Sample
Population
Inferential
Descriptive
Descriptive
Inferential
Population
Sample
Because most researchers are lazy
Because it is usually impossible to study an entire population
Because populations can only be studied if the data is continuous
Because samples are typically more accurate than populations
Ordinal
Continuous
Discrete
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Nominal
Ratio
Nominal; ordinal
Interval; ratio
Ordinal; interval
Discrete; continuous
If our independent variable had too many levels
If our dependent variable was continuous
If we were using a between-groups research design
The presence of a confounding variable
Measures what it was intended to measure.
Predicts actual behavior.
Is consistent.
Co-varies with the independent variable.
Not valid.
Not reliable but probably valid.
Not reliable.
Neither reliable nor valid.
Operational definitions.
Hypothesis testing.
Specificity of measurement.
Continuous observations.
Operational definitions.
A correlational study.
Random assignment.
Random selection.
Between-groups
Within-groups
Correlation
Independent groups
Descriptive statistics.
Inferential statistics.
Nominal variables.
Ordinal variables.
Randomly assigning participants to conditions of an independent variable.
Drawing conclusions about the relationship between variables.
Using sample data to make general estimates about the larger population.
Organizing, summarizing, and communicating a group of numerical observations.
Independent variable.
Population.
Sample.
Dependent variable.
Continuous
Ordinal
Discrete
Nominal
Ratio
Interval
Ordinal
Nominal
Nominal variables.
Ordinal variables.
Interval variables.
Ratio variables.
The sample is small.
It rained the day of the physical test.
The company funding the test was biased.
People who are regular sports drinkers may be more athletic than those who are not.
Variables.
Operational definitions.
Levels or conditions.
Confounds.
Activity level of the child.
Type of puppet used by the experimenter.
Number of imitated actions.
Length of the experiment.
Involves each participant participating in all levels of the experiment.
Includes only one condition.
Is sometimes referred to as a longitudinal design.
Involves each participant experiencing only one level of the experiment.
Correlational
Repeated measures
Within-groups
Between-groups
Within-groups
Between-groups
Experimental
Correlational
Descriptive statistics.
A correlational research design.
A within-groups research design.
Inferential statistics.
Does not have a true zero point.
Has equal intervals between numbers.
Does not preserve a rank order in the assignment of numbers.
Is used only for placing participants into categories.
Independent
Scale
Dependent
Discrete
Ratio
Nominal
Interval
Ordinal
It is accepted in the Encyclopedia of Psychology.
Enough experimenters decide to use it in their research.
The same results are obtained each time it is measured.
Other researchers demonstrate that it does measure what it is supposed to measure.
Noise
Extraneous
Confounding
Dependent
Ordinal
Nominal
Interval
Ratio
The length of the study
The participants' behavior
The Stanford campus
The role of prisoner or guard
Playing video games for more than 3 hours a day causes college-aged men to have negative feelings toward women.
Playing the video game Destroyer causes men to have worse attitudes toward women than if they play a less violent video game.
Playing video games that advocate violence leads men to have bad feelings toward women.
Playing the video game Destroyer for 2 hours a day for one week will cause men to have negative attitudes toward women as measured by the Hostility Toward Women scale.
Quasi-experiment
Between-groups design
Correlation
Within-groups design
Population statistics.
Sample statistics.
Descriptive statistics.
Inferential statistics.
Variable.
Population.
Continuous observation.
Sample.
If the specific procedures used in the measure are identified.
Is low in measurement error.
Its results are consistent.
Measures what it is supposed to measure.
Random assignment is always used.
Each condition contains different people.
Participants are randomly assigned to conditions.
Participants experience all conditions of the study.
Inferential statistics typically have greater reliability than descriptive statistics.
Descriptive statistics are better able to control confounding variables than inferential statistics
Inferential statistics typically involve larger amounts of data than descriptive statistics.
Inferential statistics allow researchers to draw conclusions about populations while descriptive statistics simply organize and summarize data.
It helps to control confounding variables.
It ensures that the measures used are valid.
It eliminates the problem of dependent variables.
It ensures that the measures used are reliable.
Ratio
Ordinal
Interval
Nominal
Ratio
Ordinal
Interval
Nominal
Change
Operational
Dependent
Confounding
Consistency.
Levels.
Reliability.
Validity.
The students
Performance on the quizzes
Their attitude toward the class
Getting positive feedback or not getting positive feedback
Between-groups
Within-groups
Experimental
Correlational
Mode.
Population.
Median.
Sample.