Chapter 13 Culture Change: Theories And Processes

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  • 1. 
    To say that a culture operates as a system means that:
    • A. 

      Cultural systems never change

    • B. 

      When one part of the system changes all other parts change

    • C. 

      When one part of the system changes some other parts have to change as well

    • D. 

      Changes never take place randomly within a cultural system


  • 2. 
    Which of the following was invented, as opposed to discovered?
    • A. 

      The radioactive properties of uranium

    • B. 

      He laws of relativity

    • C. 

      The nature of a nuclear chain reaction

    • D. 

      The atomic bomb


  • 3. 
    Ways of making and using fire is an example of:
    • A. 

      A discovery

    • B. 

      Inventions

    • C. 

      Diffusion

    • D. 

      Revolution


  • 4. 
    The wheel was invented in the ancient New World but was only used for children's toys because:
    • A. 

      The people were not advanced enough to expand their discovery

    • B. 

      The technological skills and knowledge were not present for more complex uses

    • C. 

      There were no other practical uses for the wheel where it was invented

    • D. 

      The people had nothing to transport that warranted wheeled vehicles


  • 5. 
    Only about ______ percent of a society's cultural inventory, on average, is invented within that society.
    • A. 

      90%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      25%

    • D. 

      10%


  • 6. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of the process of diffusion?
    • A. 

      It accounts for most a society's cultural inventory

    • B. 

      Diffused items are usually modified to fit the receiving society's culture

    • C. 

      Some potentially borrowed items are rejected by the receiving society

    • D. 

      The U.S. is unique in that most of our cultural items were invented here


  • 7. 
    Syncretism is:
    • A. 

      When aspects of a culture all change together

    • B. 

      A synonym for a West Indian religious tradition

    • C. 

      The blending of new religious practices with traditional ones

    • D. 

      Following newly created religious beliefs


  • 8. 
    Acculturation is:
    • A. 

      The process where young people learn the cultural norms of their society

    • B. 

      Voluntary culture change generated from within a society

    • C. 

      The violent forcing of one society's culture upon another

    • D. 

      A rapid, extensive diffusion of cultural items from a dominant culture


  • 9. 
    The cargo cults of the South Pacific are examples of:
    • A. 

      Diffusion

    • B. 

      Acculturation

    • C. 

      Revolution

    • D. 

      Invention


  • 10. 
    Revolution:
    • A. 

      Is always violent

    • B. 

      Is seldom violent

    • C. 

      Is usually instigated by the young

    • D. 

      Always involves changes from within a society


  • 11. 
    The process of change that may be thought of as rapid diffusion under the influence of a more dominant society is:
    • A. 

      Revolution

    • B. 

      Cultural borrowing

    • C. 

      Acculturation

    • D. 

      Stimulus diffusion


  • 12. 
    The process of change that may be thought of a rapid invention is:
    • A. 

      Revolution

    • B. 

      Cultural borrowing

    • C. 

      Acculturation

    • D. 

      Stimulus diffusion


  • 13. 
    When knowledge of a cultural trait in one society motivates the contrivance of a similar trait it is called:
    • A. 

      Revolution

    • B. 

      Stimulus diffusion

    • C. 

      Acculturation

    • D. 

      Invention


  • 14. 
    The school of thought that proposed that all societies pass through the same series of cultural stages is called:
    • A. 

      Classical or unilineal evolutionism

    • B. 

      Diffusionism

    • C. 

      Kulturkreise

    • D. 

      Cultural materialism


  • 15. 
    Which is NOT a reason why the school of classical or unilineal evolutionism has been discounted?
    • A. 

      It placed too much emphasis on independent invention

    • B. 

      It relied on a predetermined scheme into which new data were forced

    • C. 

      It ignored that fact that some societies never change

    • D. 

      It was ethnocentric


  • 16. 
    Edward B. Tyler and Lewis Henry Morgan are associated with:
    • A. 

      Classical or unilineal evolutionism

    • B. 

      Diffusionism

    • C. 

      Kulturkreise

    • D. 

      Cultural materialism


  • 17. 
    In classical or unilineal evolutionism the stage of civilization is characterized by the presence of:
    • A. 

      Fire

    • B. 

      Pottery

    • C. 

      Writing

    • D. 

      Metallurgy


  • 18. 
    In classical or unilineal evolutionism the stage of barbarism is characterized by the presence of:
    • A. 

      Fire

    • B. 

      The bow and arrow

    • C. 

      Phonetic alphabets

    • D. 

      Domestication and pottery


  • 19. 
    The diffusionist school of thought:
    • A. 

      Emphasized the diffusion of cultural items among all societies

    • B. 

      Discounted diffusion as an important process of culture change

    • C. 

      Proposed that important cultural items arose in one or a few societies

    • D. 

      Proposed that all important cultural items first arose in Greece


  • 20. 
    One group of the diffusionist school thought all important complex cultural items first arose in:
    • A. 

      Greece

    • B. 

      Rome

    • C. 

      China

    • D. 

      Egypt


  • 21. 
    The Kulturkreise school felt that important cultural innovations:
    • A. 

      First arose in Germany

    • B. 

      Spread in widening circles from several cultural centers

    • C. 

      Dismisses the idea of less advanced cultures

    • D. 

      Explains less advanced cultures as those pushed to marginal areas


  • 22. 
    Franz Boas is associated with what school of anthropological theory?
    • A. 

      Kulturkreise

    • B. 

      Diffusionist

    • C. 

      Historical particularism

    • D. 

      Unilineal evolutionism


  • 23. 
    Which was NOT a focus of the historical particularism school of thought?
    • A. 

      Importance of field work and data collection

    • B. 

      Holism and cultural relativity

    • C. 

      Search of general laws of cultural evolution

    • D. 

      Importance of the relationship between culture and environment


  • 24. 
    The process of invention is analogous to what process of biological evolution?
    • A. 

      Natural selection

    • B. 

      Mutation

    • C. 

      Gene flow

    • D. 

      Genetic drift


  • 25. 
    The process of diffusion is analogous to what process of biological evolution?
    • A. 

      Natural selection

    • B. 

      Mutation

    • C. 

      Gene flow

    • D. 

      Genetic drift


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