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Because most researchers are lazy
Because it is usually impossible to study an entire population
Because populations can only be studied if the data is continuous
Because samples are typically more accurate than populations
If our independent variable had too many levels
If our dependent variable was continuous
If we were using a between-groups research design
The presence of a confounding variable
Measures what it was intended to measure.
Predicts actual behavior.
Co-varies with the independent variable.
Not reliable but probably valid.
Neither reliable nor valid.
Specificity of measurement.
A correlational study.
Randomly assigning participants to conditions of an independent variable.
Drawing conclusions about the relationship between variables.
Using sample data to make general estimates about the larger population.
Organizing, summarizing, and communicating a group of numerical observations.
The sample is small.
It rained the day of the physical test.
The company funding the test was biased.
People who are regular sports drinkers may be more athletic than those who are not.
Levels or conditions.
Activity level of the child.
Type of puppet used by the experimenter.
Number of imitated actions.
Length of the experiment.
Involves each participant participating in all levels of the experiment.
Includes only one condition.
Is sometimes referred to as a longitudinal design.
Involves each participant experiencing only one level of the experiment.
A correlational research design.
A within-groups research design.
Does not have a true zero point.
Has equal intervals between numbers.
Does not preserve a rank order in the assignment of numbers.
Is used only for placing participants into categories.
It is accepted in the Encyclopedia of Psychology.
Enough experimenters decide to use it in their research.
The same results are obtained each time it is measured.
Other researchers demonstrate that it does measure what it is supposed to measure.
The length of the study
The participants' behavior
The Stanford campus
The role of prisoner or guard
Playing video games for more than 3 hours a day causes college-aged men to have negative feelings toward women.
Playing the video game Destroyer causes men to have worse attitudes toward women than if they play a less violent video game.
Playing video games that advocate violence leads men to have bad feelings toward women.
Playing the video game Destroyer for 2 hours a day for one week will cause men to have negative attitudes toward women as measured by the Hostility Toward Women scale.
If the specific procedures used in the measure are identified.
Is low in measurement error.
Its results are consistent.
Measures what it is supposed to measure.
Random assignment is always used.
Each condition contains different people.
Participants are randomly assigned to conditions.
Participants experience all conditions of the study.
Inferential statistics typically have greater reliability than descriptive statistics.
Descriptive statistics are better able to control confounding variables than inferential statistics
Inferential statistics typically involve larger amounts of data than descriptive statistics.
Inferential statistics allow researchers to draw conclusions about populations while descriptive statistics simply organize and summarize data.
It helps to control confounding variables.
It ensures that the measures used are valid.
It eliminates the problem of dependent variables.
It ensures that the measures used are reliable.
Performance on the quizzes
Their attitude toward the class
Getting positive feedback or not getting positive feedback