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A&p 2 Urinary & Respiratory

101 Questions
AP Quizzes & Trivia

Anatomoy and psyhiology quiz over urinary system & respiratory system

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      Pulmonary ventilation

    • B. 

      Transport of respiratory gases

    • C. 

      External respiration

    • D. 

      Pulmonary respiration

  • 2. 
    The loudness of a persons voice depends on the
    • A. 

      Thickness of vestibular folds

    • B. 

      Length of the vocal folds

    • C. 

      Strength of the instrinsic laryngeal muscles

    • D. 

      Force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

  • 3. 
    The walls of the alveioli are composed of to types of cells, type I and type II.  The function of type II is to _________.
    • A. 

      Secrete surfactant

    • B. 

      Trap dust and other debris

    • C. 

      Replace mucus int he alveioli

    • D. 

      Protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

  • 4. 
    Complete the following statement using the choices below.  Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
    • A. 

      Less than the pressure in the atmosphere

    • B. 

      Greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

    • C. 

      Equal to the pressure in the atmosphere

    • D. 

      Greater than the intra alveolar pressure

  • 5. 
    Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved.  Expiration, however, depends on two factors.  Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
    • A. 

      The recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

    • B. 

      The expansion of respiratory muscles that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall

    • C. 

      The negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactant

    • D. 

      Combined amount of CO2 in the blood and air in the alveioli

  • 6. 
    Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea? 
    • A. 

      Surface tension of water

    • B. 

      Surfactant

    • C. 

      Carilage rings

    • D. 

      Pseudostratifeid ciliated epithelium

  • 7. 
    Intrapulmonary pressure is the
    • A. 

      Pressure within the pleural cavity

    • B. 

      Pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

    • C. 

      Negative pressure in the intrapleural space

    • D. 

      Difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

  • 8. 
    The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by
    • A. 

      Boyles law

    • B. 

      Henrys law

    • C. 

      Charles law

    • D. 

      Daltons law

  • 9. 
    The statement "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases
    • A. 

      Henrys law

    • B. 

      Boyles law

    • C. 

      Daltons law

    • D. 

      Charles law

  • 10. 
    Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collasping by
    • A. 

      Humidifying the air before it enters

    • B. 

      Warming the air before it enters

    • C. 

      Interfering with the conhesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

    • D. 

      Protecting the surface of alveioli from dehydration and other enviromental variations

  • 11. 
    For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be
    • A. 

      At least 3 micrometers thick

    • B. 

      0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

    • C. 

      Between 5 and 6 micrometers thick

    • D. 

      The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.

  • 12. 
    With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n)
    • A. 

      Decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin oxygen bond

    • B. 

      Decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

    • C. 

      Increase in pH (alkalosis) strenghens the hemoglobin oxygen bond

    • D. 

      Increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin oxygen bond

  • 13. 
    The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is
    • A. 

      Loss of oxygen in tissues

    • B. 

      Increase of carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      PH (acidosis)

    • D. 

      PH (alkalosis)

  • 14. 
    Nerve impulses from __________________ will result in inspiration
    • A. 

      The ventral respiratory group

    • B. 

      The chemoreceptor center

    • C. 

      Broca's center

    • D. 

      The preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus

  • 15. 
    In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is
    • A. 

      Only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

    • B. 

      About equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin

    • C. 

      Greater thatn the oxygen combined with hemoglobin

    • D. 

      Not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

  • 16. 
    Which of the following statements is incorrect?
    • A. 

      During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid

    • B. 

      Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants

    • C. 

      Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing

    • D. 

      The chest wall becomes more rigid with age

  • 17. 
    Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
    • A. 

      The neural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

    • B. 

      Compliance and transpulmonary pressure

    • C. 

      The natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures

    • D. 

      Compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

  • 18. 
    Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?
    • A. 

      Psychic stimuli

    • B. 

      Decrease in lactic acid levels

    • C. 

      Proprioceptors

    • D. 

      Stimultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center

  • 19. 
    Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?
    • A. 

      Adenocarcinoma

    • B. 

      Kaposi's sarcoma

    • C. 

      Small cell carcinoma

    • D. 

      Squamous cell carcinoma

  • 20. 
    Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?
    • A. 

      Pulmonary ventilation

    • B. 

      Blood pH adjustment

    • C. 

      Internal repiration

    • D. 

      External respiration

  • 21. 
    Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?
    • A. 

      Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchiles

    • B. 

      Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross sectional diameter

    • C. 

      Proportionally smooth muscle decreases uniformly

    • D. 

      Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli

  • 22. 
    Which of the following determines lung compliance?
    • A. 

      Airway opening

    • B. 

      Flexibility of the thoracic cage

    • C. 

      Muscles of inspiration

    • D. 

      Alveolar surface tension

  • 23. 
    Tidal volume is air
    • A. 

      Remaining in the lungs after forced expiration

    • B. 

      Exchanged during normal breathing

    • C. 

      Inhaled after normal inspiration

    • D. 

      Forcibly expelled after normal expiration

  • 24. 
    Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
    • A. 

      Solubility in water

    • B. 

      Partial pressure gradient

    • C. 

      The temperature

    • D. 

      Molecular weight and size of the gas molecule

  • 25. 
    Possible causes of hypoxia include
    • A. 

      Too little oxygen in the atmosphere

    • B. 

      Obstruction of the esophagus

    • C. 

      Taking several rapid deep breaths

    • D. 

      Getting very cold

  • 26. 
    The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the
    • A. 

      Tidal volume

    • B. 

      Vidal capacity

    • C. 

      Inspiratory capacity

    • D. 

      Expiratory reserve volume

  • 27. 
    Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding repiratory exchange?
    • A. 

      Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus

    • B. 

      Respiratory exchanges are not necessary

    • C. 

      Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta

    • D. 

      Because the lungs develop late in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange

  • 28. 
    Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
    • A. 

      Rising carbon dioxide levels

    • B. 

      Rising blood pressure

    • C. 

      Arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg

    • D. 

      Arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention

  • 29. 
    Respiratory control centers are located in the
    • A. 

      Midbrain and medulla

    • B. 

      Medulla and pons

    • C. 

      Pons and midbrain

    • D. 

      Upper spinal cord and medulla

  • 30. 
    The amount of air that can be inpired above the tidal volume is called
    • A. 

      Reserve air

    • B. 

      Expiratory reserve

    • C. 

      Inspiratory reserve

    • D. 

      Vital capacity

  • 31. 
    Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
    • A. 

      Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation

    • B. 

      Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH

    • C. 

      More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma that is carried in the RBCs

    • D. 

      CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood

  • 32. 
    Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
    • A. 

      Osmosis

    • B. 

      Diffusion

    • C. 

      Filtration

    • D. 

      Active transport

  • 33. 
    Select the correct statement about pharynx
    • A. 

      The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the larynogopharynx

    • B. 

      The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx

    • C. 

      The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx

    • D. 

      The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

  • 34. 
    The larynx contains
    • A. 

      The thyroid cartilage

    • B. 

      A cricoid cartilage also called the adams apple

    • C. 

      An upper pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds

    • D. 

      Lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal folds

  • 35. 
    Which respiratory associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
    • A. 

      Diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax

    • B. 

      Internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

    • C. 

      External intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax

    • D. 

      Diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax

  • 36. 
    How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
    • A. 

      Chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells

    • B. 

      As the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

    • C. 

      As carbonic acid in the plasma

    • D. 

      Chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

  • 37. 
    Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?
    • A. 

      Middle lobe

    • B. 

      Cardiac notch

    • C. 

      Horizontal fissure

    • D. 

      Oblique fissure

  • 38. 
    Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
    • A. 

      Allows the lungs to inflate and deflate without friction

    • B. 

      Helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers

    • C. 

      Helps limit the spread of local infections

    • D. 

      Aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

  • 39. 
    Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include
    • A. 

      Thalamic control

    • B. 

      Voluntary coritcal control

    • C. 

      Stretch receptors in the alveioli

    • D. 

      Composition of alveolar air

  • 40. 
    Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
    • A. 

      Alveolar sacs

    • B. 

      Alveoli

    • C. 

      Respiratory bronchioles

    • D. 

      Alveolar ducts

  • 41. 
    The respiratory membrane is a combination of
    • A. 

      Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts

    • B. 

      Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

    • C. 

      Atria and alveolar sacs

    • D. 

      Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs

  • 42. 
    Gas emboli may occur because a
    • A. 

      Person hold his breath too long

    • B. 

      Diver holds his breath upon ascent

    • C. 

      Pilot holds her breath upon descent

    • D. 

      Person breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber

  • 43. 
    Inspiratory capacity is
    • A. 

      The total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

    • B. 

      The total amount of exchangeable air

    • C. 

      Functional residual capacity

    • D. 

      Air inspired after a tidal inhalation

  • 44. 
    Which center is located in the pons?
    • A. 

      Pontine respirator group (PRG)

    • B. 

      Expiratory

    • C. 

      Inspiratory

    • D. 

      Pacemaker neuron center

  • 45. 
    The nose serves all of the following functions except
    • A. 

      As a passageway for air movement

    • B. 

      As the initiator of the cough reflex

    • C. 

      Warming and humidifying the air

    • D. 

      Cleansing the air

  • 46. 
    A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing.  However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by
    • A. 

      17 weeks

    • B. 

      24 weeks

    • C. 

      28 weeks

    • D. 

      36 weeks

  • 47. 
    Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
    • A. 

      The respiratory rate of a newborn is slow

    • B. 

      The respiratory rate of a newborn varies between male and female infants

    • C. 

      The respiratory rate of a newborn is approximatley 30 respirations per minute

    • D. 

      The respiratory rate of a newborn is at ist highest rate approximatley 40-80 respirations per minute

  • 48. 
    Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control
    • A. 

      The pons is thought to be intstrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration

    • B. 

      The dorsal respiratory group neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to establish the pattern of breathing

    • C. 

      The ponitine respirator group (PRG) continously stimulates the medulla to provide inspiratory drive

    • D. 

      The ventral respiratory group is contained within the pons

  • 49. 
    Which of the choice below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
    • A. 

      Partial pressure of oxygen

    • B. 

      Temperature

    • C. 

      Partial pressure of carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Number of red blood cells

  • 50. 
    The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are
    • A. 

      The smooth muscles of the lung

    • B. 

      The diaphragm and intercostal muscles alone

    • C. 

      The visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs

    • D. 

      Surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

  • 51. 
    The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the
    • A. 

      Temperature is lower at higher altitudes

    • B. 

      Basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes

    • C. 

      Concentration of oxygen and or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes

    • D. 

      Concentration of oxygen and or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

  • 52. 
    Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach lungs because of the
    • A. 

      Ciliated mucous lining in the nose

    • B. 

      Abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa

    • C. 

      Porous structure of turbinate bones

    • D. 

      Action of the epiglottis

  • 53. 
    Which of the following is not possible?
    • A. 

      Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance

    • B. 

      Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resisitance

    • C. 

      Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow

    • D. 

      The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveioli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmopshere and the alveoli

  • 54. 
    Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation
    • A. 

      A decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation

    • B. 

      A lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation

    • C. 

      As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required

    • D. 

      Surfactant helps increase alveolar tension

  • 55. 
    Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood
    • A. 

      During normal acitivity; a molecule of hemoglobin returining to the lungs carries one molecule of O2

    • B. 

      During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently

    • C. 

      Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen carrying capacity

    • D. 

      A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activivty level higher than normal

  • 56. 
    Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
    • A. 

      Pneumonia

    • B. 

      Tuberculosis

    • C. 

      Emphysema

    • D. 

      Corzya

  • 57. 
    Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?
    • A. 

      Temperature

    • B. 

      DPG

    • C. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Nitric oxide

  • 58. 
    The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permiebility properties of the
    • A. 

      Loop of henle

    • B. 

      Glomerular filtration membrane

    • C. 

      Collecting duct

    • D. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

  • 59. 
    Urine passes through the
    • A. 

      Renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter

    • B. 

      Pelvis of kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

    • C. 

      Glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule

    • D. 

      Hilum to urethra to bladder

  • 60. 
    Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
    • A. 

      Podocyte

    • B. 

      Vasa recta

    • C. 

      A fenestrated capillary

    • D. 

      An efferent arteriole

  • 61. 
    An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n)
    • A. 

      Decrease in the production of ADH

    • B. 

      Increase in the production of ADH

    • C. 

      Increase in the production of aldosterone

    • D. 

      Decrease in the conentration of the blood plasma

  • 62. 
    The urinary bladder is composed of __________ epithelium
    • A. 

      Transitional

    • B. 

      Simple squamous

    • C. 

      Stratisifed squamous

    • D. 

      Pseudostratified columnar

  • 63. 
    The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin
    • A. 

      When the pertibular capillaries are dialted

    • B. 

      When the pH of the urine decreases

    • C. 

      By a decrease in the blood pressure

    • D. 

      When the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10

  • 64. 
    Which of the choices below is not a function of the urniary system?
    • A. 

      Helps maintain homeostatis by controlling the compositon, volume, and pressure of blood

    • B. 

      Regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones

    • C. 

      Maintains blood osmolarity

    • D. 

      Eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

  • 65. 
    Which gland sits at top of kindeys
    • A. 

      Adrenal

    • B. 

      Thymus

    • C. 

      Pituitary

    • D. 

      Pancreas

  • 66. 
    The _____________ artery lies on the boundry between the cortex and medulla of the kidney
    • A. 

      Lobar

    • B. 

      Arcuate

    • C. 

      Interlobar

    • D. 

      Cortical radiate

  • 67. 
    The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it
    • A. 

      Has a basement membrane

    • B. 

      Is impermeable to most substances

    • C. 

      Is drained by an efferent arteriole

    • D. 

      Has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems

  • 68. 
    The descending limb of the loop of henle
    • A. 

      Is not permeable to water

    • B. 

      Is freely permeable to sodium and urea

    • C. 

      Pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule

    • D. 

      Contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

  • 69. 
    Select the correct statement about ureters
    • A. 

      Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow or urine

    • B. 

      The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch

    • C. 

      The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract

    • D. 

      The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only

  • 70. 
    The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it
    • A. 

      Ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently

    • B. 

      Stabalizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

    • C. 

      Is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys

    • D. 

      Produces vitamin D

  • 71. 
    The renal corpsucle is made up of
    • A. 

      Bowmans capsule and glomerulus

    • B. 

      The descending loop of henle

    • C. 

      The renal pyramid

    • D. 

      The renal papilla

  • 72. 
    The functional and stuctural unit of the kidneys is the
    • A. 

      Nephron

    • B. 

      Loop of henle

    • C. 

      Glomerular capsule

    • D. 

      Basement membrane of the capillaries

  • 73. 
    The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for
    • A. 

      The secretion of drugs

    • B. 

      The secretion of acids and ammonia

    • C. 

      Reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water

    • D. 

      Regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

  • 74. 
    The cheif force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is
    • A. 

      The design and size of the podocytes

    • B. 

      The thickness of the capillary endothelium

    • C. 

      Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

    • D. 

      The size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries

  • 75. 
    Which of the following statements desbribes the histology of th ureters?
    • A. 

      They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)

    • B. 

      They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum

    • C. 

      They are made up of several layers of endothelium

    • D. 

      They are made up entirely of muscle tissure because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently.

  • 76. 
    Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
    • A. 

      The male urethra services both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time

    • B. 

      The male urethra serves both the urniary and reproductive systems but at different times

    • C. 

      The male urethra is longer than the female urethra

    • D. 

      The male urethra is a passageway for both urine and semen

  • 77. 
    Which of the following acts as the trigger for the intitiation of micturition (voiding)?
    • A. 

      The stretching of the bladder wall

    • B. 

      Motor neurons

    • C. 

      The pressure of the fluid in the bladder

    • D. 

      The sympathetic efferents

  • 78. 
    The filtration membrane includes all except
    • A. 

      Glomerular endothelium

    • B. 

      Podocytes

    • C. 

      Renal fascia

    • D. 

      Basement membrane

  • 79. 
    The mechanisms of water reabsortption by the renalubules is
    • A. 

      Active transport

    • B. 

      Osmosis

    • C. 

      Solvent drag

    • D. 

      Cotransport with sodium ions

  • 80. 
    Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is
    • A. 

      Not Tm limited

    • B. 

      In the distal convoluted tubule

    • C. 

      Hormanally controlled in distal tubule segments

    • D. 

      Completed by the time of the loop of henle is reached

  • 81. 
    The macula densa cells respond to
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • C. 

      Changes in the pressure in the tubule

    • D. 

      Changes in solute content of the filtrate

  • 82. 
    Which of the following is not reaborbed by the proximal convoluted tublue?
    • A. 

      Na+

    • B. 

      K+

    • C. 

      Glucose

    • D. 

      Creatine

  • 83. 
    The fluid in the glomerular (bowmans) capusle is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of
    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Hormones

    • C. 

      Electrolytes

    • D. 

      Plasma protein

  • 84. 
    Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it
    • A. 

      Is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells

    • B. 

      Increases the rate of glomerular filtration

    • C. 

      Increases secretion of ADH

    • D. 

      Inhibits the release of ADH

  • 85. 
    The function of angiotensin II is to
    • A. 

      Constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

    • B. 

      Decrease the production of aldosterone

    • C. 

      Decrease arterial blood pressure

    • D. 

      Decrease water absorption

  • 86. 
    A disease caused by inadequate secretion of anitdiuretic hormone (ADH) by pituitary  glands with symptoms of ployuria is
    • A. 

      Diabetes mellitus

    • B. 

      Diabetes insipidus

    • C. 

      Diabetic acidosis

    • D. 

      Coma

  • 87. 
    An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density which is
    • A. 

      1.0041-1.073

    • B. 

      1.001 - 1.035

    • C. 

      1.030 - 1.040

    • D. 

      1.000 - 1.015

  • 88. 
    Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.1. major calyx2. minor calyx3. nephron4. urethra5. ureter6. collecting duct
    • A. 

      3,1,2,6,5,4

    • B. 

      6,3,2,1,5,4

    • C. 

      2,1,3,6,5,4

    • D. 

      3,6,2,1,5,4

  • 89. 
    Select the correct statement about the nephrons
    • A. 

      The parietal layer of hte glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithlium

    • B. 

      The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the proximal convoluted tublue

    • C. 

      Podocytes are the branching epitheilal cells that line the tubules of the nephron

    • D. 

      Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their name

  • 90. 
    What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
    • A. 

      Net filtration would increase above normal

    • B. 

      Net filtration would decrease

    • C. 

      Filtration would increase in proportion to the increase in capsular pressure

    • D. 

      Capsular osmotic pressure would compensate so that filatration would not change

  • 91. 
    Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    • A. 

      Granular cells

    • B. 

      Macula densa

    • C. 

      Podocyte cells

    • D. 

      Mesangial cells

  • 92. 
    Tubular reaborption
    • A. 

      Includes substances such as creatiinine

    • B. 

      By active mehanisms usually invovlves movement against an electrical and or chemical gradient

    • C. 

      By passive processes requires ATP to move solutes form the interior of the tubule to the blood

    • D. 

      Is a way for the body to get rid of unwanted waste

  • 93. 
    Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reaborbed or are incompletley reabsorbed from the nephron?
    • A. 

      They lack carriers

    • B. 

      They are not lipid soluble

    • C. 

      They are too lare too pass thorugh the fenestrations

    • D. 

      They are extremely complex molecules

  • 94. 
    Reabsorbption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by
    • A. 

      Facilitated diffusion

    • B. 

      Passive transport

    • C. 

      Countertransport

    • D. 

      Secondary active transport

  • 95. 
    Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of henle?
    • A. 

      Form a large volume of very concentrated urine or a small volume of very dilute urine

    • B. 

      Form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

    • C. 

      Absorb electrolytes activley with an automatic absorption of water by osmosis

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 96. 
    Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because
    • A. 

      Fetuses do not have any waste to excrete

    • B. 

      There are not functional nephrons until after birth

    • C. 

      The placenta allows the mothers urniary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

    • D. 

      There is no way a fetus could excrete urine until the seventh month of development

  • 97. 
    Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 yrs or older)?
    • A. 

      Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless of age

    • B. 

      Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kindey function

    • C. 

      Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction

    • D. 

      Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy

  • 98. 
    The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerlus is the
    • A. 

      Colloid osmotic pressure of the blood

    • B. 

      Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

    • C. 

      Capsular hyrodtatic pressure

    • D. 

      Myogenic mechanism

  • 99. 
    If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg /100ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/ 100ml the amino acid will
    • A. 

      Be actively secreted into the filtrate

    • B. 

      Be completly reabsorbed by the tubule cells

    • C. 

      Appear in the urine

    • D. 

      Be reabsorbed by secondary active transport

  • 100. 
    If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean?
    • A. 

      The glucose molecule is too larege to be filtered out of the blood

    • B. 

      Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reaborbed in the convoluted tublues

    • C. 

      Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed

    • D. 

      The clearance value of the glucose is realtively high in a healthy adult

  • 101. 
    Excretion of dilute urine requires
    • A. 

      Realtivly permaeablity of the distal tubule to water

    • B. 

      Impermeablitliy of the collecting tubule to water

    • C. 

      Transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of henle

    • D. 

      The presence of ADH