Chapter 12 Microbiology

76 Questions  I  By Andreazza

  
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1.  As prokaryotes normally only have one set of genes, they are called __________.  
2.  The __________ is the collection of characteristics of an organism that an investigator observes.  
3.  The __________ describes the specific set of genes an organism possesses.  
4.  Which of the following individuals or groups of individuals demonstrated that the transforming principle was DNA?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  The principle of transformation was first demonstrated by which of the following individuals or groups of individuals?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Hershey and Chase demonstrated that when the bacteriophage T2 infected its host cell, the __________ is injected into the host but the __________ remained outside.   (answer, answer)  
7.  DNA functions as a storage molecule, holding genetic information for the lifetime of a cellular organism and allowing that information to be duplicated and passed on to its progeny.  
A.
B.
8.  The genetic information in DNA is divided into units called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  The two strands of a DNA molecule are __________; that is, they are oriented in opposite directions.  
10.  The B form of the DNA double helix contains a wider major groove and a narrower minor groove because the two polynucleotide strands are not positioned directly opposite one another in the helical cylinder.  
A.
B.
11.  The basic differences between RNA and DNA reside in their sugar and pyrimidine bases; RNA has ribose and uracil whereas DNA has deoxyribose and thymine.  
A.
B.
12.  Which of the following is not a pyrimidine?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which of the following is not a complementary base pair usually found in DNA molecules?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Which of the following is true about the structure of DNA?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Which of the following nitrogenous bases is usually found in RNA but not in DNA?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  DNA replication is a complex process, and as a result the frequency of error is quite high.  
A.
B.
17.  Because of its larger size, the replication rate of eukaryotic genomes is significantly faster than the replication rate of prokaryotic genomes.  
A.
B.
18.  Bacterial chromosomes, unlike eukaryotic chromosomes, often consist of a single replicon.  
A.
B.
19.  When a DNA molecule is replicated, the daughter molecules contain one strand of parental DNA and one strand of newly synthesized DNA; this is called __________ replication.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  The chromosomes of most bacteria are comprised of  
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The Y-shaped part of the DNA molecule where the actual replication process occurs is called the replication __________.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Each chromosome has one or more __________ site(s) where replication begins.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  During replication the 2 strands of the DNA molecule are unwound from one another by enzymes called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Over twisting or under twisting of helical DNA generates  
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Prokaryotic DNA replication occurs at a rate of  
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  The coding sequence in the DNA of __________ is normally continuous; that is, it is not interrupted by noncoding sequences.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Which of the following is not considered the final product of the expression of a gene?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  The transcribed, but not translated, sequence that is immediately upstream of the region and encodes the functional product is called the __________ region.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  The region at which the RNA polymerase binds is the __________ region.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  The transcribed and translated region of a gene is the __________ region.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following is in the coding region of a gene?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  The unexpressed regions of split genes are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  A bacterial __________ is the nontranscribed region of the DNA to which RNA polymerase binds in order to initiate transcription.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  A section of DNA that codes for a protein or other functional product is called a(n)  
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The strand of DNA for a particular gene that is copied by the RNA polymerase to form mRNA is called the __________ strand.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Split or interrupted genes have been found in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes.  
A.
B.
37.  The genetic code is usually translated in a nonoverlapping fashion.  
A.
B.
38.  A consensus sequence in the untranslated leader sequence of a prokaryotic mRNA which serves as a ribosome binding site is called the _____ - _____ sequence.  
39.  mRNA molecules have a nontranslated sequence called the __________ , which is located downstream of the termination codon.  
40.  On mRNA molecules, a nontranslated sequence called the ___________ usually precedes the initiation codon.  
41.  Splicing of eukaryotic heteronuclear RNA is catalyzed by ______________.  
42.   Messenger RNA molecules that direct the synthesis of more than one polypeptide are said to be __________.  
43.  In eukaryotes a so-called cap consisting of __________ is attached to the 5' end of the molecule during posttranscriptional modification of hnRNA to produce functional mRNA.  
44.  Eukaryotic mRNAs are modified by addition of a poly(A) sequences at the 3' end and 7-methyl guanosine at the 5' end.  
A.
B.
45.  The noncoding sequences located between the start codon and the stop codon in interrupted genes are called introns.  
A.
B.
46.  The protein coding sequences in interrupted genes are called exons.  
A.
B.
47.  Posttranscriptional modifications that yield eukaryotic mRNAs include which of the following?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  RNA polymerase III of eukaryotes is responsible for transcribing  
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  RNA polymerase II of eukaryotes is responsible for transcribing  
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  The Pribnow box of E. coli  
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The process by which the base sequence of all or a portion of a DNA molecule is used to direct the synthesis of an RNA molecule is called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  When RNA polymerase catalyzes the addition of a nucleotide to a growing mRNA chain, a byproduct of this reaction is  
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  The expressed regions of split genes are called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.   In eukaryotes a series of __________ residues are added to the 3' end of an RNA molecule as part of the posttranscriptional processing used to produce functional mRNA.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Key sequences exist within promoters, which vary somewhat among various promoters but are sufficiently constant that they can be represented by a sequence of bases most often found at each position. These representations are called __________ sequences.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  The genetic code is said to be __________ because more than one codon will specify a particular amino acid.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Which of the following is not a termination codon?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Which of the following is the initiator codon?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  The genetic code is translated in groups of __________ bases  
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  ________ molecules deliver amino acids to ribosomes during translation.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  How many different termination codons are used in translation?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  The process by which the base sequence of an RNA molecule is used to direct the synthesis of a protein is called  
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The stop codons are translated codons; that is, they specify amino acids to be inserted into the last position of a growing polypeptide chain.  
A.
B.
64.  The portion of the tRNA molecule that binds to the codon on the mRNA is called the  
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  What is the minimum number of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes needed to attach amino acids to all the various tRNA molecules?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  In __________ ribosomes can attach to the mRNA and begin translation even though transcription has not been completed.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Ribosomes consist of __________ separate subunits that come together as part of the initiation process and dissociate immediately after termination.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The __________ reaction sequentially links adjacent amino acids into the growing polypeptide chain.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  A complex consisting of a single mRNA molecule with several ribosomes is called a  
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  In order to add a single amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain, a grand total of __________ molecules or ATP or GTP are utilized.  
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  All prokaryotes initiate the synthesis of proteins with formylmethionine.  
A.
B.
72.   Initiation of translation in eukaryotes is similar to that in prokaryotes except that more initiation factors are required in eukaryotes.  
A.
B.
73.  Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze covalent addition of __________ __________ to tRNAs. (2 words)  
74.  The energy needed for protein synthesis is provided by the hydrolysis of  
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Some microbial proteins are spliced after translation in a reaction that results in removal of one or more internal intervening sequences called inteins.  
A.
B.
76.   Proteins that recognize unfolded polypeptides and help them fold into their proper conformations are called ______________.  
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