Chapter 11, Personality

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 Chapter 11,Personality
Quiz derived from material in Chapter 11 of Hockenbury @ Hockenbury Fith Edition. Subject: Personality

  
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  • 1. 
    The social cognitive perspective of personality theory_____________________
    • A. 

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.

    • B. 

      Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.

    • C. 

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.

    • D. 

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person' s unique potential.


  • 2. 
    The trait perspective of personality theory __________________
    • A. 

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.

    • B. 

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature,emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person 's unique potential.

    • C. 

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.

    • D. 

      Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.


  • 3. 
    The humanistic perspective of personality theory __________________
    • A. 

      Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.

    • B. 

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.

    • C. 

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person' s unique potential.

    • D. 

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes,including the importance of beliefs about the self,goal setting,and self-regulation.


  • 4. 
    The attribution of one's own unacceptable urges or qualities to others.
    • A. 

      Regression

    • B. 

      Repression

    • C. 

      Projection

    • D. 

      Denial


  • 5. 
    Thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses.
    • A. 

      Projection

    • B. 

      Denial

    • C. 

      Reaction formation

    • D. 

      Regression


  • 6. 
    According to Freud, psychological energy develops into the three basic structures of personality. Which is NOT one of those three structures?
    • A. 

      Id

    • B. 

      Libido

    • C. 

      Ego

    • D. 

      Superego


  • 7. 
    A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneoulsy reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind.
    • A. 

      Hypnosis

    • B. 

      Free association

    • C. 

      Introspection


  • 8. 
    A form of displacement in which sexual urges are rechanneled into productive, nonsexual activities.
    • A. 

      Sublimation

    • B. 

      Denial

    • C. 

      Undoing

    • D. 

      Rationalization


  • 9. 
    Retreating to a behavior pattern characteristic of an earlier stage of development.
    • A. 

      Denial

    • B. 

      Regression

    • C. 

      Repression

    • D. 

      Undoing


  • 10. 
    In Freud's theory,the completely unconscious,irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives;ruledby the pleasure principle.
    • A. 

      Eros

    • B. 

      Ego

    • C. 

      Id

    • D. 

      Superego


  • 11. 
    In Freud 's theory,, a child' s unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent,usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent.
    • A. 

      Identification

    • B. 

      Oedipus complex

    • C. 

      Ego defense mechanism

    • D. 

      Penis envy


  • 12. 
    The psychoanalytic persepctive of personality theory____________
    • A. 

      Represents an optimistic look at human nature,emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a person 's unique potential.

    • B. 

      Emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation.

    • C. 

      Emphasizes the importance of unconcious processes and the influence of early childhood experience.

    • D. 

      Emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals.


  • 13. 
    In Freud' s dynamic theory of personality,the ______________ level of awareness contains information that you're not currently aware of but can easily bring to concious awareness.
    • A. 

      Conscious

    • B. 

      Unconscious

    • C. 

      Preconscious

    • D. 

      Subconscious.


  • 14. 
    The Freudian psychosexual stage in which pleasure is derived through elimination and acquiring control over elimination.
    • A. 

      Oral

    • B. 

      Phallic

    • C. 

      Anal

    • D. 

      Genital


  • 15. 
    One major criticism of the _________________ and _______________ perspectives on personality theory, is the lack of scientific testability and empircal evidence.
    • A. 

      Trait, humanistic

    • B. 

      Humanistic, psychoanalytic

    • C. 

      Humanistic, social-cognitive

    • D. 

      Social-cognitive, trait


  • 16. 
    Children in the _____________ stage will outwardly show a strong desire to associate exclusively with same-sex peers.
    • A. 

      Genital

    • B. 

      Anal

    • C. 

      Oral

    • D. 

      Latency


  • 17. 
    The final resoluation of the Oedipus complex occurs in adolescence during the ________ stage, during which incestuous urges start to resurface, and the personb directs sexual urges toward socially acceptable substitutes.
    • A. 

      Latency

    • B. 

      Genital

    • C. 

      Phallic

    • D. 

      Oral


  • 18. 
    The Freudian psychosexual stage in which pleasure seeking is focused on the genitals. (Hint: Occurs during the first five years of life).
    • A. 

      Phallic stage

    • B. 

      Genital

    • C. 

      Anal

    • D. 

      Oral


  • 19. 
    According to Freud, sexual urges of boys and girls become repressed during the ____________ stage in late childhood, due to the intense anxiety associated with the Oedipus complex.
    • A. 

      Genital

    • B. 

      Latency

    • C. 

      Oral

    • D. 

      Anal


  • 20. 
    Psychologist who believed that the most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority.
    • A. 

      Carl Rogers

    • B. 

      Carl Jung

    • C. 

      Karen Horney

    • D. 

      Alfred Adler


  • 21. 
    Psychologist who stressed the importance of cultural and social factors in personality development.
    • A. 

      Alfred Adler

    • B. 

      Karen Horney

    • C. 

      Carl Jung

    • D. 

      Sigmund Freud


  • 22. 
    In Freud's theory,the _______________ level of awareness represents the thoughts,feelings,wishes and drives that are operating below the level of concious awareness.
    • A. 

      Unconscious

    • B. 

      Conscious

    • C. 

      Subconscious

    • D. 

      Preconscious


  • 23. 
    Penis envy is a term used to describe_________________
    • A. 

      A child 's unconcious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings.

    • B. 

      A man' s desire to have a penis similar in size to those of African 's and their descendents.

    • C. 

      The sense of deprivation and loss a little girl exepriences when she discovers that boys have a penis, and she does not.


  • 24. 
    Psychologists who believed that the deepest part of the individual psyche is the collective unconcious, whihc is shared by all people and reflects humanity' s collective evolutionary history.
    • A. 

      Karen Horney

    • B. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • C. 

      Carl Junge

    • D. 

      Alfred Adler


  • 25. 
    A type of personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image; used to assess unconcious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits.
    • A. 

      Psychological test

    • B. 

      Projective test

    • C. 

      Rorscach Inkblot Test

    • D. 

      Graphology


  • 26. 
    Theory of personality which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.
    • A. 

      Social cognitive

    • B. 

      Humanistic

    • C. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • D. 

      Trait


  • 27. 
    Carl Rogers believed that the most basic human motive is the ___________________, which is the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism.
    • A. 

      Self-concept

    • B. 

      Actualizing tendency

    • C. 

      Conditional positive regard

    • D. 

      Unconditional positive regard


  • 28. 
    The ________________ is the set of perceptions and beliefs that you have about yourself, including your nature, your personal qualitites and your typical behaviour.
    • A. 

      Actualizing tendency

    • B. 

      Conditional positive regard

    • C. 

      Self concept

    • D. 

      Unconditional positive regard


  • 29. 
    The _____________ perspective stresses concious thought processes, self-regulation, and the importance of situational influences.
    • A. 

      Social cognitive

    • B. 

      Humanistic

    • C. 

      Trait

    • D. 

      Psychoanalytic


  • 30. 
    In Freud's dynamic theory of personality,the _____________ level is the level of awareness that represents all the thoughts,feelings,and sensations that you're aware of at a particular moment .
    • A. 

      Preconscious

    • B. 

      Concious

    • C. 

      Unconcious

    • D. 

      Subconscious


  • 31. 
    The ________________ is a projective test using inkblots.
    • A. 

      Rorscach Inkblot Test

    • B. 

      Psychological test

    • C. 

      Thematic Apperception Test


  • 32. 
    According to Freud, the first year of life is characterized as the ___________ stage.
    • A. 

      Anal

    • B. 

      Latency

    • C. 

      Oral

    • D. 

      Phallic


  • 33. 
    The Neo-Freudians include:
    • A. 

      Hans Eysenck, Karen Horney, Albert Bandura

    • B. 

      Carl Rogers, Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler

    • C. 

      Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler

    • D. 

      Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura


  • 34. 
    In Roger's theory,the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don 't conform to the standards and expectations of others is called:
    • A. 

      Conditional positive regard

    • B. 

      Unconditional positive regard

    • C. 

      Actualizing tendency

    • D. 

      Self-concept


  • 35. 
    In Roger' s theory,the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others is called _________________
    • A. 

      Actualizing tendency

    • B. 

      Self-concept

    • C. 

      Conditional positive regard

    • D. 

      Unconditional positive regard


  • 36. 
    Albert Bandura was a proponent of which perspective of personality?
    • A. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • B. 

      Behaviorist

    • C. 

      Humanistic

    • D. 

      Social cognitive


  • 37. 
    The beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation;feelingsof self-confidence or self-doubt.
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism

    • B. 

      Self-efficacy

    • C. 

      Self-concept

    • D. 

      Ego defense mechanism


  • 38. 
    A theory of personality that focuses on identifying,describing,and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions.
    • A. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • B. 

      Humanistic

    • C. 

      Trait

    • D. 

      Social cognitive


  • 39. 
    One criticism,or weakness,of __________ theories is that they don 't really explain human personality. Intead, they simply label general predispositions to behave in a certain way.
    • A. 

      Humanistic

    • B. 

      Psyhcoanalytic

    • C. 

      Trait

    • D. 

      Social-cognitive


  • 40. 
    People who rate high on the personality trait of __________________ tend to be upbeat, optimistic, and sociable.
    • A. 

      Introversion

    • B. 

      Extraversion

    • C. 

      Neuroticism


  • 41. 
    A type of psychological test in which a person' s responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms.
    • A. 

      Projective test

    • B. 

      Inkblot test

    • C. 

      Thematic Apperception Test

    • D. 

      Self-report inventory


  • 42. 
    A relatively stable,enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way.
    • A. 

      Trait

    • B. 

      Surface trait

    • C. 

      Self-concept

    • D. 

      Actualizing tendency


  • 43. 
    The most fundamental dimensions of personality;thebroad,basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number.
    • A. 

      Behaviors

    • B. 

      Surface traits

    • C. 

      Traits

    • D. 

      Source traits


  • 44. 
    A trait theory of personality that identifies extraversion,neuroticism,agreeableness,conscientiousness,and openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality.
    • A. 

      Five-factor model

    • B. 

      16 personality factors

    • C. 

      Surface trait model

    • D. 

      Source trait model


  • 45. 
    Psycologists who advocated the trait apporach to personality. His research led to the development of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionaire,one of the most widely used psychological tests for assessing personality.
    • A. 

      Hans Eysenk

    • B. 

      Albert Bandura

    • C. 

      Raymond Cattle

    • D. 

      Carl Rogers


  • 46. 
    Personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior.
    • A. 

      Traits

    • B. 

      Source traits

    • C. 

      Surface traits

    • D. 

      Self-concepts


  • 47. 
    Proponenents of trait theory include
    • A. 

      Karen Horney,. Albert Bandura

    • B. 

      Raymond Cattell,Hans Eysenck

    • C. 

      Alfred Adler,Raymond Cattel

    • D. 

      Hans Eysenck,Albert Bandura


  • 48. 
    Self Report Inventories are ____________ test,while projective tests are much more _____________
    • A. 

      Vague,clear

    • B. 

      Subjective,objective

    • C. 

      Objective subjective

    • D. 

      Difficult,easy


  • 49. 
    A projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of amiguous scenes.
    • A. 

      Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

    • B. 

      Inkblot Test

    • C. 

      Psychological test

    • D. 

      Graphology


  • 50. 
    A model proposed by Albert Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism

    • B. 

      Self-efficacy

    • C. 

      Trait theory

    • D. 

      Sublimation


  • 51. 
    People who rate high on ____________ tend to be anxious, worried, and socially insecure.
    • A. 

      Neuroticim

    • B. 

      Introversion

    • C. 

      Extraversion


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