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Organizational Behaviour Chapter 7

31 Questions  I  By Krista_500
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1.  The tendency for people to support their selected alternative in a decision by forgetting or downplaying the negative features of the selected alternative, emphasizing its positive features, and doing the opposite for alternatives not selected. Results from the need to maintain a positive self-concept. Inflates the decision maker's initial evaluation of the decision.
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2.  Some decisions are programmed, whereas others are nonprogrammed. Programmed decisions are less likely to need employee involvement because the solutions are already worked out from past incidents. In other words, the benefits of employee involvement increase with the novelty and complexity of the problem or opportunity.
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3.  The tendency to repeat an apparently bad decision or allocate more resources to a failing course of action.
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4.  Subordinates should be involved in some level of decision making when the leader lacks sufficient information and subordinated have additional information to improve decision quality.  In complex decisions, employees are more likely to possess relevant information.
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5.  Moods and specific emotions influence the process of evaluating alternatives. We pay more attention to details when in a negative mood because a negative mood signals that there is something wrong that requires attention. When in a positive mood, we pay less attention to details.
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6.  An effect in which losing a particular amount is more disliked than gaining the same amount. The negative emotions we experience whne losing a particular amount are stronger than the positive emotions we experience when gaining the same amount. Consequently, we are more willing to take risks to avoid losses than to increase our gains.
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7.  The rational and emotional brain centres alert us to problems, they also influence our choice of alternatives. Emotions affect the evaluation of alternatives.
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8.  This separation of roles minimizes the self-justification effect because the person responsible for evaluating the decision is not connected to the original decision. A second strategy is to publicly establish a preset level at which the decision is abandoned or re-evaluated. A third strategy is to find a source of systematic and clear feedback.
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9.  Recognizing this will always be a challenge, but the process can be improved through awareness of these perceptual and diagnostic limitations. Keeping in mind that mental models restrict a person's perspective of the world is ideal. A second method is to discuss the situation with colleagues. Outsiders explore this information from their different mental models. Five of the most recognized concerns are stakeholder fraing, perceptual defence, mental models, decisive leadership, and solution-focused problems.
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10.  Encourages employees to redefine the problem. Revisiting old projects that have been set aside. Asking people unfamiliar with the issue. Includes associative play, ranging from art classes to impromptu storytelling and acting. Includes morphological analysis, which involves listing different dimensions of a system and the elements of each dimension, then looking at each combination. Various forms of cross-pollination occuring when people from different areas of the organization exchange ideas. Teams show off their products and make presentations to other teams in the organization. A similar effect is mixing together employees from different past projects so they share new knowledge with each other.
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11.  The emotional marker process determines our preferences for each alternative. Our brain quickly attaches specific emotions to information about each alternative, and our preferred alternative is strongly influenced by those initial emotional markers.
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12.  A deeply held perspective that people should or actually do make decisions based on pure logic or rationality. The model asumes pople are efficient and logical information processing machines. People cannot process the huge volume of information needed to identify the best solution. Focuses on logical thinking and completely ignores the fact that emotions also influence - perhaps even dominate - the decision-making process.
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13.  Visual or relational images in our mind of the external world - are vital to help us understand and navigated in our surrounding environment. Unfortunately, they also blind us from seeing unique problems or opportunities. If an idea doesn't fit the existing one of how things should work, then the idea is dismissed as unworkable or undesirable.
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14.  Participating tends to improve employee commitment to the decision. If employees are unlikely to accept a decision made without their involvement, then some level of participation is usually necessary.
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15.  Provides comforting closure to the otherwise ambiguous and uncertain nature of problems. Some decision makers see problems as solutions that have worked well for them in the past, even though they were applied under different circumstances. Again, the familiarity of past solutions make the current problem less uncertain.
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16.  Escalation of commitment sometimes occurs because decision makers do not see the problems soon enough. They nonconsciously screen out or explain away negative information to protect self-esteem.
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17.  Employees, clients, and other stakeholders with vested interests try to frame the situation by persuading decision makers that the available information points to a problem, an opportunity, or does not have any importance at all. This tends to short-circuit the decision maker's full assessment of the situation.
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18.  People view leaders as more effective decision makers when they are decisive. This includes quickly forming an opinion whether an event signals a problem or opportunity.
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19.  Even when a project's success is in doubt, decision makers will persist because the costs of ending the project are high or unknown.
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20.  Employee goals and norms conflict with the organization's goals, then only a low level of employee involvement is advisable. Second, the degree of involvement depends on whether employees will reach agreement on the preferred solution. If conflict is likely, then high involvement would be difficult to achieve.
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21.  Individuals are motivated to maintain their course of action when they have a high need to justify their decision. Particularly evident when decision makers are personally identified with the project and have staked their reputation to some extent on the project's success.
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22.  Four of the main characteristics that give individuals more creative potential are intelligence, persistence, knowledge/experience, and a cluster of personality traits and values representing independent imagination.
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23.  A systematic process of thinking about alternative futures and what the organizations should do to anticipate and react to those environments. Systematically assessing alternatives. Decisions are influenced by both rational and emotional processes.
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24.  The way that emotions influence the evaluation of alternatives. Marketing experts have found out that we listen in on our emotions to provide guidance when making choices.
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25.  The development of original ideas that make a socially recognized contribution. Part of the desion-making process. We rely on creativity to find problems, identify alternatives, and implement solutions.
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26.  People sometimes block out bad news as a coping mechanism. Their brain refuses to see information threatens their self-concept. Some people inherently avoid negative information, whereas others are more sensitive to it.
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27.  The degree to which employees influence how their work is organized and carried out. Potentially improves decision quality by recognizing problems more quickly and defining them more accurately. Can also potentially improve the number and quality of solutions generated. Improves the likelihood of choosing the best alternative. Tends to strengthen employee commitment to the decision.
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28.  A rational choice calculation of the expected satisfaction of positive emotion experienced by choosing a specific alternative in a decision.
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29.  Selecting a solution that is satisfactor or good enough rather than optimal or the best.
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30.  A conscious process of making choices among alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs.
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31.  The ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and to select the best course of action without conscious reasoning.
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