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To retaliate for the harsh Mexican treatment of Texans.
To distract Americans from other domestic issues.
To prevent a Mexican attempt to reacquire Texas.
To protect the southern border of the United States.
To force the secession of New Mexico and California.
The work force being located in one place
The use of interchangeable parts
Each product being produced by one worker
A supervised work force
Payment of cash wages
To build a base for his reelection in 1844.
To win the support of his fellow Whigs.
In hopes of identifying himself with James Monroe.
To bring together the Whig and Democratic parties.
With the aid of Henry Clay.
Population growth required new territories
God supported American expansion
The notion of free development
All of the above
None of the above
Stephen F. Austin
W. B. Travis
Did not worsen living conditions in the cities.
Did not contribute measurably to city developments.
Forced the development of more sanitary waste systems.
Was a positive development for American cities.
Worsened the already serious problems of the cities.
Had little effect.
Were a boom only for agricultural interests.
Took a few years to become an important component.
Had an enormous effect.
Affected only those segments related to transportation.
A weak foreign policy
A celebration of American virtue
Economic expansion and growth
The desire for new territory for slavery.
The political needs of the Democratic Party.
The desire to drive Spain out of North America.
The belief that God was on the side of American expansionism.
Tended to force wages up.
Had little effect on worker organization.
Had little effect on wages.
Made it difficult to organize industrial workers.
Encouraged immigrants to assimilate as soon as possible in hopes of getting better paying positions.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
The Scarlet Letter
Wage workers in factories.
An increase in the proportion of women employed.
The decline in working conditions.
An overall improvement in working conditions.
That fewer family members had to work to support the family unit.
The decline in child labor.
Represented a step up on the social scale.
Allowed most of them to realize the American dream.
Was not made easily.
Was facilitated by their past work habits.
Raised few serious problems.
The decline in the number of jobs in Ireland.
The oppression of the British government.
The overpopulation of Ireland.
The great potato famine.
The persecution of Catholics.
The United States.
A great wave of immigration.
A decline in the need for labor.
The automation of factories.
The growth of socialism.
The United States.
Barely survived in the desert lands.
Was as disorderly as other frontier communities.
Failed as a permanent settlement.
Survived in hiding for years.
Was a model of a planned and efficient settlement.
John C. Fremont.
Northern antislavery Whigs.
Southern agricultural interests.
New England merchants.
An upsurge of labor militancy.
More emphasis on skilled labor.
An increasing reliance on religion for comfort.
The paternalistic employer-employee relationship.
Greater cooperation between employer and employee.
They were not convinced of their reliability.
They distrusted the safety of the steam engine.
They received financial incentives to stay with canal routes.
Canal boats were cheaper.
They were satisfied with the service they were getting using the canals.
The Far East.
Could not be assimilated easily into American society.
Suffered less prejudice than the Irish.
Had a difficult time learning English.
Possessed few agricultural or other skills.
Suffered more prejudice than the Irish.
James K. Polk
John C. Calhoun
William Henry Harrison
James Polk identified himself with the most popular cause of the times.
James Polk seemed to exemplify the Young America movement.
Martin Van Buren supported the annexation of Texas.
Henry Clay actively campaigned against annexation.
James Polk received a mandate to implement his campaign promises.
New agricultural technology.
The steam engine.
The canal systems.
New banking systems.
Expected the federal government to sponsor railroad expansion.
Had little interest in railroads.
Were an important source of funding for railroads.
Wanted to own the railroads themselves.
Originally opposed railroad expansion.
The development of mass production.
The use of interchangeable parts.
The discovery of new natural resources.
The transition to a factory setting.
The payment of cash wages to workers.
Peaks in immigration and the demand for labor.
Wages paid immigrants.
Kinds of labor needed in the United States.
Forms that immigrants filled out when they reached Ellis Island.
Occupations of the immigrants.
Gulf Coast region.
Was controlled by wealthy rancheros.
Saw a harmonious relationship between the rancheros and the Native Americans.
Had a dramatic increase in its Native American population.
Was the most populated territory held by Mexico.
Was already a mecca for entertainers.
James K. Polk.
William Henry Harrison.
Martin Van Buren.
The Oregon Trail.
The Chisholm Trail.
The California Trail.
The Sante Fe Trail.
The Cumberland Road.
A sense of adventure.
Loyalty to Mexico and Great Britain.
Led to political harmony between the Whigs and the Democrats.
Allowed the United States access to trade with Asian nations.
Provided the United States with all the territory conquered from Mexico.
Was never ratified.
Provided the opportunity for additional expansion by the United States.
The discovery of fertile cottonlands in east Texas.
The inability of Texans to settle their land disputes.
The unwillingness of Anglo-Americans to accept Mexican rule.
The harsh oppression of the Catholic Church.
The Texans' desire to create an independent nation.
The United States and Mexico; Arizona and Sonora
England and the United States; British Honduras
England and the United States; the Virgin Islands
The United States and Spain; Cuba and Puerto Rico
The United States and Canada; Maine and New Brunswick
Would possibly involve a confrontation with Great Britain.
Would win widespread popular support.
To be of a relatively short duration.
Would be costly but worth it.
To be a long and costly affair.
Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Henry David Thoreau.
The actions of American agents in the territory.
James Polk's aggressive foreign policy.
American economic interests.
Direct pleas to Polk from the people who were living in Oregon.
The actions of Great Britain.
The dominance of Protestant churches in Mexico
Mexico's protection of the institution of slavery
The refusal of the Mexican government to recognize Anglo land boundaries
All of the above
None of the above
Attempted to broaden the party's appeal in the North.
Attempted to broaden the party's appeal in the South.
Presented a moderate position on slavery.
Dealt exclusively with slavery.
Ignored the issue of slavery.
Free Soil Party.
Received broad-based support throughout the nation.
Was the party of northern industrialists.
Was primarily a sectional party.
Was a party of farmers and laborers.
Struggled in its first years of existence.
Prohibited slavery in the New Mexico territory.
Was revised in 1851.
Drove the South to a new extremist position.
Served as the basis for lasting sectional peace.
Abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia.
A new variety of cotton.
The development of transportation on the Missouri River.
With great concern.
As a victory for Free Soil supporters.
With little concern.
As a long-term victory for the southern cause.
With a temporary sense of relief.
Took a conservative position on slavery.
Took a radical position on the issue of slavery.
Took a position similar to Douglas on the issue of slavery.
Restated his belief in popular sovereignty.
Avoided discussing the issue of slavery.
The amount of money slave industries contributed to the national economy.
The absence of federal authority to regulate slavery.
The apathy of most Northerners regarding the question.
The presence of more important issues before Congress.
The absence of strong northern congressional leadership.
James K. Polk.
Martin Van Buren.
Had little effect on the political system.
Strengthened the two-party system.
Was not an unusual occurrence for the time.
Led to voter disenchantment with the major parties.
Created sectional harmony.
Reached an uncomfortable stalemate by 1860.
Was entirely expressed in legal-constitutional terms.
Was increasingly seen in cultural and intellectual terms.
Was primarily expressed in political terms.
Had little impact on the common man.
James K. Polk
Was not so popular after all.
Offered an effective solution to the problem of slavery.
Was wholeheartedly accepted by the South.
Was a solution supported by both North and South.
Was an invitation to civil war.
William Jennings Bryan
Free Soil Party.
Ban slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico.
Simplify the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Prevent the Mexican War.
Guarantee the right of slavery in the territories.
Limit territorial expansionism.
Was looked upon favorably by abolitionists.
Reinforced the principles of the Missouri Compromise.
Helped reduce sectional tensions.
Was looked upon favorably by the South.
Supported the gradual emancipation of slaves.
Southern Democratic Party.
Solved the problem of slavery in the territories.
Smoothed out North-South differences over slavery.
Was a catastrophe for sectional harmony.
Never got the congressional support it needed for passage.
Had little impact on the growing, sectional bitterness.
Had little impact on the sectional crisis.
Voiced the opinion of a majority of southerners.
Called for lower-class whites to abolish slavery.
Reduced southern fears about the future of slavery.
Was an antislavery statement.
Had few problems being accepted by Congress.
Represented the interests of most Kansans.
Evoked bitter debates in Congress.
Helped settle the sectional quarrel, if only for a short time.
The Democrats ran a sloppy campaign.
They were able to win decisively in the North.
They compromised on the issue of slavery.
Abraham Lincoln offered the potential for sectional harmony.
They won significant, southern support.
A total shift in American politics.
The vigorous competition between Whigs and Democrats.
The splinter parties of the 1840s and 1850s.
The creation of a new, third, political party.
The political party not in power in government.
Support of agricultural expansion.
Appeal to anti-immigrant elements.
Position on slavery in the territories.
Support of the railroad and federal subsidies to finance it.
Support of immigration.
Decision to raise his daughters as Catholics
Alignment with the antislavery wing of the Whig Party.
Undistinguished military record.
Its belief in racial justice.
Its belief in the immorality of slavery.
Racial prejudice and fear of labor competition from slaves.
The abundance of land that was unsuited for plantation agriculture.
Its desire to dominate the political process.
Vote fraud by Free Soil elements.
Illegal voting by Missouri residents.
The failure to clearly identify the key issues.
Political scandals that had embarrassed its major supporters.
Free Soil ideology.
Presidential approval or disapproval of slavery.
Congressional approval or disapproval of slavery.
The Compromise of 1850.
They appealed to German and Irish immigrants.
They developed a national platform that appealed to a broad cross section of Americans.
They were unpretentious and not considered dishonest, like most politicians.
They reflected the growing differences between the sections.
They nominated well-known political figures to run for office.
John C. Calhoun's withdrawal from the Whig party
The Missouri Compromise
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
The caning of Senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the U. S. Senate
The Liberty Party
Whether or not Scott was a citizen.
The constitutionality of inheritance laws involving slaves.
Whether Scott's owner had the right to free him.
Whether slaves could be taken across state lines.
The legality of slavery in Missouri.
Edgar Allan Poe.
Harriet Beecher Stowe.
James Russell Lowell.
Freed the slaves.
Abolished slavery in most northern states.
Established the guidelines for popular sovereignty.
Prohibited slavery in any territory gained from Mexico.
Called for the shipment of blacks back to Africa.
Settlers would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
The House of Representatives would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
Territorial legislatures would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
Congress would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
The Supreme Court would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
John C. Calhoun.
Roger B. Taney.
Was plagued by the lack of manufactured goods.
Was plagued by a series of violent, antidraft riots.
Finally overcame the problem of anti-African American racism.
Had a weaker railroad system than that of the South.
Slowly began to starve.
Extended the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific.
Abolished the national fugitive slave law.
Recommended that popular sovereignty determine the status of states created from new territories.
Did not guarantee the protection of slavery in new territories.
Denied federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves.
A cautious and limited use of force
A strategy designed to avoid any "hostile" action toward the South by the North
The deployment of troops along the "border states" to demonstrate a Union resolve to fight
A strategy of inactivity to buy time to resolve the conflict
A strategy designed to make the Confederacy look like the aggressor if war occurred
The South resorted to the draft.
The North resorted to the draft.
"press gangs," coercion and blackmail became the norm on both sides.
A and B
None of the above
Northerners were convinced that his position on southern secession was correct.
He identified wholeheartedly with the southern cause.
He had more political experience than previous presidents.
He was unable to convince congressional leaders to support his position on southern secession.
He was not able to command a leadership position in the Republican party.
Trying to find even a few qualified generals
To keep slaves from escaping.
Strengthening its own naval blockade of Northern ports.
Breaking the military alliance between the North and Great Britain.
The reluctance of southern farmers to shift from cotton to foodstuffs.
Proved incapable of handling the Confederacy's homefront problems.
Had the full support of the Southern people.
Was a brilliant military strategist.
Had an excellent relationship with his generals.
Had the full support of Southern governors.
A struggle to preserve the Union.
A personal struggle between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis.
A struggle to preserve "King Cotton."
A contest of sectional supremacy.
A struggle to free the slaves.
Was the first Southern defeat of the war.
Proved to be a decisive victory for the South.
Weakened the secession movement.
United Northern opinion against the rebellion.
Caused increasing opposition to the war in the North.
Supported the growth of the federal government
Were a group of wealthy industrialists who secretly financed the war.
Strongly supported the Emancipation Proclamation.
Narrowly won victory in the 1864 election.
Were willing to have peace at any price.
Intensified its production of cash crops.
Failed to meet the challenge of efficient food distribution.
Often ran short of gunpowder.
Produced more food than its armies could consume.
Became even more rural as people fled the cities.
Successful conduct of the war required active, executive leadership.
Decentralization of power is most efficient in wartime.
The president is bound by the same constitutional restraints in war as in peace.
Congress should be allowed to conduct the war with minimal executive interference.
Many of the decisions of the war were best left to popular vote.
Ulysses S. Grant.
Thomas J. Jackson.
Stronger industrial base
A superior railroad system
Resulted from a decisive Union military victory.
Was fostered by the actions of African-American troops fighting for the Union.
Allowed special instances of involuntary servitude.
Had little support from Lincoln and the Republican party.
Resulted from a popular mandate in a special election.
The capture of Washington, D. C.
A bloody stalemate.
Sherman's capture of Savannah, Georgia.
A Confederate victory.
A Union victory.
Suffered from severe inflation.
Boomed, as most do during war.
Managed to produce a surplus of industrial goods.
Easily evaded the effects of the Northern blockade.
Actually benefited from the Emancipation Proclamation.
Joseph E. Johnston
Henry W. Halleck
Ulysses S. Grant
To prevent European nations from recognizing the Confederacy.
To prevent the Confederacy from importing military supplies through Mexico.
To encourage England to act as a mediator to end the conflict.
To keep the Latin Americans from trading with the Confederacy.
To prevent Canada, and thereby England, from entering the conflict.
A subject of ongoing debate throughout the war.
Surprisingly similar to the U.S. Constitution.
Written by a radical faction and forced through by them.
Based on the model of the Articles of Confederation.
Based on the English Constitution.
Emigrating, temporarily, to Canada.
Emigrating, temporarily, to Mexico.
Claiming to be conscientious objectors.
Furnishing hired substitutes.
Bribing a draft official.
When Congress was controlled by the Democratic opposition.
Without recognizing the Confederacy
When many believed the federal government would soon dissolve.
With an army that was splitting in half.
Without provoking war with the seceded states.
British financiers had invested in the South.
Most members of Parliament were proslavery.
British capitalists stood to profit by selling war material to the South.
Many of them had family ties to England.
British textile mills were so dependent on Southern cotton.
Protection of slavery in the territories
Prohibition of protective tariffs
Guarantee of slavery
A strong central government
Restrictions on the finance of internal improvements
Willard Scott and Albert Michaels
John Slidell and James Mason.
Ulysses S. Grant and George McClellan.
John Havelcek and George Mikan.
Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens.
Northern industrial capacity declined during the war years.
The South became poorer while the North tended to prosper.
Northern agriculture declined while Southern agriculture leapt ahead.
Northern civilians suffered more than their Southern counterparts.
Southern industry boomed during the war years.
It had changed little from 1861.
The federal government remained unclear about its relationship to the states.
The impact of the war on Northern workers was clear.
Newly-freed slaves prospered.
It had paid an enormous human and economic cost for the war.
Familiar terrain and public support
Greater access to natural resources
A superior railroad network
Led Lincoln to consider peace negotiations.
Further damaged the Northern economy.
Proved indecisive for both sides.
Raised Confederate hopes of victory.
Caused strong Union opposition to the war.
New Orleans, Louisiana.
Charleston, South Carolina.
Would be long and difficult.
Would be a quick and easy process.
Was complete by 1870.
Depended on a new economic system.
Was resisted by white society.
Believed in the principles of laissez faire and white supremacy.
Offered new programs for working people and tenant farmers.
Were from the old planter aristocracy.
Continued the policies established during Reconstruction.
Were loyal to the principles of the antebellum South.
Southerners wanted African Americans to return to positions of servility.
Southerners were willing to allow African Americans legal equality.
The idea of "separate but equal" was already established.
Southerners were interested in improving the education of the freedmen.
The freedmen would be allowed to vote and participate in the political process.
The treatment of African Americans after the Emancipation Proclamation.
The attempt to change Confederate ideas about slavery.
The attempt to rebuild Atlanta.
The Gettysburg struggle.
Period immediately following the Civil War.
Failed to break the power of the antebellum planter elites.
Was much like Congress' plan.
Was rejected by the Southern states.
Failed because the planters refused to accept his pardon.
Succeeded in breaking the power of the planter elites.
Accepted it completely.
Stopped it with a pocket veto.
Reluctantly supported it.
Expressed no opinion on it.
Asked Congress to reconsider.
Confiscated all property of ex-Confederates.
Supported the Black Codes.
Guaranteed the freedmen the right to vote in Southern elections.
Recognized the existing Southern state governments as legitimate.
Placed the South under military rule.
Businessmen interested in government funding
Newly enfranchised African Americans
Poor white farmers from upland regions
Civil Rights Act of 1866.
Tenure of Office Act.
Fifteenth Amendmentprohibited voting discrimination on the basis of race
Fourteenth Amendmentextended civil rights to former slaves
Tenure of Office ActJohnson was accused of violating it
Wade-Davis Billembodied presidential reconstruction
Thirteenth Amendmentabolished slavery
Meant the end of Reconstruction.
Demonstrated the political power of Southern African Americans.
Marked the beginning of national Democratic ascendancy.
Was the last Radical victory.
Was resolved so quickly.
The rights of the freedmen should be ensured by the federal government.
Reconstruction policy should be initiated by the president.
They believed in inherent equality between races.
The process of Reconstruction should be completed quickly.
The South should be treated with sympathy and compassion.
Be unable to cast electoral votes for president.
Have to assume a larger portion of the Confederate debt.
Be ineligible to receive federal funding.
Be subject to a special federal tax.
Have its congressional representation proportionally reduced.
The Union League.
The Freedmen's Bureau.
The Ku Klux Klan.
The White Citizens Council.
Blanche K. Bruce.
Joined the Democratic party.
Moved west and become homesteaders.
Moved to the cities.
Returned to work on the plantations.
Gotten their forty acres and a mule from the Freedmen's Bureau.
Johnson's reelection campaign got a big boost.
The Radical Republicans lost ground and were defeated.
Johnson's Reconstruction policies were vindicated at the polls.
Democrats gained control of Congress.
The results served as a referendum for the Fourteenth Amendment.
Confederate military officers
Wealthy Southern planters
Elected Confederate officials
Ulysses S. Grant
William E. Belknap
Guarantee that the Southern ruling class would not return to power.
Go ahead as Lincoln had planned.
Guarantee the political and civil rights of the freedmen.
Return the South to its prewar system.
Treat the South as a conquered nation.
Indian Trading Posts
The Supreme Court
Loved by African Americans.
Determined to carry on with Lincoln's plans.
Temperate and compromising in his political activities.
Supported by wealthy Southern planters.
Opposed by Radical Republicans.
Caused Northern public opinion to support the Radicals' demands.
Brought the Redeemers to power.
Led to a general land reform of the South.
Caused a thorough restructuring of Southern society.
Forced the Republicans to abolish the existing Southern governments and give the vote to African Americans.
To exterminate them.
To provoke intertribal warfare.
To define boundaries for each tribe and sign treaties with them.
To give each Native American "40 acres and a mule" for farming.
To ignore them and hope they would eventually die out.
Cattlemen opposed small farmers.
640 acres was too large to make a living.
160 acres was too small because of the lack of rainfall.
The best land was on reservations for Native American reservations.
Native Americans destroyed too many farms.
A decline in the amount of beef imported to the United States
Railroads and a population increase in the eastern United States
Dietary changes in the eastern United States
The discovery of precious metals that made money available for investment in ranching
Court decisions that allowed livestock to be transported across state lines
John W. Harding.
A famous wagon train boss.
The historian who first developed the frontier thesis.
The most notorious of the western badmen.
Discoverer of the Comstock Lode.
Founder of the National Grange.