Mid Year Unit Exam

160 Questions  I  By Chimingbelles
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Politics Quizzes & Trivia

  
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  • 1. 
    James Polk went to war with Mexico
    • A. 

      To retaliate for the harsh Mexican treatment of Texans.

    • B. 

      To distract Americans from other domestic issues.

    • C. 

      To prevent a Mexican attempt to reacquire Texas.

    • D. 

      To protect the southern border of the United States.

    • E. 

      To force the secession of New Mexico and California.


  • 2. 
    Which of the following was NOT an essential feature of the factory system?
    • A. 

      The work force being located in one place

    • B. 

      The use of interchangeable parts

    • C. 

      Each product being produced by one worker

    • D. 

      A supervised work force

    • E. 

      Payment of cash wages


  • 3. 
    John Tyler initiated the politics of Manifest Destiny
    • A. 

      To build a base for his reelection in 1844.

    • B. 

      To win the support of his fellow Whigs.

    • C. 

      In hopes of identifying himself with James Monroe.

    • D. 

      To bring together the Whig and Democratic parties.

    • E. 

      With the aid of Henry Clay.


  • 4. 
    Which one of the following was an important premise of Manifest Destiny?
    • A. 

      Population growth required new territories

    • B. 

      God supported American expansion

    • C. 

      The notion of free development

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 5. 
    ________, the hero of San Jacinto, became the first president of the Texas Republic.
    • A. 

      Frank Dallas

    • B. 

      Stephen F. Austin

    • C. 

      William Becknell

    • D. 

      W. B. Travis

    • E. 

      Sam Houston


  • 6. 
    The arrival of large numbers of immigrants
    • A. 

      Did not worsen living conditions in the cities.

    • B. 

      Did not contribute measurably to city developments.

    • C. 

      Forced the development of more sanitary waste systems.

    • D. 

      Was a positive development for American cities.

    • E. 

      Worsened the already serious problems of the cities.


  • 7. 
    The rallying cry "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" referred to which desired territory?
    • A. 

      Texas

    • B. 

      Arizona

    • C. 

      California

    • D. 

      Oregon

    • E. 

      New Mexico


  • 8. 
    For the American economy, railroads
    • A. 

      Had little effect.

    • B. 

      Were a boom only for agricultural interests.

    • C. 

      Took a few years to become an important component.

    • D. 

      Had an enormous effect.

    • E. 

      Affected only those segments related to transportation.


  • 9. 
    Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the Young America movement?
    • A. 

      A weak foreign policy

    • B. 

      Territorial policy

    • C. 

      Technological progress

    • D. 

      A celebration of American virtue

    • E. 

      Economic expansion and growth


  • 10. 
    Manifest Destiny was based, in part, on
    • A. 

      The desire for new territory for slavery.

    • B. 

      Simple greed.

    • C. 

      The political needs of the Democratic Party.

    • D. 

      The desire to drive Spain out of North America.

    • E. 

      The belief that God was on the side of American expansionism.


  • 11. 
    The increasing employment of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s
    • A. 

      Tended to force wages up.

    • B. 

      Had little effect on worker organization.

    • C. 

      Had little effect on wages.

    • D. 

      Made it difficult to organize industrial workers.

    • E. 

      Encouraged immigrants to assimilate as soon as possible in hopes of getting better paying positions.


  • 12. 
    In ________, Herman Melville produced a novel, original in form and conception, to fulfill the demand of Young Americans for a New Literature.
    • A. 

      Tristram Shandy

    • B. 

      Moby Dick

    • C. 

      Ulysses

    • D. 

      Uncle Tom's Cabin

    • E. 

      The Scarlet Letter


  • 13. 
    The majority of immigrants became
    • A. 

      Farmers.

    • B. 

      Wage workers in factories.

    • C. 

      Businessmen.

    • D. 

      Sharecroppers.

    • E. 

      Skilled craftsmen.


  • 14. 
    Characteristic of the change in labor in the 1830s and 1840s was
    • A. 

      An increase in the proportion of women employed.

    • B. 

      The decline in working conditions.

    • C. 

      An overall improvement in working conditions.

    • D. 

      That fewer family members had to work to support the family unit.

    • E. 

      The decline in child labor.


  • 15. 
    The ________ immigrants to the United States settled in the Northeast and faced prejudice.
    • A. 

      Italian

    • B. 

      Chinese

    • C. 

      Chinese

    • D. 

      Irish

    • E. 

      German


  • 16. 
    For former rural folk, the transition to industrial wage labor
    • A. 

      Represented a step up on the social scale.

    • B. 

      Allowed most of them to realize the American dream.

    • C. 

      Was not made easily.

    • D. 

      Was facilitated by their past work habits.

    • E. 

      Raised few serious problems.


  • 17. 
    The major factor that pushed the Irish immigrant to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s was
    • A. 

      The decline in the number of jobs in Ireland.

    • B. 

      The oppression of the British government.

    • C. 

      The overpopulation of Ireland.

    • D. 

      The great potato famine.

    • E. 

      The persecution of Catholics.


  • 18. 
    In 1830, California, Texas, and New Mexico were under the sovereignty of
    • A. 

      France.

    • B. 

      The United States.

    • C. 

      Mexico.

    • D. 

      Great Britain.

    • E. 

      Spain.


  • 19. 
    One of the most important effects of the American industrial revolution was
    • A. 

      Unionization.

    • B. 

      A great wave of immigration.

    • C. 

      A decline in the need for labor.

    • D. 

      The automation of factories.

    • E. 

      The growth of socialism.


  • 20. 
    California in the 1830s and 1840s was controlled by
    • A. 

      The United States.

    • B. 

      Mexico.

    • C. 

      Spain.

    • D. 

      Canada.

    • E. 

      Great Britain.


  • 21. 
    The Mormon community, established in Utah,
    • A. 

      Barely survived in the desert lands.

    • B. 

      Was as disorderly as other frontier communities.

    • C. 

      Failed as a permanent settlement.

    • D. 

      Survived in hiding for years.

    • E. 

      Was a model of a planned and efficient settlement.


  • 22. 
    Most German immigrants came to the United States to escape
    • A. 

      Political oppression.

    • B. 

      Hard times.

    • C. 

      European wars.

    • D. 

      Famine.

    • E. 

      Religious persecution.


  • 23. 
    The leader of the Mormon trek to Utah was
    • A. 

      Josiah Deseret.

    • B. 

      Moses Austin.

    • C. 

      John C. Fremont.

    • D. 

      Brigham Young.

    • E. 

      Joseph Smith.


  • 24. 
    Which of the following was NOT Mexican territory in 1825?
    • A. 

      Arizona

    • B. 

      California

    • C. 

      Texas

    • D. 

      Oregon

    • E. 

      New Mexico


  • 25. 
    Opposition to Tyler's plan for the annexation of Texas came, primarily, from
    • A. 

      Northern antislavery Whigs.

    • B. 

      Southern agricultural interests.

    • C. 

      New England merchants.

    • D. 

      Mexican Catholics.

    • E. 

      Great Britain.


  • 26. 
    An important result of the changing character of labor was
    • A. 

      An upsurge of labor militancy.

    • B. 

      More emphasis on skilled labor.

    • C. 

      An increasing reliance on religion for comfort.

    • D. 

      The paternalistic employer-employee relationship.

    • E. 

      Greater cooperation between employer and employee.


  • 27. 
    Shippers did not immediately shift to the railroads because
    • A. 

      They were not convinced of their reliability.

    • B. 

      They distrusted the safety of the steam engine.

    • C. 

      They received financial incentives to stay with canal routes.

    • D. 

      Canal boats were cheaper.

    • E. 

      They were satisfied with the service they were getting using the canals.


  • 28. 
    Between the 1830s and 1840s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from
    • A. 

      China.

    • B. 

      Eastern Europe.

    • C. 

      The Far East.

    • D. 

      Latin America.

    • E. 

      Western Europe.


  • 29. 
    The inventor of the mechanical reaper was
    • A. 

      Robert Lowell.

    • B. 

      Henry Bessemer.

    • C. 

      Charles Goodyear.

    • D. 

      Cyrus McCormick.

    • E. 

      John Deere.


  • 30. 
    The founder of the Mormon Church was
    • A. 

      Lee Roberts.

    • B. 

      Brigham Young.

    • C. 

      Josiah Deseret.

    • D. 

      Sam Houston.

    • E. 

      Joseph Smith.


  • 31. 
    German immigrants
    • A. 

      Could not be assimilated easily into American society.

    • B. 

      Suffered less prejudice than the Irish.

    • C. 

      Had a difficult time learning English.

    • D. 

      Possessed few agricultural or other skills.

    • E. 

      Suffered more prejudice than the Irish.


  • 32. 
    Who was president of the United States when the Mexican War began?
    • A. 

      John Tyler

    • B. 

      Zachary Taylor

    • C. 

      James K. Polk

    • D. 

      John C. Calhoun

    • E. 

      William Henry Harrison


  • 33. 
    In the presidential election of 1844,
    • A. 

      James Polk identified himself with the most popular cause of the times.

    • B. 

      James Polk seemed to exemplify the Young America movement.

    • C. 

      Martin Van Buren supported the annexation of Texas.

    • D. 

      Henry Clay actively campaigned against annexation.

    • E. 

      James Polk received a mandate to implement his campaign promises.


  • 34. 
    The transformation of the American economy in the 1840s and 1850s was primarily the result of
    • A. 

      New agricultural technology.

    • B. 

      The steam engine.

    • C. 

      The railroad.

    • D. 

      The canal systems.

    • E. 

      New banking systems.


  • 35. 
    Local and state governments in the United States
    • A. 

      Expected the federal government to sponsor railroad expansion.

    • B. 

      Had little interest in railroads.

    • C. 

      Were an important source of funding for railroads.

    • D. 

      Wanted to own the railroads themselves.

    • E. 

      Originally opposed railroad expansion.


  • 36. 
    The growth of American industry in the 1830s and 1840s was NOT influenced by
    • A. 

      The development of mass production.

    • B. 

      The use of interchangeable parts.

    • C. 

      The discovery of new natural resources.

    • D. 

      The transition to a factory setting.

    • E. 

      The payment of cash wages to workers.


  • 37. 
    The evidence that shows that economics was a major motivation for immigration was found in the
    • A. 

      Peaks in immigration and the demand for labor.

    • B. 

      Wages paid immigrants.

    • C. 

      Kinds of labor needed in the United States.

    • D. 

      Forms that immigrants filled out when they reached Ellis Island.

    • E. 

      Occupations of the immigrants.


  • 38. 
    The majority of Irish immigrants settled in the
    • A. 

      Northeast.

    • B. 

      South.

    • C. 

      Far West.

    • D. 

      Gulf Coast region.

    • E. 

      Midwest.


  • 39. 
    California in the 1820s and 1830s
    • A. 

      Was controlled by wealthy rancheros.

    • B. 

      Saw a harmonious relationship between the rancheros and the Native Americans.

    • C. 

      Had a dramatic increase in its Native American population.

    • D. 

      Was the most populated territory held by Mexico.

    • E. 

      Was already a mecca for entertainers.


  • 40. 
    Which one of the following states actually existed for ten years as an independent nation before its admission to the Union?
    • A. 

      New Mexico

    • B. 

      Arizona

    • C. 

      Texas

    • D. 

      California

    • E. 

      Colorado


  • 41. 
    The winner of the election of 1844 was
    • A. 

      Zachary Taylor.

    • B. 

      James K. Polk.

    • C. 

      John Tyler.

    • D. 

      William Henry Harrison.

    • E. 

      Martin Van Buren.


  • 42. 
    The most important overland route for American migration to the far West was
    • A. 

      The Oregon Trail.

    • B. 

      The Chisholm Trail.

    • C. 

      The California Trail.

    • D. 

      The Sante Fe Trail.

    • E. 

      The Cumberland Road.


  • 43. 
    The American population moved westward in the 1830s and 1840s for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Economic opportunity.

    • B. 

      A sense of adventure.

    • C. 

      Religious freedom.

    • D. 

      Loyalty to Mexico and Great Britain.

    • E. 

      Fertile land.


  • 44. 
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • A. 

      Led to political harmony between the Whigs and the Democrats.

    • B. 

      Allowed the United States access to trade with Asian nations.

    • C. 

      Provided the United States with all the territory conquered from Mexico.

    • D. 

      Was never ratified.

    • E. 

      Provided the opportunity for additional expansion by the United States.


  • 45. 
    The most plausible reason for the Texas Revolution was
    • A. 

      The discovery of fertile cottonlands in east Texas.

    • B. 

      The inability of Texans to settle their land disputes.

    • C. 

      The unwillingness of Anglo-Americans to accept Mexican rule.

    • D. 

      The harsh oppression of the Catholic Church.

    • E. 

      The Texans' desire to create an independent nation.


  • 46. 
    The Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 settled a boundary dispute between ________ over ________.
    • A. 

      The United States and Mexico; Arizona and Sonora

    • B. 

      England and the United States; British Honduras

    • C. 

      England and the United States; the Virgin Islands

    • D. 

      The United States and Spain; Cuba and Puerto Rico

    • E. 

      The United States and Canada; Maine and New Brunswick


  • 47. 
    The United States expected the Mexican War
    • A. 

      Would possibly involve a confrontation with Great Britain.

    • B. 

      Would win widespread popular support.

    • C. 

      To be of a relatively short duration.

    • D. 

      Would be costly but worth it.

    • E. 

      To be a long and costly affair.


  • 48. 
    One of the first to use the phrase "Young America" was
    • A. 

      Ralph Waldo Emerson.

    • B. 

      Nathaniel Hawthorne.

    • C. 

      Herman Melville.

    • D. 

      Henry David Thoreau.

    • E. 

      Walt Whitman.


  • 49. 
    The possibility of war with Great Britain over Oregon was increased by
    • A. 

      The actions of American agents in the territory.

    • B. 

      James Polk's aggressive foreign policy.

    • C. 

      American economic interests.

    • D. 

      Direct pleas to Polk from the people who were living in Oregon.

    • E. 

      The actions of Great Britain.


  • 50. 
    Which of the following Mexican policies irritated the Anglo-American settlers of Texas in the early 1830s?
    • A. 

      The dominance of Protestant churches in Mexico

    • B. 

      Mexico's protection of the institution of slavery

    • C. 

      The refusal of the Mexican government to recognize Anglo land boundaries

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 51. 
    The Republican Party platform in 1860
    • A. 

      Attempted to broaden the party's appeal in the North.

    • B. 

      Attempted to broaden the party's appeal in the South.

    • C. 

      Presented a moderate position on slavery.

    • D. 

      Dealt exclusively with slavery.

    • E. 

      Ignored the issue of slavery.


  • 52. 
    The first significant effort to create a broadly based sectional party, addressing itself to voters' concerns about the extension of slavery, was the
    • A. 

      Whig Party.

    • B. 

      Republican Party.

    • C. 

      Free Soil Party.

    • D. 

      Know-Nothing Party.

    • E. 

      Liberty Party.


  • 53. 
    The Republican Party
    • A. 

      Received broad-based support throughout the nation.

    • B. 

      Was the party of northern industrialists.

    • C. 

      Was primarily a sectional party.

    • D. 

      Was a party of farmers and laborers.

    • E. 

      Struggled in its first years of existence.


  • 54. 
    The Compromise of 1850
    • A. 

      Prohibited slavery in the New Mexico territory.

    • B. 

      Was revised in 1851.

    • C. 

      Drove the South to a new extremist position.

    • D. 

      Served as the basis for lasting sectional peace.

    • E. 

      Abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia.


  • 55. 
    The anticipated economic stimulus which would help the development of Kansas and Nebraska was
    • A. 

      Wheat.

    • B. 

      The railroad.

    • C. 

      A new variety of cotton.

    • D. 

      The development of transportation on the Missouri River.

    • E. 

      New industry.


  • 56. 
    A smaller civil war, which was a rehearsal for the later political disaster in the United States, was fought in which state during the late 1850s?
    • A. 

      Texas

    • B. 

      Missouri

    • C. 

      South Carolina

    • D. 

      Tennessee

    • E. 

      Kansas


  • 57. 
    Southerners viewed the election of James Buchanan in 1856
    • A. 

      With great concern.

    • B. 

      As a victory for Free Soil supporters.

    • C. 

      With little concern.

    • D. 

      As a long-term victory for the southern cause.

    • E. 

      With a temporary sense of relief.


  • 58. 
    In his debates with Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln
    • A. 

      Took a conservative position on slavery.

    • B. 

      Took a radical position on the issue of slavery.

    • C. 

      Took a position similar to Douglas on the issue of slavery.

    • D. 

      Restated his belief in popular sovereignty.

    • E. 

      Avoided discussing the issue of slavery.


  • 59. 
    Northern attempts to attack slavery were limited by
    • A. 

      The amount of money slave industries contributed to the national economy.

    • B. 

      The absence of federal authority to regulate slavery.

    • C. 

      The apathy of most Northerners regarding the question.

    • D. 

      The presence of more important issues before Congress.

    • E. 

      The absence of strong northern congressional leadership.


  • 60. 
    The winner of the election of 1848 was
    • A. 

      Millard Fillmore.

    • B. 

      James K. Polk.

    • C. 

      Martin Van Buren.

    • D. 

      Zachary Taylor.

    • E. 

      Franklin Pierce.


  • 61. 
    The failure of the political parties to develop distinctive issues in the election of 1852
    • A. 

      Had little effect on the political system.

    • B. 

      Strengthened the two-party system.

    • C. 

      Was not an unusual occurrence for the time.

    • D. 

      Led to voter disenchantment with the major parties.

    • E. 

      Created sectional harmony.


  • 62. 
    The growing division between North and South during the 1840s and 1850s
    • A. 

      Reached an uncomfortable stalemate by 1860.

    • B. 

      Was entirely expressed in legal-constitutional terms.

    • C. 

      Was increasingly seen in cultural and intellectual terms.

    • D. 

      Was primarily expressed in political terms.

    • E. 

      Had little impact on the common man.


  • 63. 
    Which of the following was not a presidential candidate in the 1860 election?
    • A. 

      Abraham Lincoln

    • B. 

      Stephen Douglas

    • C. 

      John Breckinridge

    • D. 

      Millard Fillmore

    • E. 

      John Bell


  • 64. 
    President ________ was a staunch opponent of the key elements contained in the Compromise of 1850.
    • A. 

      Millard Fillmore

    • B. 

      James Buchanan

    • C. 

      Zachary Taylor

    • D. 

      James K. Polk

    • E. 

      Franklin Pierce


  • 65. 
    The controversy in Kansas suggested that popular sovereignty
    • A. 

      Was not so popular after all.

    • B. 

      Offered an effective solution to the problem of slavery.

    • C. 

      Was wholeheartedly accepted by the South.

    • D. 

      Was a solution supported by both North and South.

    • E. 

      Was an invitation to civil war.


  • 66. 
    Which one of the following individuals was most responsible for coming up with the idea of popular sovereignty?
    • A. 

      David Wilmot

    • B. 

      Lewis Cass

    • C. 

      William Jennings Bryan

    • D. 

      Charles Sumner

    • E. 

      James Buchanan


  • 67. 
    The political party known especially for its anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic philosophy was the
    • A. 

      Whig Party.

    • B. 

      Know-Nothing Party.

    • C. 

      Democratic Party.

    • D. 

      Liberty Party.

    • E. 

      Free Soil Party.


  • 68. 
    The Wilmot Proviso sought to
    • A. 

      Ban slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico.

    • B. 

      Simplify the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

    • C. 

      Prevent the Mexican War.

    • D. 

      Guarantee the right of slavery in the territories.

    • E. 

      Limit territorial expansionism.


  • 69. 
    The Dred Scott Decision
    • A. 

      Was looked upon favorably by abolitionists.

    • B. 

      Reinforced the principles of the Missouri Compromise.

    • C. 

      Helped reduce sectional tensions.

    • D. 

      Was looked upon favorably by the South.

    • E. 

      Supported the gradual emancipation of slaves.


  • 70. 
    In the Dred Scott case, the Supreme Court decision was largely the work of
    • A. 

      John Marshall.

    • B. 

      Thurgood Marshall.

    • C. 

      Roger Taney.

    • D. 

      William Marbury.

    • E. 

      Stephen Douglas.


  • 71. 
    The nativist third party that opposed immigration was known as the
    • A. 

      Liberty Party.

    • B. 

      Whig Party.

    • C. 

      Republican Party.

    • D. 

      Know-Nothing Party.

    • E. 

      Southern Democratic Party.


  • 72. 
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • A. 

      Solved the problem of slavery in the territories.

    • B. 

      Smoothed out North-South differences over slavery.

    • C. 

      Was a catastrophe for sectional harmony.

    • D. 

      Never got the congressional support it needed for passage.

    • E. 

      Had little impact on the growing, sectional bitterness.


  • 73. 
    Hinton R. Helper's The Impending Crisis of the South
    • A. 

      Had little impact on the sectional crisis.

    • B. 

      Supported slavery.

    • C. 

      Voiced the opinion of a majority of southerners.

    • D. 

      Called for lower-class whites to abolish slavery.

    • E. 

      Reduced southern fears about the future of slavery.


  • 74. 
    The Lecompton constitution
    • A. 

      Was an antislavery statement.

    • B. 

      Had few problems being accepted by Congress.

    • C. 

      Represented the interests of most Kansans.

    • D. 

      Evoked bitter debates in Congress.

    • E. 

      Helped settle the sectional quarrel, if only for a short time.


  • 75. 
    The Republicans were successful in the election of 1860 because
    • A. 

      The Democrats ran a sloppy campaign.

    • B. 

      They were able to win decisively in the North.

    • C. 

      They compromised on the issue of slavery.

    • D. 

      Abraham Lincoln offered the potential for sectional harmony.

    • E. 

      They won significant, southern support.


  • 76. 
    The second party system describes
    • A. 

      A total shift in American politics.

    • B. 

      The vigorous competition between Whigs and Democrats.

    • C. 

      The splinter parties of the 1840s and 1850s.

    • D. 

      The creation of a new, third, political party.

    • E. 

      The political party not in power in government.


  • 77. 
    Underlying the rapid growth of the Republican party was its
    • A. 

      Excellent candidates.

    • B. 

      Support of agricultural expansion.

    • C. 

      Appeal to anti-immigrant elements.

    • D. 

      Position on slavery in the territories.

    • E. 

      Support of the railroad and federal subsidies to finance it.


  • 78. 
    The major reason for Winfield Scott's defeat in 1852 was his
    • A. 

      Support of immigration.

    • B. 

      Decision to raise his daughters as Catholics

    • C. 

      Alignment with the antislavery wing of the Whig Party.

    • D. 

      Overwhelming dullness.

    • E. 

      Undistinguished military record.


  • 79. 
    The Free Soil movement supported the exclusion of slavery from the territories because of
    • A. 

      Its belief in racial justice.

    • B. 

      Its belief in the immorality of slavery.

    • C. 

      Racial prejudice and fear of labor competition from slaves.

    • D. 

      The abundance of land that was unsuited for plantation agriculture.

    • E. 

      Its desire to dominate the political process.


  • 80. 
    The "free-state" capital of Kansas was at
    • A. 

      Lawrence.

    • B. 

      Kansas City.

    • C. 

      Lecompton.

    • D. 

      Salina.

    • E. 

      Wichita.


  • 81. 
    Popular sovereignty failed in the 1854 Kansas elections because of
    • A. 

      Vote fraud by Free Soil elements.

    • B. 

      Illegal voting by Missouri residents.

    • C. 

      Voter apathy.

    • D. 

      The failure to clearly identify the key issues.

    • E. 

      Political scandals that had embarrassed its major supporters.


  • 82. 
    In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Stephen Douglas attempted to set up territorial government on the basis of
    • A. 

      Free Soil ideology.

    • B. 

      Presidential approval or disapproval of slavery.

    • C. 

      Congressional approval or disapproval of slavery.

    • D. 

      Popular sovereignty.

    • E. 

      The Compromise of 1850.


  • 83. 
    Why did the Know-Nothings become popular?
    • A. 

      They appealed to German and Irish immigrants.

    • B. 

      They developed a national platform that appealed to a broad cross section of Americans.

    • C. 

      They were unpretentious and not considered dishonest, like most politicians.

    • D. 

      They reflected the growing differences between the sections.

    • E. 

      They nominated well-known political figures to run for office.


  • 84. 
    Which of the following, more than anything else, gave birth to the Republican Party in the North?
    • A. 

      John C. Calhoun's withdrawal from the Whig party

    • B. 

      The Missouri Compromise

    • C. 

      The Kansas-Nebraska Act

    • D. 

      The caning of Senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the U. S. Senate

    • E. 

      The Liberty Party


  • 85. 
    In the Dred Scott case, the first question faced by the Supreme Court was
    • A. 

      Whether or not Scott was a citizen.

    • B. 

      The constitutionality of inheritance laws involving slaves.

    • C. 

      Whether Scott's owner had the right to free him.

    • D. 

      Whether slaves could be taken across state lines.

    • E. 

      The legality of slavery in Missouri.


  • 86. 
    The author of Uncle Tom's Cabin was
    • A. 

      Edgar Allan Poe.

    • B. 

      Simon Legree.

    • C. 

      Harriet Beecher Stowe.

    • D. 

      Harriet Tubman.

    • E. 

      James Russell Lowell.


  • 87. 
    Wilmot's Proviso
    • A. 

      Freed the slaves.

    • B. 

      Abolished slavery in most northern states.

    • C. 

      Established the guidelines for popular sovereignty.

    • D. 

      Prohibited slavery in any territory gained from Mexico.

    • E. 

      Called for the shipment of blacks back to Africa.


  • 88. 
    What bothered nativists most about the Irish and German immigrants was that so many of them were  
    • A. 

      Anti-American.

    • B. 

      Poor.

    • C. 

      Roman Catholics.

    • D. 

      Illiterate.

    • E. 

      Jews.


  • 89. 
    According to the principle of popular sovereignty,
    • A. 

      Settlers would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

    • B. 

      The House of Representatives would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

    • C. 

      Territorial legislatures would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

    • D. 

      Congress would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

    • E. 

      The Supreme Court would determine whether a territory would have slavery.


  • 90. 
    On the issue of slavery, Republicans defended the rights of
    • A. 

      The South.

    • B. 

      Free labor.

    • C. 

      Slave owners.

    • D. 

      Slaves.

    • E. 

      Industrialists.


  • 91. 
    The key organizer of the Compromise of 1850 was
    • A. 

      John C. Calhoun.

    • B. 

      Henry Clay.

    • C. 

      Roger B. Taney.

    • D. 

      Lewis Cass.

    • E. 

      Zachary Taylor.


  • 92. 
    During the war the North
    • A. 

      Was plagued by the lack of manufactured goods.

    • B. 

      Was plagued by a series of violent, antidraft riots.

    • C. 

      Finally overcame the problem of anti-African American racism.

    • D. 

      Had a weaker railroad system than that of the South.

    • E. 

      Slowly began to starve.


  • 93. 
    The Crittenden Plan
    • A. 

      Extended the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific.

    • B. 

      Abolished the national fugitive slave law.

    • C. 

      Recommended that popular sovereignty determine the status of states created from new territories.

    • D. 

      Did not guarantee the protection of slavery in new territories.

    • E. 

      Denied federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves.


  • 94. 
    The bloodiest one-day battle of the war was
    • A. 

      Shiloh.

    • B. 

      Vicksburg.

    • C. 

      Gettysburg.

    • D. 

      Bull Run.

    • E. 

      Sharpsburg.


  • 95. 
    Which one of the following does NOT apply to Lincoln's initial policy toward the Confederacy?
    • A. 

      A cautious and limited use of force

    • B. 

      A strategy designed to avoid any "hostile" action toward the South by the North

    • C. 

      The deployment of troops along the "border states" to demonstrate a Union resolve to fight

    • D. 

      A strategy of inactivity to buy time to resolve the conflict

    • E. 

      A strategy designed to make the Confederacy look like the aggressor if war occurred


  • 96. 
    To secure the necessary troops for the war,
    • A. 

      The South resorted to the draft.

    • B. 

      The North resorted to the draft.

    • C. 

      "press gangs," coercion and blackmail became the norm on both sides.

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 97. 
    When Lincoln became president of the United States,
    • A. 

      Northerners were convinced that his position on southern secession was correct.

    • B. 

      He identified wholeheartedly with the southern cause.

    • C. 

      He had more political experience than previous presidents.

    • D. 

      He was unable to convince congressional leaders to support his position on southern secession.

    • E. 

      He was not able to command a leadership position in the Republican party.


  • 98. 
    One of the South's greatest challenges during the war was
    • A. 

      Trying to find even a few qualified generals

    • B. 

      To keep slaves from escaping.

    • C. 

      Strengthening its own naval blockade of Northern ports.

    • D. 

      Breaking the military alliance between the North and Great Britain.

    • E. 

      The reluctance of southern farmers to shift from cotton to foodstuffs.


  • 99. 
    As a war leader, Jefferson Davis
    • A. 

      Proved incapable of handling the Confederacy's homefront problems.

    • B. 

      Had the full support of the Southern people.

    • C. 

      Was a brilliant military strategist.

    • D. 

      Had an excellent relationship with his generals.

    • E. 

      Had the full support of Southern governors.


  • 100. 
    In the beginning, the Civil War was
    • A. 

      A struggle to preserve the Union.

    • B. 

      A personal struggle between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis.

    • C. 

      A struggle to preserve "King Cotton."

    • D. 

      A contest of sectional supremacy.

    • E. 

      A struggle to free the slaves.


  • 101. 
    The attack on Fort Sumter
    • A. 

      Was the first Southern defeat of the war.

    • B. 

      Proved to be a decisive victory for the South.

    • C. 

      Weakened the secession movement.

    • D. 

      United Northern opinion against the rebellion.

    • E. 

      Caused increasing opposition to the war in the North.


  • 102. 
    Copperheads
    • A. 

      Supported the growth of the federal government

    • B. 

      Were a group of wealthy industrialists who secretly financed the war.

    • C. 

      Strongly supported the Emancipation Proclamation.

    • D. 

      Narrowly won victory in the 1864 election.

    • E. 

      Were willing to have peace at any price.


  • 103. 
    During the war, the South
    • A. 

      Intensified its production of cash crops.

    • B. 

      Failed to meet the challenge of efficient food distribution.

    • C. 

      Often ran short of gunpowder.

    • D. 

      Produced more food than its armies could consume.

    • E. 

      Became even more rural as people fled the cities.


  • 104. 
    Lincoln and Davis learned early in the war that
    • A. 

      Successful conduct of the war required active, executive leadership.

    • B. 

      Decentralization of power is most efficient in wartime.

    • C. 

      The president is bound by the same constitutional restraints in war as in peace.

    • D. 

      Congress should be allowed to conduct the war with minimal executive interference.

    • E. 

      Many of the decisions of the war were best left to popular vote.


  • 105. 
    During the Civil War, how many African Americans served in the Union Army?
    • A. 

      200,000

    • B. 

      300,000

    • C. 

      500,000

    • D. 

      400,000

    • E. 

      100,000


  • 106. 
    The Union general who replaced Winfield Scott as commander of Union forces was
    • A. 

      Irvin McDowell.

    • B. 

      Ulysses S. Grant.

    • C. 

      David Farragut.

    • D. 

      George McClellan.

    • E. 

      Thomas J. Jackson.


  • 107. 
    Which of the following was NOT a Union military advantage during the Civil War?
    • A. 

      Superior generals

    • B. 

      Larger population

    • C. 

      No blockades

    • D. 

      Stronger industrial base

    • E. 

      A superior railroad system


  • 108. 
    The Thirteenth Amendment
    • A. 

      Resulted from a decisive Union military victory.

    • B. 

      Was fostered by the actions of African-American troops fighting for the Union.

    • C. 

      Allowed special instances of involuntary servitude.

    • D. 

      Had little support from Lincoln and the Republican party.

    • E. 

      Resulted from a popular mandate in a special election.


  • 109. 
    The first major battle of the war, at Bull Run, resulted in
    • A. 

      The capture of Washington, D. C.

    • B. 

      A bloody stalemate.

    • C. 

      Sherman's capture of Savannah, Georgia.

    • D. 

      A Confederate victory.

    • E. 

      A Union victory.


  • 110. 
    During the war, the Confederate economy
    • A. 

      Suffered from severe inflation.

    • B. 

      Boomed, as most do during war.

    • C. 

      Managed to produce a surplus of industrial goods.

    • D. 

      Easily evaded the effects of the Northern blockade.

    • E. 

      Actually benefited from the Emancipation Proclamation.


  • 111. 
    Which of the following individuals was NOT a Union general during the Civil War?
    • A. 

      George McClellan

    • B. 

      George Meade

    • C. 

      Joseph E. Johnston

    • D. 

      Henry W. Halleck

    • E. 

      Ulysses S. Grant


  • 112. 
    Which of the following Southern states was the first to secede from the Union?
    • A. 

      Alabama

    • B. 

      North Carolina

    • C. 

      Virginia

    • D. 

      South Carolina

    • E. 

      Kentucky


  • 113. 
    The diplomatic objective of the Union was
    • A. 

      To prevent European nations from recognizing the Confederacy.

    • B. 

      To prevent the Confederacy from importing military supplies through Mexico.

    • C. 

      To encourage England to act as a mediator to end the conflict.

    • D. 

      To keep the Latin Americans from trading with the Confederacy.

    • E. 

      To prevent Canada, and thereby England, from entering the conflict.


  • 114. 
    The Confederate Constitution was
    • A. 

      A subject of ongoing debate throughout the war.

    • B. 

      Surprisingly similar to the U.S. Constitution.

    • C. 

      Written by a radical faction and forced through by them.

    • D. 

      Based on the model of the Articles of Confederation.

    • E. 

      Based on the English Constitution.


  • 115. 
    Many wealthy Northerners and Southerners avoided military service in the war by
    • A. 

      Emigrating, temporarily, to Canada.

    • B. 

      Emigrating, temporarily, to Mexico.

    • C. 

      Claiming to be conscientious objectors.

    • D. 

      Furnishing hired substitutes.

    • E. 

      Bribing a draft official.


  • 116. 
    Lincoln's main concern when he entered the presidency was how to maintain federal authority
    • A. 

      When Congress was controlled by the Democratic opposition.

    • B. 

      Without recognizing the Confederacy

    • C. 

      When many believed the federal government would soon dissolve.

    • D. 

      With an army that was splitting in half.

    • E. 

      Without provoking war with the seceded states.


  • 117. 
    Confederate leaders were confident of British recognition, because
    • A. 

      British financiers had invested in the South.

    • B. 

      Most members of Parliament were proslavery.

    • C. 

      British capitalists stood to profit by selling war material to the South.

    • D. 

      Many of them had family ties to England.

    • E. 

      British textile mills were so dependent on Southern cotton.


  • 118. 
    Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Confederate Constitution?
    • A. 

      Protection of slavery in the territories

    • B. 

      Prohibition of protective tariffs

    • C. 

      Guarantee of slavery

    • D. 

      A strong central government

    • E. 

      Restrictions on the finance of internal improvements


  • 119. 
    In the fall of 1861, which two Confederates were seized by Union naval officers on board the British steamer Trent, creating a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Great Britain?
    • A. 

      Willard Scott and Albert Michaels

    • B. 

      John Slidell and James Mason.

    • C. 

      Ulysses S. Grant and George McClellan.

    • D. 

      John Havelcek and George Mikan.

    • E. 

      Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens.


  • 120. 
    One significant difference between the North and the South was that
    • A. 

      Northern industrial capacity declined during the war years.

    • B. 

      The South became poorer while the North tended to prosper.

    • C. 

      Northern agriculture declined while Southern agriculture leapt ahead.

    • D. 

      Northern civilians suffered more than their Southern counterparts.

    • E. 

      Southern industry boomed during the war years.


  • 121. 
    As the nation emerged from the Civil War,
    • A. 

      It had changed little from 1861.

    • B. 

      The federal government remained unclear about its relationship to the states.

    • C. 

      The impact of the war on Northern workers was clear.

    • D. 

      Newly-freed slaves prospered.

    • E. 

      It had paid an enormous human and economic cost for the war.


  • 122. 
    Which one of the following was NOT a Northern advantage throughout the war?
    • A. 

      Familiar terrain and public support

    • B. 

      Greater access to natural resources

    • C. 

      A superior railroad network

    • D. 

      Industrial superiority

    • E. 

      Greater population


  • 123. 
    The 1862 Confederate offensive that resulted in the Battle of Antietam
    • A. 

      Led Lincoln to consider peace negotiations.

    • B. 

      Further damaged the Northern economy.

    • C. 

      Proved indecisive for both sides.

    • D. 

      Raised Confederate hopes of victory.

    • E. 

      Caused strong Union opposition to the war.


  • 124. 
    The first state to secede from the Union was
    • A. 

      Texas.

    • B. 

      Georgia.

    • C. 

      North Carolina.

    • D. 

      Virginia.

    • E. 

      South Carolina.


  • 125. 
    The first shots of the Civil War were fired at
    • A. 

      Richmond, Virginia

    • B. 

      New Orleans, Louisiana.

    • C. 

      Charleston, South Carolina.

    • D. 

      Montgomery, Alabama.

    • E. 

      Savannah, Georgia.


  • 126. 
    Recovery for the South from the devastation of the Civil War
    • A. 

      Would be long and difficult.

    • B. 

      Would be a quick and easy process.

    • C. 

      Was complete by 1870.

    • D. 

      Depended on a new economic system.

    • E. 

      Was resisted by white society.


  • 127. 
    The Redeemers
    • A. 

      Believed in the principles of laissez faire and white supremacy.

    • B. 

      Offered new programs for working people and tenant farmers.

    • C. 

      Were from the old planter aristocracy.

    • D. 

      Continued the policies established during Reconstruction.

    • E. 

      Were loyal to the principles of the antebellum South.


  • 128. 
    Black Codes showed that
    • A. 

      Southerners wanted African Americans to return to positions of servility.

    • B. 

      Southerners were willing to allow African Americans legal equality.

    • C. 

      The idea of "separate but equal" was already established.

    • D. 

      Southerners were interested in improving the education of the freedmen.

    • E. 

      The freedmen would be allowed to vote and participate in the political process.


  • 129. 
    Which of the following constitutional amendments gave civil rights to the former slaves?
    • A. 

      Seventeenth

    • B. 

      Thirteenth

    • C. 

      Fourteenth

    • D. 

      Fifteenth

    • E. 

      Sixteenth


  • 130. 
    The term Reconstruction refers to the
    • A. 

      The treatment of African Americans after the Emancipation Proclamation.

    • B. 

      The attempt to change Confederate ideas about slavery.

    • C. 

      The attempt to rebuild Atlanta.

    • D. 

      The Gettysburg struggle.

    • E. 

      Period immediately following the Civil War.


  • 131. 
    Johnson's Reconstruction plan
    • A. 

      Failed to break the power of the antebellum planter elites.

    • B. 

      Was much like Congress' plan.

    • C. 

      Was rejected by the Southern states.

    • D. 

      Failed because the planters refused to accept his pardon.

    • E. 

      Succeeded in breaking the power of the planter elites.


  • 132. 
    In his response to the Wade-Davis Bill, Lincoln
    • A. 

      Accepted it completely.

    • B. 

      Stopped it with a pocket veto.

    • C. 

      Reluctantly supported it.

    • D. 

      Expressed no opinion on it.

    • E. 

      Asked Congress to reconsider.


  • 133. 
    The First Reconstruction Act of 1867
    • A. 

      Confiscated all property of ex-Confederates.

    • B. 

      Supported the Black Codes.

    • C. 

      Guaranteed the freedmen the right to vote in Southern elections.

    • D. 

      Recognized the existing Southern state governments as legitimate.

    • E. 

      Placed the South under military rule.


  • 134. 
    Which one of the following groups was not part of the Southern coalition supporting Radical Reconstruction?
    • A. 

      Businessmen interested in government funding

    • B. 

      "scalawags"

    • C. 

      Newly enfranchised African Americans

    • D. 

      White planters

    • E. 

      Poor white farmers from upland regions


  • 135. 
    Andrew Johnson was indicted by the House for his violation of the
    • A. 

      Civil Rights Act of 1866.

    • B. 

      Fourteenth Amendment.

    • C. 

      Wade-Davis Bill.

    • D. 

      Loyalty Act.

    • E. 

      Tenure of Office Act.


  • 136. 
    Which one of the following is an INCORRECT match?
    • A. 

      Fifteenth Amendment􀁎prohibited voting discrimination on the basis of race

    • B. 

      Fourteenth Amendment􀁎extended civil rights to former slaves

    • C. 

      Tenure of Office Act􀁎Johnson was accused of violating it

    • D. 

      Wade-Davis Bill􀁎embodied presidential reconstruction

    • E. 

      Thirteenth Amendment􀁎abolished slavery


  • 137. 
    The result of the disputed election of 1876 was significant because it
    • A. 

      Meant the end of Reconstruction.

    • B. 

      Demonstrated the political power of Southern African Americans.

    • C. 

      Marked the beginning of national Democratic ascendancy.

    • D. 

      Was the last Radical victory.

    • E. 

      Was resolved so quickly.


  • 138. 
    The Radical Republicans showed that
    • A. 

      The rights of the freedmen should be ensured by the federal government.

    • B. 

      Reconstruction policy should be initiated by the president.

    • C. 

      They believed in inherent equality between races.

    • D. 

      The process of Reconstruction should be completed quickly.

    • E. 

      The South should be treated with sympathy and compassion.


  • 139. 
    The Fourteenth Amendment stipulated that any state that denied the right to vote to African Americans would
    • A. 

      Be unable to cast electoral votes for president.

    • B. 

      Have to assume a larger portion of the Confederate debt.

    • C. 

      Be ineligible to receive federal funding.

    • D. 

      Be subject to a special federal tax.

    • E. 

      Have its congressional representation proportionally reduced.


  • 140. 
    The organization that symbolized most vividly the "white backlash" of the Reconstruction era was
    • A. 

      The Union League.

    • B. 

      The Freedmen's Bureau.

    • C. 

      The Redeemers.

    • D. 

      The Ku Klux Klan.

    • E. 

      The White Citizens Council.


  • 141. 
    The escaped slave who captured a Confederate steamship and later went on to become a U. S. congressman was
    • A. 

      Robert Allen.

    • B. 

      Robert Smalls.

    • C. 

      Blanche K. Bruce.

    • D. 

      Sojourner Truth.

    • E. 

      Frederick Douglass.


  • 142. 
    What amendment to the Constitution states that no person could be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude?
    • A. 

      Eleventh

    • B. 

      Fifteenth

    • C. 

      Twelfth

    • D. 

      Fourteenth

    • E. 

      Thirteenth


  • 143. 
    As early as 1863, Lincoln proposed a plan for restoring Southern state governments based on ________ percent of the voting population of 1860 taking a loyalty oath to the Union.
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      50

    • C. 

      25

    • D. 

      5

    • E. 

      20


  • 144. 
    By the end of 1865, most freedmen had
    • A. 

      Joined the Democratic party.

    • B. 

      Moved west and become homesteaders.

    • C. 

      Moved to the cities.

    • D. 

      Returned to work on the plantations.

    • E. 

      Gotten their forty acres and a mule from the Freedmen's Bureau.


  • 145. 
    In the Congressional elections of 1866,
    • A. 

      Johnson's reelection campaign got a big boost.

    • B. 

      The Radical Republicans lost ground and were defeated.

    • C. 

      Johnson's Reconstruction policies were vindicated at the polls.

    • D. 

      Democrats gained control of Congress.

    • E. 

      The results served as a referendum for the Fourteenth Amendment.


  • 146. 
    In Johnson's Reconstruction plan, which group had the most difficult time securing pardons?
    • A. 

      White Southerners

    • B. 

      Confederate military officers

    • C. 

      Wealthy Southern planters

    • D. 

      Confederate soldiers

    • E. 

      Elected Confederate officials


  • 147. 
    ________ was a prominent Liberal Republican.
    • A. 

      Schuyler Colfax

    • B. 

      Andrew Johnson

    • C. 

      Carl Schurz

    • D. 

      Ulysses S. Grant

    • E. 

      William E. Belknap


  • 148. 
    Which one of the following constitutional amendments abolished slavery?
    • A. 

      Thirteenth

    • B. 

      Sixteenth

    • C. 

      Fifteenth

    • D. 

      Fourteenth

    • E. 

      Seventeenth


  • 149. 
    Andrew Johnson believed that Reconstruction should
    • A. 

      Guarantee that the Southern ruling class would not return to power.

    • B. 

      Go ahead as Lincoln had planned.

    • C. 

      Guarantee the political and civil rights of the freedmen.

    • D. 

      Return the South to its prewar system.

    • E. 

      Treat the South as a conquered nation.


  • 150. 
    Which of the following was NOT a scandal during the Grant administration?
    • A. 

      Whiskey Ring

    • B. 

      Indian Trading Posts

    • C. 

      Teapot Dome

    • D. 

      Credit Mobilier

    • E. 

      Belknap "cover-up"


  • 151. 
    A minimal Reconstruction policy was favored by
    • A. 

      Northern states.

    • B. 

      Congress

    • C. 

      Republican senators.

    • D. 

      President Lincoln

    • E. 

      The Supreme Court


  • 152. 
    President Andrew Johnson was
    • A. 

      Loved by African Americans.

    • B. 

      Determined to carry on with Lincoln's plans.

    • C. 

      Temperate and compromising in his political activities.

    • D. 

      Supported by wealthy Southern planters.

    • E. 

      Opposed by Radical Republicans.


  • 153. 
    The state laws subjecting former slaves to a series of special regulations and restrictions on their freedom were known as
    • A. 

      Freedmen's Laws

    • B. 

      Repeal Laws.

    • C. 

      Black Codes.

    • D. 

      Amnesty codes.

    • E. 

      Reconstruction Codes.


  • 154. 
    The South's refusal to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
    • A. 

      Caused Northern public opinion to support the Radicals' demands.

    • B. 

      Brought the Redeemers to power.

    • C. 

      Led to a general land reform of the South.

    • D. 

      Caused a thorough restructuring of Southern society.

    • E. 

      Forced the Republicans to abolish the existing Southern governments and give the vote to African Americans.


  • 155. 
    The initial government policy toward the Plains tribes was
    • A. 

      To exterminate them.

    • B. 

      To provoke intertribal warfare.

    • C. 

      To define boundaries for each tribe and sign treaties with them.

    • D. 

      To give each Native American "40 acres and a mule" for farming.

    • E. 

      To ignore them and hope they would eventually die out.


  • 156. 
    The Homestead Act did not work well in the Far West because
    • A. 

      Cattlemen opposed small farmers.

    • B. 

      640 acres was too large to make a living.

    • C. 

      160 acres was too small because of the lack of rainfall.

    • D. 

      The best land was on reservations for Native American reservations.

    • E. 

      Native Americans destroyed too many farms.


  • 157. 
    Which of the following stimulated the western cattle industry?
    • A. 

      A decline in the amount of beef imported to the United States

    • B. 

      Railroads and a population increase in the eastern United States

    • C. 

      Dietary changes in the eastern United States

    • D. 

      The discovery of precious metals that made money available for investment in ranching

    • E. 

      Court decisions that allowed livestock to be transported across state lines


  • 158. 
    The 1860s writer who urged easterners to "Go west, young man" was
    • A. 

      John W. Harding.

    • B. 

      Stephen Crane.

    • C. 

      Horace Greely.

    • D. 

      Mark Twain.

    • E. 

      Joseph McCoy.


  • 159. 
    Frederick Jackson Turner was
    • A. 

      A famous wagon train boss.

    • B. 

      The historian who first developed the frontier thesis.

    • C. 

      The most notorious of the western badmen.

    • D. 

      Discoverer of the Comstock Lode.

    • E. 

      Founder of the National Grange.


  • 160. 
    The leader of the flight of the Nez Perce toward Canada in 1877 was
    • A. 

      Spotted Tail.

    • B. 

      Wounded Knee.

    • C. 

      Crazy Horse.

    • D. 

      Sitting Bull.

    • E. 

      Chief Joseph.


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