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Paleozoic Life, Mesozoic Events, Mesozoic Life(invertebrates Only)

42 Questions
Paleozoic Life, Mesozoic Events, Mesozoic Life(invertebrates Only)

Quiz for Final.

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The age of the Burgess shale fauna is mainly __________.
    • A. 

      Neoproterozoic

    • B. 

      Early Cambrian

    • C. 

      Middle Cambrian

    • D. 

      Late Cambrian

    • E. 

      Middle Ordovician

  • 2. 
    This type of coral replaced the principle Silurian reef-forming coral as the main reef-forming coral during Devonian and Carboniferous.
    • A. 

      Rugose and tabulate

    • B. 

      Tetracorals

    • C. 

      Scleractinids

    • D. 

      Archaeocyathids and sponges

    • E. 

      Pentacorals

  • 3. 
    Why did the innovation of the seed liberate land plants from their dependence on moist conditions and allow them to invade drier habitats in the Devonian?
    • A. 

      The seed, which results from mutation, is released as a durable structure that can sprout into a plant when conditions become favorable.

    • B. 

      The seed, which results from fertilization, is released as a delicate structure that can sprout into a plant when conditions become favorable.

    • C. 

      The seed, which results from fertilization, is released as a durable structure that can sprout into a plant when conditions become favorable.

    • D. 

      The spore, which results from fertilization, is released as a durable structure that can sprout into a plant when conditions become favorable.

  • 4. 
    This fossil shell has symmetrical valves.
    • A. 

      Mollusk

    • B. 

      Brachiopod

    • C. 

      Foraminifera

    • D. 

      Bryozoan

    • E. 

      Trilobite

  • 5. 
    How did the reef ecosystem change during the Cretaceous Period?
    • A. 

      Burrowing bivalves temporarily displaced corals as the primary builders of organic reefs in the mid-Cretaceous.

    • B. 

      Rudist corals temporarily displaced corals as the primary builders of organic reefs in the mid-Cretaceous.

    • C. 

      Rudist bivalves temporarily displaced corals as the primary builders of organic reefs in the mid-Cretaceous.

    • D. 

      Rudist sponges temporarily displaced corals as the primary builders of organic reefs in the mid-Cretaceous.

  • 6. 
    The unique calcareous and phosphatic fossil group spanning the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian boundary is called _______.
    • A. 

      Tetrapods

    • B. 

      Amniotes

    • C. 

      Therapsids

    • D. 

      Small shelly faunas

    • E. 

      Burgess Shake fauna

  • 7. 
    • A. 

      Rugose

    • B. 

      Tetracorals

    • C. 

      Scleractinids

    • D. 

      Archaeocyathids and sponges

    • E. 

      Pentacorals

  • 8. 
    Bioturbation is caused by _________.
    • A. 

      Epifaunal animals

    • B. 

      Infaunal animals

    • C. 

      Tetrapods

    • D. 

      Fusulinids

    • E. 

      Protistans

  • 9. 
    The largest predator of the Burgess Shale was ________.
    • A. 

      Cloudina

    • B. 

      Aldanella

    • C. 

      Anomalocaris

    • D. 

      Opabinia

    • E. 

      Hallucigenia

  • 10. 
    One of the most abundant three-lobed, swimming or crawling arthropods of the Cambrian were ________.
    • A. 

      Trilobites

    • B. 

      Eurypterids

    • C. 

      Nautiloids

    • D. 

      Goniatites

    • E. 

      Ostracodes

  • 11. 
    What might have caused the "Cambrian Explosion" of diversity?
    • A. 

      Resources increased due to proliferation of plant life

    • B. 

      Transgression provide new, available environments

    • C. 

      Regression provide new, available environments

    • D. 

      Predation increased therefore prey evolved and diversified

    • E. 

      An increase of volcanism along divergent plate boundaries

  • 12. 
    Found in the Burgess Shale fauna, this is one of the oldest chordates. 
    • A. 

      Pikaia

    • B. 

      Opabinia

    • C. 

      Cathymyrus

    • D. 

      Marrella

    • E. 

      Cloudina

  • 13. 
    What is the Burgess Shale fauna's significance?
    • A. 

      Reveals extraordinary evolutionary complexity and diversity

    • B. 

      Reveals an unimaginable, anachronistic fauna

    • C. 

      Documents the sequence of a turbidite flow

    • D. 

      Records a remarkable oxygen isotope record indicating cool ocean temperatures

    • E. 

      Records the first transgressive/regression cratonic sequence in the Phanerozoic

  • 14. 
    When did crinoids reach their greatest diversity?
    • A. 

      Cambrian

    • B. 

      Ordovician

    • C. 

      Silurian

    • D. 

      Devonian

    • E. 

      Carboniferous

  • 15. 
    Cretaceous spans this entire interval (in millions of years). 
    • A. 

      251 to 65

    • B. 

      200 to 145

    • C. 

      145 to 65

    • D. 

      251 to 200

    • E. 

      200 to 145

  • 16. 
    Millions of years required for Pangea to rift apart into all Mesozoic continents.
    • A. 

      251

    • B. 

      150

    • C. 

      145

    • D. 

      65

    • E. 

      200

  • 17. 
    Mexico separated from South America during _______. 
    • A. 

      Cenozoic

    • B. 

      Triassic

    • C. 

      Cretaceous

    • D. 

      Jurassic

    • E. 

      Archean

  • 18. 
    South America split from Africa during _______.
    • A. 

      Jurassic-Cretaceous

    • B. 

      Triassic-Jurassic

    • C. 

      Permian-Triassic

    • D. 

      Paleozoic

    • E. 

      Archean

  • 19. 
    What was the tectonic and geographic configuration of western North America during Late Cretaceous time?
    • A. 

      Orogenic activity shifted eastward from its Jurassic position, so that to the east of the orogenic belt an interior seaway stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.

    • B. 

      Orogenic activity shifted westward from its Jurassic position, so that to the west of the orogenic belt an interior seaway stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.

    • C. 

      Orogenic activity shifted eastward from its Triassic position, so that to the east of the orogenic belt an interior seaway stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean.

    • D. 

      Orogenic activity shifted eastward from its Jurassic position, so that to the east of the orogenic belt an interior seaway stretched from the Pacific to the Mediterranean Ocean.

  • 20. 
    This rock unit fills many of the Triassic rifts on eastern coast of North Amercia.
    • A. 

      Newark Group

    • B. 

      Ripley Formation

    • C. 

      Franciscan Formation

    • D. 

      Shinarump Conglomerate

    • E. 

      Carmel Formation

  • 21. 
    During Permian-Trassic, a volcanic arc collided with the west coast thus causing this orogeny.
    • A. 

      Servier

    • B. 

      Nevadan

    • C. 

      Sonoma

    • D. 

      Tethys

    • E. 

      Navajo

  • 22. 
    What is the sedimentary evidence for rifting of Pangea early in the Mesozoic Era?
    • A. 

      Marine sediments mark zones where Pangea began to rift apart early in the Mesozoic Era.

    • B. 

      Basalts mark zones where Pangea began to rift apart early in the Mesozoic Era.

    • C. 

      Evaporites mark zones where Pangea began to rift apart early in the Mesozoic Era.

    • D. 

      Igneous intrusions mark zones where Pangea began to rift apart early in the Mesozoic Era.

  • 23. 
    The term for crumpled, altered rock sequences that are trapped between converging plates is ________. 
    • A. 

      Thrust fault

    • B. 

      Melange

    • C. 

      Decollement

    • D. 

      Ophiolite

    • E. 

      Batholith

  • 24. 
    In the western U.S., Upper Jurassic swampy plain deposits rich in donosaur fossils are collectively called ________.
    • A. 

      Chinle Formation

    • B. 

      Sundance Formation

    • C. 

      Navajo Sandstone

    • D. 

      Morrison Formation

    • E. 

      Shinarump Conglomerate

  • 25. 
    During Late Cretaceous, there was a continental seaway that connected the Arctic Ocean with the _______.
    • A. 

      Tethys

    • B. 

      Gulf of Mexico

    • C. 

      South Atlantic Ocean

    • D. 

      Pacific Ocean

    • E. 

      Sundance Sea

  • 26. 
    Why did large bodies of nonmarine sediment accumulate in eastern North America during early Mesozoic time?
    • A. 

      Fault-blocking basins formed during the rifting episode that eventually formed the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Eurasia; these basins received thick deposits of sediment.

    • B. 

      Fault-blocking basins formed during the rifting episode that eventually formed the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Africa; these basins received thick deposits of sediment.

    • C. 

      Fault-blocking basins formed during the rifting episode that eventually formed the Atlantic Ocean between South America and Africa; these basins received thick deposits of sediment.

    • D. 

      Fault-blocking basins formed during the suturing episode that eventually formed the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Africa; these basins received thick deposits of sediment.

  • 27. 
    During Cretaceous, the general direction of motion of the subducting Pacific Plate under western North America was ______.
    • A. 

      North

    • B. 

      South

    • C. 

      East

    • D. 

      West

    • E. 

      In no direction (stationary)

  • 28. 
    Characteristic tectonic features of eastern rifted margin of North America were ______.
    • A. 

      Salt domes

    • B. 

      Fall lines subduction zones

    • C. 

      Subduction zones

    • D. 

      Downfaulted basins

    • E. 

      Melanges

  • 29. 
    Geological age of Franciscan Complex melange of California is _________.
    • A. 

      Triassic

    • B. 

      Triassic-Jurassic

    • C. 

      Triassic-Jurassic-Cretaceous

    • D. 

      Jurassic-Cretaceous

    • E. 

      Cretaceous

  • 30. 
    Arizona's Painted Desert, exposed in the Petrified Forest National Park, is developed mainly in this formation.
    • A. 

      Moenkopi

    • B. 

      Shinarump

    • C. 

      Chinle

    • D. 

      Kayenta

    • E. 

      Wingate

  • 31. 
    How did Ordovician life differ from Cambrian life?
    • A. 

      A much more invertebrate fauna resembling that of later Paleozoic time, including many kinds of sponges, bryozoans, brachiopods, vertebrates, arthropods, and graptolites.

    • B. 

      A much more invertebrate fauna resembling that of later Mesozoic time, including many kinds of corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, mollusks, graptolites, and vertebrates.

    • C. 

      A much more invertebrate fauna resembling that of later Paleozoic time, including many kinds of corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, mollusks, echinoderms, and graptolites.

    • D. 

      A much less invertebrate fauna resembling that of later Neoproterzoic time, including many kinds of small shelly faunas, small teeth and spines, mollusks, and echninoids.

  • 32. 
    Increased CO2 in the atmosphere results in _______.
    • A. 

      Continental rifting

    • B. 

      Basaltic volcanism

    • C. 

      Global warming

    • D. 

      Global cooling

  • 33. 
    This usually helps bring on global warming:
    • A. 

      Transgression

    • B. 

      Regression

    • C. 

      Extinction

    • D. 

      Orogenesis

  • 34. 
    What groups of animals were conspicuous in Triassic and Jurassic seas, and what groups that had been prominent in late Paleozoic time were absent?
    • A. 

      The seas included bivalve gastropods, ammonoid mollusks, brachiopods, sea urchins, hexacorals, bony fishes, sharks, and swimming reptiles; tabulate and rugose corals, and trilobites, were absent.

    • B. 

      The seas included tabulate and rugose corals, trilobites, and fusulinid foraminifera; bivalve gastropods, ammonoid mollusks, brachiopods, sea urchins, hexacorals, bony fishes, sharks, and swimming reptiles were absent.

    • C. 

      The seas included bivalve gastropods, trilobites, brachiopods, fusulinis foraminifera, sea urchins, bony fishes, sharks, and swimming reptiles; tabulate and rugose corals, hexacorals, ammonoid mollusks, and were absent.

    • D. 

      Tabulate reef communities and trilobites were gone, and the crinoids, lacy bryozoans, flakelike algae, fusulinid foraminifera, bony fishes, sharks, and swimming reptiles expanded enormously.

  • 35. 
    Warmest geological time interval listed below.
    • A. 

      Early Triassic

    • B. 

      Jurassic

    • C. 

      Early Cretaceous

    • D. 

      Late Cretaceous

  • 36. 
    Continents of Pangea were still clustered closely together or joined during _______.
    • A. 

      Cenozoic

    • B. 

      Cretaceous

    • C. 

      Jurassic

    • D. 

      Triassic

  • 37. 
    What evidence is there for the existence of a foreland basin during Jurassic time in western North America?
    • A. 

      The Sundance Sea formed inland from mountains that rose up during the Acadian orogeny in western North America during the Jurassic Period.

    • B. 

      The Sundance Sea formed inland from mountains that rose up during the Alleghenian orogeny in western North America during the Triassic Period.

    • C. 

      The Sundance Sea formed inland from mountains that rose up during the Nevadan orogeny in western North America during the Jurassic Period.

    • D. 

      The Sundance Sea formed inland from mountains that rose up during the Acadian orogeny in eastern North America during the Jurassic Period.

  • 38. 
    Characterizes end of Cretaceous.
    • A. 

      Vast regression

    • B. 

      Vast transgression

    • C. 

      Biotic stability

    • D. 

      Subtropical flora at 70 degree latitude

  • 39. 
    Reef building organisms during the Mesozoic are called
    • A. 

      Rudists

    • B. 

      Ostracodes

    • C. 

      Ophiuroids

    • D. 

      Hermatypics

    • E. 

      Echinoids

  • 40. 
    Carbonate microfossil very common in Cretaceous chalks
    • A. 

      Planktonic foraminifers

    • B. 

      Radiolarians

    • C. 

      Barnacles

    • D. 

      Nautiloids

    • E. 

      Sutures

  • 41. 
    Most important macrofossil group for correlation of Mesozoic strata
    • A. 

      Ammonites

    • B. 

      Belemnites

    • C. 

      Crustaceans

    • D. 

      Foraminifers

    • E. 

      Conifers

  • 42. 
    Why did stromatolites decline during Cambrian and Ordovician time?
    • A. 

      The disappearance of banded iron formations about 2 billion years ago made it difficult for them to grow successfully.

    • B. 

      New salinities and pH formed in sea water, making it difficult to grow successfully.

    • C. 

      New groups of bacteria grazed on them and burrowed into them, making it difficult for them to grow successfully.

    • D. 

      New groups of animals grazed on them and burrowed into them, making it difficult for them to grow successfully.