24. 
    ________________ is a severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality.
    • A. 

      Phobias

    • B. 

      PTSD

    • C. 

      Major Depression

    • D. 

      Bipolar Disorder

    • E. 

      Schizophrenia

  • 25. 
    These types of therapies focus on the specific behaviors that lead the patient to seek therapy and the current variables that maintain problematic thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
    • A. 

      Psychodynamic

    • B. 

      Behavioral

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Group

  • 26. 
    Advocates of these therapies hold that beliefs play a central role in our feelings and behaviors.  For them, irrational thinking lies at the root of psychopathology.
    • A. 

      Psychodynamic

    • B. 

      Behavioral

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Group

  • 27. 
    These types of therapies are efficient, time saving and less costly then individual treatment.  Participants can provide and receive support, exchange information and feedback, model effective behaviors and practice new skills, and recognize that adjustment problems are shared by many other people.
    • A. 

      Psychodynamic

    • B. 

      Behavioral

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Group

  • 28. 
    In the Stanford Prison Experiment, Psychologist Phil Zambardo learned that once prisoners and guards had been assigned roles that deemphasized their individuality, they adopted their designed roles more easily than anyone had imagined.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    __________ means to "prejudge" - to arrive at a conclusion before evaluating all the evidence.  It refers to attitudes toward others.
    • A. 

      Prejudice

    • B. 

      Bias

    • C. 

      Discrimination

    • D. 

      Stereotype

  • 30. 
    __________ means the act of treating members of out-groups differently than members of in-groups.  It refers to behaviors toward others.
    • A. 

      Prejudice

    • B. 

      Bias

    • C. 

      Discrimination

    • D. 

      Stereotype

  • 31. 
    This psychology perspective says that personalities are bundles of habits acquired by classical and operant conditioning, and that personality does not play a role in causing behavior, rather that personality consists of behaviors.
    • A. 

      Behavioral

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

    • E. 

      Humanistic

    • F. 

      Psychodynamic

    • G. 

      Sociocultural

  • 32. 
    This psychology perspective embraces the notion of free will, and that the core motive in personality is self-actualization.
    • A. 

      Behavioral

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

    • E. 

      Humanistic

    • F. 

      Psychodynamic

    • G. 

      Sociocultural

  • 33. 
    This psychology perspective originated with Lev Vygotsky and focuses on the theory of congitive development that examines how social and cultural factors influence learning.
    • A. 

      Behavioral

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

    • E. 

      Humanistic

    • F. 

      Psychodynamic

    • G. 

      Sociocultural

  • 34. 
    This psychology perspective is a form of psychology that examines internal mental processes, such as creativity, perception, thinking, problem solving, memory, and language.   _____________ psychologists are interested in how a person understands, diagnoses, and solves a problem, concerning themselves with the mental processes that mediate between stimulus and response.
    • A. 

      Behavioral

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

    • E. 

      Humanistic

    • F. 

      Psychodynamic

    • G. 

      Sociocultural

  • 35. 
    This psychology perspective is an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, are common..
    • A. 

      Behavioral

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

    • E. 

      Humanistic

    • F. 

      Psychodynamic

    • G. 

      Sociocultural

  • 36. 
    This psychology perspective is the theory and systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, especially the dynamic relations between conscious motivation and unconscious
    • A. 

      Behavioral

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

    • E. 

      Humanistic

    • F. 

      Psychodynamic

    • G. 

      Sociocultural

  • 37. 
    Researchers who study the brain and behavior are called ___________________ psychologists or neuroscientists.
    • A. 

      Behavioral

    • B. 

      Biological

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

    • E. 

      Humanistic

    • F. 

      Psychodynamic

    • G. 

      Sociocultural

  • 38. 
    This type of psychology study the researcher examines one person or a small number of people over an extended period of time.
    • A. 

      Case Study

    • B. 

      Survey

    • C. 

      Naturalistic

    • D. 

      Observation

    • E. 

      Experiment

    • F. 

      Consent

  • 39. 
    This type of psychology study uses self-report measures, often called questionnaires.
    • A. 

      Case Study

    • B. 

      Survey

    • C. 

      Naturalistic

    • D. 

      Observation

    • E. 

      Experiment

    • F. 

      Consent

  • 40. 
    This type of psychology study watches behavior in "real world" settings.
    • A. 

      Case Study

    • B. 

      Survey

    • C. 

      Naturalistic

    • D. 

      Observation

    • E. 

      Experiment

    • F. 

      Consent

  • 41. 
    This type of psychology study involves the "watching" of others to learn.  In many cases, we watch models: parents, teachers, and others who are influential to us.
    • A. 

      Case Study

    • B. 

      Survey

    • C. 

      Naturalistic

    • D. 

      Observation

    • E. 

      Experiment

    • F. 

      Consent

  • 42. 
    In a correlational study __________________________________
    • A. 

      The psychologists examine the extent to which two variables are associated, but does not allow for cause & effect conclusions.

    • B. 

      The psychologists examine the extent to which two variables are associated, and allows for cause & effect conclusions.

    • C. 

      Experiments are used and permit cause & effect inferences.

    • D. 

      Experiments are used and do not permit cause & effect inferences.

  • 43. 
    This variable is used to see if the manipulation (of another variable) has had an effect.
    • A. 

      Independent

    • B. 

      Dependent

    • C. 

      Random

    • D. 

      Control

    • E. 

      Experimental

  • 44. 
    Experimental designs use two groups.  This group doesn't receive manipulation.
    • A. 

      Independent

    • B. 

      Dependent

    • C. 

      Random

    • D. 

      Control

    • E. 

      Experimental

  • 45. 
    Experimental designs use two groups.  This group receives manipulation.
    • A. 

      Independent

    • B. 

      Dependent

    • C. 

      Random

    • D. 

      Control

    • E. 

      Experimental

  • 46. 
    Every American University's institutional review board (IRB) requires a procedure called ___________, which tells participants what they are getting into before asking them to participate, even thought some IRB's may allow the researcher to forgo some elements of the ______________ , especially if the experiment involves deception.
    • A. 

      Informed consent

    • B. 

      Confidentiality

    • C. 

      Debriefing

    • D. 

      Waiver of liability

  • 47. 
    ________________ is a process whereby researchers inform participants at the conclusion of a research session, exactly what the study was about.  In some cases, the research study becomes a learning experience for the participant as well as the researcher.
    • A. 

      Informed consent

    • B. 

      Confidentiality

    • C. 

      Debriefing

    • D. 

      Waiver of liability

  • 48. 
    ________________ is a requirement that the identities and their actions must be kept secret during research studies and other projects.
    • A. 

      Informed consent

    • B. 

      Confidentiality

    • C. 

      Debriefing

    • D. 

      Waiver of liability

  • 49. 
    __________________ statistics describe data.
    • A. 

      Descriptive

    • B. 

      Inferential

    • C. 

      Statistical significance

    • D. 

      Dispersion

  • 50. 
    __________________ statistics that use mathmatical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population.
    • A. 

      Descriptive

    • B. 

      Inferential

    • C. 

      Statistical significance

    • D. 

      Dispersion

  • 51. 
    __________________ is the result of tests performed to determine whether we can generalize our findings to the broader population using a variety of statistics, using a .05 level of confidence.
    • A. 

      Descriptive

    • B. 

      Inferential

    • C. 

      Statistical significance

    • D. 

      Dispersion

  • 52. 
    _______________ is the scientific study of the mind, brain and behavior.
    • A. 

      Psychology

    • B. 

      Parapsychology

    • C. 

      Psychoanalysis

    • D. 

      Psychoanalytics

  • 53. 
    A _______________ is person that performs psychotherapy services, but has a medical degree and specializes in mental illness.  Additionally, this person can prescribe medication.
    • A. 

      Psychiatrist

    • B. 

      Psychologist

    • C. 

      Social worker

    • D. 

      Therapist

  • 54. 
    A _______________ is person that performs psychotherapy services, and has received graduate and holds a PhD in philosophy, or a Phy D in psychology.  This person is not a medical doctor and cannot prescribe medicine.
    • A. 

      Psychiatrist

    • B. 

      Psychologist

    • C. 

      Social worker

    • D. 

      Therapist

  • 55. 
    The ______________ is a average; a measure of central tendency.
    • A. 

      Mean

    • B. 

      Median

    • C. 

      Mode

    • D. 

      Scatter

  • 56. 
    The ______________ is the middle score in a data set; a measure of central tendency.
    • A. 

      Mean

    • B. 

      Median

    • C. 

      Mode

    • D. 

      Scatter

  • 57. 
    The ______________ is the most frequent score in a data set; a measure of central tendency.
    • A. 

      Mean

    • B. 

      Median

    • C. 

      Mode

    • D. 

      Scatter