A&p II Test #2 - Part 1

44 Questions  I  By Chris23manj
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Dr. Sandel Test II - Part 1 Lymphatic, immune, respiration

  
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  • 1. 
    The functions of the lymphatic system include what?
    • A. 

      Lipid Absorption

    • B. 

      Receovery and return of tissue fluid to the circulatory system

    • C. 

      Immune Response

    • D. 

      Nueral communication

    • E. 

      Choices A, B and C


  • 2. 
    Examples of lymphatic organs include myeloid tissue, thymus gland, spleen, tonsils, and what else?
    • A. 

      Kidneys

    • B. 

      Mesentery

    • C. 

      Myocardium

    • D. 

      Lymph Nodes

    • E. 

      Thyroid Gland


  • 3. 
    What is the :little red schoolhouse" as far as T-cells are concerned?
    • A. 

      Spleen

    • B. 

      Lungs

    • C. 

      Kidneys

    • D. 

      Thymus gland

    • E. 

      Myeloid tissue


  • 4. 
    Lymph nodes are concentrated in the inguinal spaces, axilary regions, popliteal spaces, and where else?
    • A. 

      Wrists

    • B. 

      Ankles

    • C. 

      Frontal lobe

    • D. 

      Cervical region

    • E. 

      Nasal sinuses


  • 5. 
    Of the three principal lines of defense, which one involves the immune system and leaves the body with a "memory"?
    • A. 

      Primary line

    • B. 

      Secondary line

    • C. 

      Tertiary line

    • D. 

      Quarternary line


  • 6. 
    Of the 3 principal lines of defense, which one is non-specific and involves the skin and mucous membranes?
    • A. 

      Primary line

    • B. 

      Secondary line

    • C. 

      Tertiary line

    • D. 

      Quarterary line

    • E. 

      Choices A and B


  • 7. 
    Of the mechanisms of pathogenic destruction, which one involves, for example, the liver and spleen removing antibodies from antigen-antibody complexes on erythrocyte cell surfaces and nuetralizing them... the principal mode of removing foreign antigens from the blood stream?
    • A. 

      Inflammation

    • B. 

      Immune clearance

    • C. 

      Phagocytosis

    • D. 

      Cytolysis

    • E. 

      Choices A and C


  • 8. 
    The cardinal signs of inflammation include what?
    • A. 

      Pain

    • B. 

      Swelling

    • C. 

      Fever

    • D. 

      Redness

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D


  • 9. 
    Which of the following is a characteristic of "immune surveillance"?
    • A. 

      NK cells continually patrolling the body

    • B. 

      NK cells continually "on the lookout" or "watching" for pathogens

    • C. 

      NK cells "educating" naive T-cells

    • D. 

      NK cells functioning much like "sentries" or "cavalry" cells

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, and D


  • 10. 
    Wjat is the term describing any chemical that provides a "trail" that neutrophils and other leukocytes can "follow" to specific sites of infection...a "homing" mechanism?
    • A. 

      Immune surveillance

    • B. 

      Tissue repair

    • C. 

      Chemotaxis

    • D. 

      Swelling

    • E. 

      Phototaxis


  • 11. 
    What type of immunity involves production by one's own immunocompetent immune system?
    • A. 

      Natural active

    • B. 

      Natural passive

    • C. 

      Artificial passive

    • D. 

      Administration of antibiotics


  • 12. 
    Which of the following is (are) characteristic of cell-mediated immunity?
    • A. 

      Lymphocytes directly attacking and destroying foreign or diseased host cells

    • B. 

      Ridding the body of pathogens residing within cells where they are inaccessible to antibodies

    • C. 

      Acts against parasitic worms, cancer cells, and cells of transplanted tissues and organs

    • D. 

      A type of immunity facilitated by antibodies

    • E. 

      Choices A, B and C


  • 13. 
    Which of the following is (are) characteristic of antibodies?
    • A. 

      They "tag" pathogens for destruction by lymphocytes

    • B. 

      They are very specific

    • C. 

      There are 5 basic classes of antibodies, and antibodies are typicalls called immunoglobulins

    • D. 

      The titer or titre of an antibodies refers to its concentration

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D


  • 14. 
    Which of the following is (are) true of B-cells?
    • A. 

      Some of the B cells differentiate in to plasma cells

    • B. 

      The Bm (B memory cells) act as a "ready-reserve" or "standby reserve" of B cells that can execute a quick 2nd degree (2nd level) response

    • C. 

      It is the Bm cells that "give instructions" to plasma cells as to what types of antibodies to produce

    • D. 

      B cells conduct an indirect attack against foreign antigens

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D


  • 15. 
    Which of the following is (are) true of antibiotics?
    • A. 

      Are designed to kill by disrupting metabolic machinery of particular pathogens

    • B. 

      May be administered without due consideration to the type of pathogen involved in the disease process

    • C. 

      Are effective against extracellular pathogens only

    • D. 

      May be administered during a viral infection to protect the patient against a 2 degree infection

    • E. 

      Choices A, C, and D


  • 16. 
    What type of immunity involves immune memory and the production of one's own antibodies as a result of natural exposure to an antigen? An example would be contracting a particular bacterial infection.
    • A. 

      Natural active immunity

    • B. 

      Artificial active immunity

    • C. 

      Natural passive immunity

    • D. 

      Artifical passive immunity


  • 17. 
    What type of immunity does not involve memory, is temporary, and results from antibodies present in immune serum administered to a patient? Examples include snake bites, botulism, tetanus, and rabies.
    • A. 

      Natural active immunity

    • B. 

      Artificial active immunity

    • C. 

      Natural passive immunity

    • D. 

      Artifical passive immunity


  • 18. 
    Which of the "R's" of the immune response enables an immunocompetent immune system to identify a specfic foreign antigen?
    • A. 

      Recuperate

    • B. 

      Reorganize

    • C. 

      Recognize

    • D. 

      Reconcile

    • E. 

      Remunerate


  • 19. 
    Which region of an antibody molecule distinguishes it as a unique type?
    • A. 

      Constant region

    • B. 

      Variable region

    • C. 

      Laterla region

    • D. 

      Medial region

    • E. 

      Choices, A, C, and D


  • 20. 
    Of the classes of immunoglobulins, which type is the most prevalent and plays a crucial role in a 2nd degree response by an immunocompetent immune system?
    • A. 

      Gamma

    • B. 

      Alpha

    • C. 

      Mu

    • D. 

      Delta

    • E. 

      Epsilon


  • 21. 
    Which of the following is (are) characteristic of a 2nd degree immune response by an immunocompetent immune system compared to a 1st degree response by the same immunocompetent immune system?
    • A. 

      Antibody titer increases earlier

    • B. 

      Antibody titer increases more rapidly

    • C. 

      Choices A, B, D, and E

    • D. 

      Antibody titer reaches levels many times greater than the 1st degree response

    • E. 

      Antibody titer endures far longer than the 1st degree response.


  • 22. 
    What is true regarding the term "isograft"
    • A. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from 1 body site to another in the same person

    • B. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from individuals not genetically identical but belong to the same species

    • C. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from another animal species such as a baboon heart into a human being

    • D. 

      Choices A, and C

    • E. 

      Tissue graft donated to a patient from a geneticallt identical individual, such as identical twins


  • 23. 
    What is true regarding the term "Xenograph"?
    • A. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from 1 body site to another in the same person

    • B. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from individuals not genetically identical but belong to the same species

    • C. 

      Tissue graft transplanted from another animal species such as a baboon heart into a human being

    • D. 

      Choices A, and B

    • E. 

      Tissue graft donated to a patient from a geneticallt identical individual, such as identical twins


  • 24. 
    What class of T-cells is responsible for moderating cell mediated and humoral mediated immunity...matching the immune response to the threat?
    • A. 

      T-h

    • B. 

      T-m

    • C. 

      T-s

    • D. 

      T-x

    • E. 

      T-c


  • 25. 
    What are typical characteristics of a "good" vaccine?
    • A. 

      Can be administered in different forms

    • B. 

      Is economically feasible

    • C. 

      Has sufficient shelf-life

    • D. 

      Does no or minimal harm to the patient regardless of age or gender

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 26. 
    What are the common names for the trachea, pharynx, and larynx, respectively?
    • A. 

      Throat, voice box, and windpipe

    • B. 

      Windpipe, voice box, throat

    • C. 

      Throat, windpipe, voice box

    • D. 

      Voice box, windpipe, throat

    • E. 

      Windpipe, throat, voice box


  • 27. 
    What is the proper scientific term for the respiratory system component responsible for warming, moistening, and flitering inhaled air and is lined with olfactory epithelium?
    • A. 

      Larynx

    • B. 

      Pharynx

    • C. 

      Epiglottis

    • D. 

      Nasal chambers

    • E. 

      Glottis


  • 28. 
    Which principal respiratory division is responsible solely for respiratory gas exchange?
    • A. 

      Respiratory or exchange zone

    • B. 

      Conducting zone

    • C. 

      Zone of conduction

    • D. 

      Tracheal zone

    • E. 

      Bronchial zone


  • 29. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding inspiration?
    • A. 

      The thoracic cavity moves out and up, increasing thoracic volume

    • B. 

      The diaphragm drops down, again, increasing thoracic volume

    • C. 

      It is an active process requiring the expenditure of energy

    • D. 

      Pressue within the thoracic cavity decreases relative to atmospheric pressure

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D


  • 30. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding the Hering-Breuer phenomenon?
    • A. 

      It concerns safe-guards against lung over-inflation

    • B. 

      It is facilitated by "stretch receptors" with lung tissue

    • C. 

      It is one of the many inputs regulating lung function along with conscious input from the cerebral hemispheres and subconscious input from carotid and aortic artery bodies

    • D. 

      It is a reflex

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D


  • 31. 
    Which of the following is (are) true concering the respiratory chemoreceptors?
    • A. 

      They include aortic and carotid artery bodies monitoring arterial blood pH

    • B. 

      Peripheral chemoreceptors transmit nerve signals to the brain stem respiratory centers via cranial nerves IX and X

    • C. 

      They also include central chemoreceptors located within the brain stem medulla oblongota

    • D. 

      Central chemoreceptors monitor CSF pH

    • E. 

      Choices A, B, C, and D


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding tidal volume (TV)?
    • A. 

      It is the volume of air inhaled/exhaled in one breath at rest

    • B. 

      The typical value is 0.5 liter

    • C. 

      Not all of the TV contributes to pulmonary ventilation

    • D. 

      Some of the TV contributes to dead space

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 33. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding lung measurements?
    • A. 

      Lung volumes are measured

    • B. 

      Lung volumes are measured with a spirometer

    • C. 

      Choices A, B, D, and E

    • D. 

      Lung capacities are calculated or estimated

    • E. 

      Lung capacities are calculated using volume measurements


  • 34. 
    Boyles Law predicts that as a gas volume increases, the pressue exerted by the gas does what?
    • A. 

      Remains unchanged

    • B. 

      Decreases

    • C. 

      Increases

    • D. 

      Goes to ZERO

    • E. 

      Goes to infinity


  • 35. 
    Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation (oxygen saturation) curves indicate that as the blood pH decreases (increasing acidity), the curve shifts how?
    • A. 

      To the left and down

    • B. 

      To the right and up

    • C. 

      To the left and up

    • D. 

      To the right and down

    • E. 

      Remains stationary


  • 36. 
    Infants born with insufficient lung surfactant in the aveoli typically suffer from what?
    • A. 

      Hemolytic disease of the newborn

    • B. 

      Erythroblastosis fetalis

    • C. 

      Respiratory distress syndrome

    • D. 

      Hyaline membrane disease

    • E. 

      Choices C and D


  • 37. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding respiratory acidosis?
    • A. 

      Choices B, C, D, and E

    • B. 

      Too much carbon dioxide in the blood stream (hypercapnia)

    • C. 

      Elevated respiratory rate (hyperventilation)

    • D. 

      Acidic urine characterized by the kidneys "dumping" hydrogen ion into the urine

    • E. 

      Lungs and kidneys working cooperatively to make adjustments and return blood pH back to normal


  • 38. 
    What is the definition of the term "hypocapnia"?
    • A. 

      Excess oxygen in the blood stream

    • B. 

      Excess nitrogen in the blood stream

    • C. 

      Excess carbon dioxide in the blood stream

    • D. 

      Deficiency of carbon dioxide in the blood

    • E. 

      Choices B and C


  • 39. 
    What is the definition of the term "apnea"
    • A. 

      Temporary cessation of breathing

    • B. 

      Permanent cessation of breathing

    • C. 

      Normal breathing

    • D. 

      Elevated respiration rate

    • E. 

      Choices A and B


  • 40. 
    A patient with a hole in the thoracic wall (i.e. breached thoracic wall) has what type of condition?
    • A. 

      Pneumonia

    • B. 

      Pneumothorax

    • C. 

      Pneumoccoccus infection

    • D. 

      Pneumonic plague


  • 41. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding the chloride shift phenomenon?
    • A. 

      When a bicarbonate ion departs the erythrocyte, it is replaced by a chloride ion, and this corrects ionic charge imbalance

    • B. 

      Chloride shift maximizes the quantity of carbon dioxide that the blood stream can transport back to the lungs

    • C. 

      Both A and B


  • 42. 
    Which of the following is (are) true regarding metabolic alkalosis?
    • A. 

      Choices B, C, D, and E

    • B. 

      Too little carbon dioxide in the blood stream (hypocapnia)

    • C. 

      Depressed respiratory rate (hyperventilation)

    • D. 

      Alkaline urine characterized by the kidneys withholding hydrogen ion from the urine

    • E. 

      Lungs and kidneys working cooperatively to make adjustments and return the blood pH back to normal


  • 43. 
    When an individual exhlaes, in which direction does the diaphragm move?
    • A. 

      To the right

    • B. 

      To the left

    • C. 

      Upward

    • D. 

      Downward

    • E. 

      Choices A and B


  • 44. 
    Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation (oxygen saturation) curves relate oxygen tension in the blood (X axis) to percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (Y axis). As the blood plasma pH becomes more alkaline (increases blood pH), how does the curve shift?
    • A. 

      Up and then down

    • B. 

      Up and to the right

    • C. 

      Down and to the right

    • D. 

      Remains stable

    • E. 

      Up and to the left


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