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Geology 1403 Exam 2

31 Questions
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Geology 1403 EXAM 2

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Clay minerals formed from gabbro or diorite bedrock illustrate which kind of weathering?
    • A. 

      Chemical

    • B. 

      Proactive

    • C. 

      Syntropical

    • D. 

      Mechanical

  • 2. 
    Why is the humus layer typically thicker in a cool, temperate forest soil than in a tropical rainforest soil?
    • A. 

      Less humus is produced in the tropical rainforest because the B-horizon is so poorly developed

    • B. 

      Less humus is produced in the cool, temperate forest but the rate of decay and oxidation is slower than in a tropical rainforest.

    • C. 

      More humus is produced in the tropical rainforest but it is quickly washed away by the heavy rains

    • D. 

      In a tropical rainforest, the forest-floor litter is offen burned during the dry season

  • 3. 
    Frost wedging is the majojr weathering process contributing to the formation of which regolith material?
    • A. 

      Tropical literates

    • B. 

      Talus slopes

    • C. 

      C soil horizons

    • D. 

      Mature pedalfers

  • 4. 
    What portion of an angular fracture-bounded granitic block shows the highest rate of weathering?
    • A. 

      The unfractured interior

    • B. 

      The edges and corners

    • C. 

      The crack surfaces not including edges and corners

    • D. 

      All of the above show equal rate

  • 5. 
    Which of the following describes a characteristic process in the formation of a pedalfer soil?
    • A. 

      Soil bacteria produce organic acids that precipitate calcium carbonate in the B-horizon

    • B. 

      Iron oxides and aluminum-rich clays are precipitated in the B-horizon

    • C. 

      Humus accumulates below the solum in the C-horizon

    • D. 

      Clays are eluviated upward from the C-horizon

  • 6. 
    Ln theRockyMountain regionof the United States,north-facingslopes(downhill directionis toward the north)aretyPicallymore moist and heavilyforested than south-facingslopes.Why?
    • A. 

      A) north-facing slopesreceivemoresunlightin the summer;snow meltsfaster and moresoilmoisture is availablefor thetrees

    • B. 

      B)south-facingslopesreceivemoremoisfureandstrnlight;rock weatheringis slower

    • C. 

      North-facingslopesreceive about thesameamountof precipitationassouth-facingslopes;lessmoisture evaporatesfrom north-facingslopes

    • D. 

      South-facingslopesreceive less moisture, yetrockweatheringis faster

  • 7. 
    Clayminerals,silica(SiO2),and dissolved potassium bicarbonatein the soil waterareproductsof which process?
    • A. 

      Chemicalweatheringof olivine and plagioclase feldspar

    • B. 

      Mechanicalweatheringof graniteandrhyolite

    • C. 

      Chemicalweatheringof orthoclase feldspar

    • D. 

      Differentialmechanical weathering of micas

  • 8. 
    What two factorsspeedup ratesof chemical reactionandrveatheringin rocks and soils?
    • A. 

      Low temperatures; very dry

    • B. 

      Low temperatures;very moist

    • C. 

      High temperatures; very dry

    • D. 

      warm temperatures; very moist

  • 9. 
    In terrain with steephill slopes,which crop and cultivation technique will minimize soil erosion?
    • A. 

      Corn; rows trending straight down the slope,frequent cultivation

    • B. 

      Apples;land between the treesis planted in grass and not cultivated

    • C. 

      Winterwheat;after the harvest,thefieldis plowed and left idle until next fall

    • D. 

      Bean,rows are sPaced wider thanon a levelfield

  • 10. 
    From the land surface downward to the unweathered bedrock, which of the following is the correct order of the different soil horizons?
    • A. 

      0, A, E, B, C,bedrock

    • B. 

      A, B,C,D, E, bedrock

    • C. 

      E, A, B,C,0, bedrock

    • D. 

      D, E, C, B, A, bedrock

  • 11. 
    Whictr one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathcring is not true?
    • A. 

      Reduces grain sizes of rock particles

    • B. 

      Allows for faster rates of chemical weathering

    • C. 

      Is important in the formation of talus slopes

    • D. 

      Involves a major change in the mineral composition of theweatheredmaterial

  • 12. 
    The finely divided,red,brown, and yellow soil-coloringmineralsoriginateby what process?
    • A. 

      Mechanical weathering of very fine-grained,blue-gray clays

    • B. 

      Chemical weathering of quartz and feldspars

    • C. 

      Precipitation of iron oxides during the chemical weatheringprocess

    • D. 

      Mechanical weathering of the feldspars and micas in granit and rhyolite

  • 13. 
    Wnicn term describes a soil formed by weathering of the underlying bedrock?
    • A. 

      Transformational

    • B. 

      Residual

    • C. 

      Relict

    • D. 

      Transported

  • 14. 
    Which of the following best describes the,DustBowl',?
    • A. 

      The long drought preceding the Irish potato famine of the 1840s

    • B. 

      The area covered by volcanic ash around Mt. pinatubo,1991

    • C. 

      Areas of severe wind erosion on the creat plains,1930s

    • D. 

      A New Year's Day invitational soccer match in Tripoli, Libya

  • 15. 
     which of the followingis an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock?
    • A. 

      Oxidation

    • B. 

      Eluviation

    • C. 

      Hydrologic cycling

    • D. 

      Fros twedging

  • 16. 
    Which of the following bes tdescribes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock,suchasgranitc,that are roughly parallel to the land surface?
    • A. 

      Thermal expansion cracks

    • B. 

      Sheetingfractures

    • C. 

      Hydrolytic failures

    • D. 

      Columnar joints

  • 17. 
    Assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statement is true?
    • A. 

      water expands as it melts,causing the crack walls to bepushedapart

    • B. 

      Water shrinks asit freezes,causing thecrack walls to bedrawn closer together

    • C. 

      water expands asit freezes,causing the crack walls to bepushedapart

    • D. 

      Water shrinks asit melts,causingthecrackwallsto bep.,it.a closertogether

  • 18. 
    Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?
    • A. 

      disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals at the surface

    • B. 

      Movement of weathered rock and regolith toward the base of a slope'

    • C. 

      The process by which weathered rock and mineral paricles are removed from one area and transported

    • D. 

      The combined processes of leaching, eluviation,and mass wasting

  • 19. 
    Quartz weathers readily to aluminum-rich clav minerals.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Abundant moistureand warm temperafures result in high ratesof chemical weathering.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Feldspars commonly decompose during weathering to clayminerals,silica,andsolubleconstituents.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    Humus is a concentration of decaying,organicmatter in theB-horizonsof lateritic soils.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    Calcite,a majorcomPonentof some monumental and building stones,slowlv dissolvesin weaklyacidic waters.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Like most otherliquids,water decreasesin volumewhen it freezes.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    Cemical weathering in bedrock below the land surface often begins along joints and sheeting fractures.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 26. 
    Removal of soluble chemical constituents from a soil is termed leaching.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 27. 
    Oxlctation of iron is an important chemical weathering processfor ferromagnesian silicate minerals Iike olivine and biotite.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    Sheeting is mainly a process of mechanical rveathering.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    Sheeting fractures and exfoliation domes commonly develop in areas with soft, highly fractured bedrock.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 30. 
    Quartz is resistant to weathering and is an important component of sandsin riverbeds and on beaches.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 31. 
     Veryfine-grained,iron oxide particles account for nearly all red, yellow, and brown soilcolors.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

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