Cognitive 2

49 Questions  I  By SingleL0zer
Please take the quiz to rate it.

Intelligence Test Quizzes & Trivia

  
Changes are done, please start the quiz.


Questions and Answers

Removing question excerpt is a premium feature

Upgrade and get a lot more done!
  • 1. 
    At the most general level, memory process include
    • A. 

      Encoding

    • B. 

      Storage

    • C. 

      Retrieval

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 2. 
    Louise put a light bulb on a lamp, turned it on, and looked at it directly. Immediately after that, she looked away and she could still "see" the bulb shining brightly. This visual persistence is an example of the type of information held in the _________ store
    • A. 

      Echoic

    • B. 

      Visual

    • C. 

      Episodic

    • D. 

      Iconic


  • 3. 
    In short term memory, you can remember the 12 letters: HBO, ABC, NBC, and CBS easily compared to these 12 letters: ANC, BOH, CDP, and ZFQ. Why?
    • A. 

      Acoustic information

    • B. 

      Implicit information

    • C. 

      Chunking

    • D. 

      Depth of processing


  • 4. 
    When you try to remember what you were doing on October 28, 2008, you use what process?
    • A. 

      Declarative memory

    • B. 

      Chunking

    • C. 

      Procedural memory

    • D. 

      Re-constructive memory


  • 5. 
    The limits for the amount of information stored in Long Term Memory are 
    • A. 

      12 billion bits

    • B. 

      100 years worth of information

    • C. 

      No limits found yet

    • D. 

      7 plus or minus two


  • 6. 
    This exam uses what process to test your memory
    • A. 

      Recognition

    • B. 

      Recall

    • C. 

      Reconstruction

    • D. 

      Episodic


  • 7. 
    According to the levels-of-processing framework, as originally proposed, if you were shown semantically related words (Ex: dog and animal), rhyming words (Ex:) dog and log), as well as related words, the words most easily recalled would be the
    • A. 

      Semantically related words

    • B. 

      Words concretely connected

    • C. 

      Unrelated words

    • D. 

      All words would be recalled about equally


  • 8. 
    This model of memory consists of several elements including the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. This model is known as...
    • A. 

      Primary memory and secondary memory

    • B. 

      Three-store model

    • C. 

      Levels-of-processing framework

    • D. 

      Working memory


  • 9. 
    Conrad (1964) visually presented participants with series of letters and asked them to recall them immediately. A typical list of letter presented was: BCFMPSTVX. Common recall errors were
    • A. 

      Confusing letter which look alike (M and W)

    • B. 

      Confusing letter which sound alike (M and V)

    • C. 

      Confusing letter which occurred early in the list

    • D. 

      Confusing letter which occurred late in the list


  • 10. 
    In general, it appears that most information in Short Term Memory is stored using
    • A. 

      A visual code

    • B. 

      A semantic code

    • C. 

      An auditory code

    • D. 

      All three forms of coding are used equally


  • 11. 
    When you tie your shoelace, you are using which memory process?
    • A. 

      Explicit/procedural

    • B. 

      Implicit/procedural

    • C. 

      Explicit/declarative

    • D. 

      Implicit/declarative


  • 12. 
    Which two memory functions are closely tied to each other?
    • A. 

      Storage and retrieval

    • B. 

      Storage and encoding

    • C. 

      Encoding and retrieval

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 13. 
    You have a test scheduled for Thursday at noon. Which of the following studying strategies will produce the best result?
    • A. 

      1 hour of studying on Thursday morning

    • B. 

      1/2 hour of studying Tuesday and 1/2 hour of studying Wednesday

    • C. 

      1 hour of studying on Wednesday

    • D. 

      All three strategies will produce the same result


  • 14. 
    Which model of memory consists of nodes and links between the nodes and suggests that knowledge is represented in the connections between the nodes
    • A. 

      Correspondence model of memory

    • B. 

      HERA model of memory

    • C. 

      Permastore

    • D. 

      Connectionist model of memory


  • 15. 
    On his way to the supermarket, John remembers that he needs paper towels and toilet paper. He then remembers that he also needs cheese, eggs, and milk. The order in which he remembered the grocery items illustrates that information stored in long-term memory seems to be primarily encoded
    • A. 

      Visually

    • B. 

      Acoustically

    • C. 

      Semantically

    • D. 

      In some sort of alphabetic order


  • 16. 
    In an exhaustive serially processing search of short-term memory, people generally take ____ amount(s) of time to find a target _______.
    • A. 

      Different; depending on where in the list it is located

    • B. 

      The same; regardless of where in the list it is located

    • C. 

      The same; as long as the target is one of the first 3 items

    • D. 

      The same; as long as the target is one of the last 3 items


  • 17. 
    ________ occurs when competing information causes us to forget something.
    • A. 

      Decay

    • B. 

      Reconstructive learning

    • C. 

      Unlearrning

    • D. 

      Interference


  • 18. 
    ________ interference is caused by an activity occurring after we learn something, but before we are asked to recall that thing.
    • A. 

      Decay

    • B. 

      Proactive

    • C. 

      Retroactive

    • D. 

      Reconstructive


  • 19. 
    Sandra has just come from studying with some classmates to whom she has just been introduced. She then runs into a good friend who introduces her to David. As Sandra walks away, she realizes that she can't remember David's name. This description illustrates
    • A. 

      Decay

    • B. 

      Reconstructive forgetting

    • C. 

      Retroactive interference

    • D. 

      Proactive interference


  • 20. 
    Saul Sternberg (1966) did an important study on retrieval of information from Short Term Memory. He hypothesized that processing of an information set in Short Term Memory could be either
    • A. 

      Short term or long term

    • B. 

      Declarative or procedural

    • C. 

      Parallel or serial

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 21. 
    A typical serial position curve shows that recall of words in a list is best for items _____ of the list and poorest for items _______.
    • A. 

      In the middle; at and near the end

    • B. 

      At and near the end; near the beginning

    • C. 

      Near the beginning; in the middle

    • D. 

      Near the beginning; at and near the end


  • 22. 
    Recent fMRI work suggest that brain areas used in
    • A. 

      Verbal comprehension are the same as those used in perception

    • B. 

      Verbal comprehension are the same as those used in mental rotation

    • C. 

      Perception are not the same as those used in mental rotation

    • D. 

      Perception are the same as those used in mental rotation


  • 23. 
    Edward Tolman argued that rats running a maze learn a ____, an internal representation of the maze
    • A. 

      Cognitive map

    • B. 

      Route-road map

    • C. 

      Survey map

    • D. 

      Perceptual map


  • 24. 
    Flashbulb memories tend to be
    • A. 

      Extremely vivid and clear

    • B. 

      Extremely accurate

    • C. 

      Completely unemotional

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 25. 
    Brief sensory memory for visual information is known as
    • A. 

      Iconic memory

    • B. 

      Primary auditory memory

    • C. 

      Echoic memory

    • D. 

      Pre-perceptual auditory memory


  • 26. 
    Sensory memory is believed by many cognitive psychologists to be responsible for all of the following except
    • A. 

      Deciding, through attention , which incoming sensory information will be the focus of attention

    • B. 

      Filling in the blanks when the stimulation is intermittent

    • C. 

      Holding incoming information briefly during initial processing

    • D. 

      Collecting information to be processed


  • 27. 
    STM's capacity is best estimated as 7 (plus or minus two)
    • A. 

      Meaningful units

    • B. 

      Digits or letters

    • C. 

      Words

    • D. 

      Sentances


  • 28. 
    Which of the following lists of letter would you be least likely to remember accurately in STM?
    • A. 

      D,G,E,P,T,C, and B

    • B. 

      A, B, C, D, E, F, and G

    • C. 

      H, J, U, O, W, K, and C

    • D. 

      Q, L, M, R, S, N, and Y


  • 29. 
    Research compared memory of chess masters and beginner chess players for the position of game pieces on sample chess boards. They found that the chess masters remembered positions better than the beginners when the board was arranged consistent with a real game but not when the pieces were randomly placed. the importance of this finding was that...
    • A. 

      Experts show larger STM capabilities than beginners

    • B. 

      Knowledge in an area of expertise increases a person's digit span memory

    • C. 

      Expertise with some material reduces susceptibility to proactive interference

    • D. 

      Chunking takes place when a person has knowledge of familiar patterns or concepts


  • 30. 
    Consider your knowledge of STM. Let's say we conduct an experiment where participants see a number of target letters flashed briefly on a screen and are told to immediately write down the letters in the order they were presented. It is most likely that the target letter "P" will be misidentified as...
    • A. 

      L

    • B. 

      I

    • C. 

      R

    • D. 

      C


  • 31. 
    It is easier to perform two tasks at the same time if...
    • A. 

      One is handled by the sketch pad and one is handled by the phonological loop

    • B. 

      Both are handled by the sketchpad

    • C. 

      Both are handled by the phonological loop

    • D. 

      Both b and c are correct


  • 32. 
    In studies of working memory, which list of words is recalled worst?
    • A. 

      MAP MAD MAN

    • B. 

      COW BUN DAY

    • C. 

      BIG LONG LARGE

    • D. 

      OLD FOWL LATE


  • 33. 
    Week after week, Steph and Rachel watch Glle on television. They never planned to memorize the names of Will and Sue and Emma, but somehow, they now know them all quite well. This sort of learning is called
    • A. 

      Elaborative

    • B. 

      Intentional

    • C. 

      Accidental

    • D. 

      Incidental


  • 34. 
    An essay exam is an example of what sort of memory task?
    • A. 

      Recall

    • B. 

      Recognition

    • C. 

      Speed of reaction

    • D. 

      Personal semantic memory


  • 35. 
    People often report this annoying memory failure: they walk from one end of their house to the other for something and when they get to their destination, they forget what they went to the other side of the house for. As soon as they return to the first room, they are reminded of what they wanted in the first place. This common experience best illustrates the principle of...
    • A. 

      The self-reference effect

    • B. 

      Maintenance rehearsal

    • C. 

      Levels of processing theory

    • D. 

      Encoding specificity


  • 36. 
    Which two processes contribute the most to effective learning?
    • A. 

      Distributive studying and sleep

    • B. 

      Massed studying and sleep

    • C. 

      Distributive studying and exercise

    • D. 

      Massed studying and exercise


  • 37. 
    Not all of the members of everyday categories have the same qualities. Most fish have gills, fins, and scales. Sharks lack the feature of scales yet they are still categorized as fish. This poses a problem for the _______ approach to categorization
    • A. 

      Prototype

    • B. 

      Exemplar

    • C. 

      Definition or feature

    • D. 

      Family resemblance or heredity


  • 38. 
    According to a semantic-network model, when we think about cats, the ____ for cats becomes ______.
    • A. 

      Network; activated

    • B. 

      Frame; inhibited

    • C. 

      Node;inhibited

    • D. 

      Node; activated


  • 39. 
    According to Craik and Lockhart's levels of processing model, information which is stored based on ______ is remembered best.
    • A. 

      Visual features

    • B. 

      Sound information

    • C. 

      Semantic information

    • D. 

      Color association


  • 40. 
    The connectionist Model of LTM storage states that a concept is best defined as...
    • A. 

      A node

    • B. 

      A process

    • C. 

      A pattern

    • D. 

      An item


  • 41. 
    Connectionist nets are often referred to as neural nets because
    • A. 

      The associative links in a network tie neurons together

    • B. 

      The long-term goal of connectionist models is to provide replacements for damaged neurons in the brain

    • C. 

      Advocates of the connectionist approach argue that their models made good biological sense and function much as the brain does

    • D. 

      Research has found that most people do not understand the term "connectionist"


  • 42. 
    In the parallel distributed processing model proposed by McClelland and Rumelhart, the network comprises
    • A. 

      Concepts

    • B. 

      Nodes

    • C. 

      Propositions

    • D. 

      Neuron-like units


  • 43. 
    Imagery includes
    • A. 

      Only visual representations

    • B. 

      Representations perceived through all the senses

    • C. 

      Only visual, auditory, and taste representations.

    • D. 

      Only visual and auditory representations


  • 44. 
    Which of the following is an accurate description of results obtained in a major study concerning mental rotations?
    • A. 

      The degree of rotation of the figures had no bearing on response time.

    • B. 

      For every increase in the degree of rotation of the figures, there was a corresponding decrease in response time

    • C. 

      For every decrease in the degree of rotation of the figures, there was a corresponding increase in response time

    • D. 

      For every increase in the degree of rotation of the figures, there was a corresponding increase in response time


  • 45. 
    Loftu's "car-crash slides" experiment described in the text shows how a seemingly minor word change can produce a change in a person's memory report. In this study, Misleading Postevent Information (MPI) was (were) the word (s)...
    • A. 

      "fast"

    • B. 

      "smashed"

    • C. 

      "miles per hour"

    • D. 

      "car crash"


  • 46. 
    Research on eyewitness testimony has shown that the more confident the person giving the testimony of his or her memories...
    • A. 

      The more accurate the memories are

    • B. 

      The more convincing the testimony is to a jury

    • C. 

      The more likely the testifier is to be influenced by a weapon focus

    • D. 

      Both a and b


  • 47. 
    Which of the following is a conclusion drawn by Stephen Kosslyn in a study dealing with image size?
    • A. 

      The resolution for objects that take up a small area of the mental screen is more detailed than it is for larger objects.

    • B. 

      The resolution for objects that take up a large area of the mental screen is more detailed than it is for objects that are smaller

    • C. 

      The resolution for both large and small objects is equally highly detailed

    • D. 

      Resolution varies randomly with sizes of objects


  • 48. 
    When looking at the map that a friend drew of your hometown, you notice that streets with odd or angled intersections appear to be more perpendicular than what they really are. This is an example of...
    • A. 

      Route-road knowledge

    • B. 

      Relative-position heuristic

    • C. 

      Survey

    • D. 

      Right-angle bias


  • 49. 
    Memory serves many wide ranging purposes for us. Some of these include:
    • A. 

      It helps us to predict the future

    • B. 

      It lines up our own history with our culture's history

    • C. 

      It gives us effortless continuity of experience from one day to the next

    • D. 

      All of the above


Back to top

Removing ad is a premium feature

Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Take Another Quiz
We have sent an email with your new password.