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Biology 1402 Exam 2 (part 1)

60 Questions
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  • 1. 
    Which of the following features in embryonic development of deuterostomes does not represent a major difference from protostomes? 
    • A. 

      Pattern of blastopore formation

    • B. 

      Radial cleavage pattern for cell division

    • C. 

      Number of primary germ layers

    • D. 

      The first cleavage divisions of the fertilized embryo produce identical daughter cells, and any single cell, if separated can develop into a complete organism.

    • E. 

      The coelom is normally produced by an invagination of the archenteron.

  • 2. 
    Of the following combination of statements about protostomes and deuterostomes, which choice is correct?  
    • A. 

      Protostomes are animals in which the mouth develops from the blastopore. The anus or anal pore of protostomes develops from the second opening. Deuterostomes are animals in which the anus develops from the blastopore and the mouth develops secondarily later in their development.

    • B. 

      Protostomes are animals in which the anus develops from the blastopore. The mouth of protostomes develops from the second opening. Deuterostomes are animals in which the anus develops from the blastopore and the mouth develops secondarily later in their development.

    • C. 

      Protostomes are animals in which the mouth develops from the blastopore. The anus or anal pore of protostomes develops from the second opening. Deuterostomes are animals in which the mouth develops from the blastopore and the anus develops secondarily later in their development. Protostomes are animals in which the mouth develops from the blastopore. The anus or anal pore of protostomes develops from the second opening. Deuterostomes are animals in which the mouth develops from the blastopore and the anus develops secondarily later in their development.

    • D. 

      Protostomes are animals in which the mouth or anus develops from the blastopore, depending on the species. Deuterostomes are animals in which the mouth and anus develops from the blastopore, depending on the species.

  • 3. 
    Select the incorrect statement about deuterostomes from the following choices.
    • A. 

      Deuterostomes demonstrate radial cleavage in their embryonic development.

    • B. 

      Deuterostomes display indeterminate development.

    • C. 

      A deuterostome's coelom is produced by invagination of the archenteron.

    • D. 

      Examples of deuterostomes are echinoderms and chordates.

    • E. 

      Includes most bilaterians, including flatworms, nematodes, mollusks, annelids and arthropods.

  • 4. 
    Protostomes develop through
    • A. 

      Spiral cleavage

    • B. 

      Radial cleavage

    • C. 

      Axial cleavage

    • D. 

      Polar cleavage

    • E. 

      Protocleavage

  • 5. 
    In animals that display indeterminate develpment
    • A. 

      Embryonic cells have a predetermined fate

    • B. 

      Bilateral symmetry cannot develop

    • C. 

      Early embryonic cells, if separated from the embryo, can develop into complete organisms.

    • D. 

      Embryonic cells show spiral cleavage.

    • E. 

      The blastopore develops into the mouth.

  • 6. 
    A biologist discovered a new animal. Upon studying embryonic development, she observed radial cleavage with the blastopore developing into an anus. This animal was categorized as a
    • A. 

      Parazoan

    • B. 

      Radiata

    • C. 

      Deuterstome

    • D. 

      Protostome

    • E. 

      Pseudocoelomate

  • 7. 
    In which plylum of marine animals did symmetrical body plans first evolve?
    • A. 

      Radiata

    • B. 

      Ctenophora

    • C. 

      Cnidaria

    • D. 

      Echinodermata

    • E. 

      Parazoa

  • 8. 
    All of the following features are associated with bilateral symmetry in animals except
    • A. 

      Conferring anterior and posterior areas to the body.

    • B. 

      Allowing for greater efficiency in movement.

    • C. 

      Creating a body design of two mirror images.

    • D. 

      Allowing for efficiency in seeking food and mates.

    • E. 

      Being sessile.

  • 9. 
    Solid worms that lack a body cavity are known as
    • A. 

      Acoelomates.

    • B. 

      Pseudocoelomates.

    • C. 

      Triploblastic.

    • D. 

      Coelomates.

    • E. 

      Diploblastic.

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is not true about animals?
    • A. 

      They constitute millions of species.

    • B. 

      They are very diverse in form.

    • C. 

      They were some of the first organisms on the earth.

    • D. 

      They show great mobility.

    • E. 

      They are found in every conceivable habitat.

  • 11. 
    Animals are distinct among multicellular organisms in all of the following features except
    • A. 

      Their cells lack rigid cell walls and are flexible.

    • B. 

      They can move more rapidly and in more complex ways than members in other eukaryotic kingdoms.

    • C. 

      They develop from a zygote in a characteristic embryonic development.

    • D. 

      They show great diversity in size, form and structure.

    • E. 

      They are homotrophic.

  • 12. 
    Molecular analysis suggests that the rapid diversification during the Cambrian explosion may have been due to evolution of -------------. 
    • A. 

      Definite shape and symmetry.

    • B. 

      Tissues organized into organs and organ systems.

    • C. 

      Distinct embryonic layers which differentiate into adult tissues.

    • D. 

      The Hox genes.

    • E. 

      Having cells organized into tissue layers.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following terms is mismatched with its meaning or characteristics?
    • A. 

      Diploblastic- ectoderm and mesoderm

    • B. 

      Triploblastic- ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

    • C. 

      Parazoa- lacks symmetry; no tissues

    • D. 

      Eumetazoa- definite symmetry; tissues organized

    • E. 

      Chordate- animal with notochord

  • 14. 
    Select the correct choice to answer to the following question. What are the three animal phyla that dominate animal life on land?
    • A. 

      Cnidaria, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes

    • B. 

      Porifera, Arthropoda, Nematoda

    • C. 

      Nematoday, Chordata, Cnidaria

    • D. 

      Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata

    • E. 

      Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Arthropoda

  • 15. 
    Bilateral symmetrical animals have evolved three body cavity plans. Each of the following statements is correct with the exception of one. Select the exception.
    • A. 

      Acoelomates have no body cavity.

    • B. 

      Coelomates have a body cavity lined with mesodermal cells.

    • C. 

      Coelomates have a fluid filled cavity that develops entirely within the mesoderm.

    • D. 

      Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity that is located between the ectoderm and the endoderm.

  • 16. 
    A zoologist studies an animal that is a deuterostome. Which of the choices makes the sentence that follows incorrect? You know that deuterostomes
    • A. 

      Are bilateral symmetrical

    • B. 

      Evolved from protostomes.

    • C. 

      Are animals in which the blastopore develops into the mouth.

    • D. 

      Are animals in which any cell can develop into a complete organism.

    • E. 

      Are coelomates.

  • 17. 
    Segmentation is the subdivision of the body into segments or metameres. True segmentation is found in which of the following phyla selections? 
    • A. 

      Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda

    • B. 

      Echinodermata, Platyhelminthes, Cnidaria

    • C. 

      Mollusca, Chordata, Annelida

    • D. 

      Arthropoda, Chordata, Porifera

    • E. 

      Arthropoda, Annelida, Chordata

  • 18. 
    Molecular data confirm that cniderians branched off from the rest of animals before _____ evolved.
    • A. 

      Echinoderms

    • B. 

      Porifera

    • C. 

      Mollusks

    • D. 

      Bilaterial symmetry

    • E. 

      Arthropods

  • 19. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a vertebrate?
    • A. 

      Radial cleavage

    • B. 

      Indeterminate development

    • C. 

      Circulatory system present

    • D. 

      Diploblastic

    • E. 

      Coelomate

  • 20. 
    Which of the following is not correct regarding the origin of parazoans and eumetazoans?
    • A. 

      The common ancestor was a protist.

    • B. 

      The common ancestor was a hollow spherical colony of flagellated cells.

    • C. 

      Cells within sponges resemble choanoflagellate protists.

    • D. 

      Sponges evolved independently from eumetazoans.

    • E. 

      Metazoans represent a monophyletic group.

  • 21. 
    Which one of the following terms applies to the phylum Mollusca?
    • A. 

      Protostome

    • B. 

      Pseudocoelomate

    • C. 

      Parazoa

    • D. 

      Diploblastic

    • E. 

      Asymmetry

  • 22. 
    Which one of the following terms does not apply to the phylum Chordata?
    • A. 

      Eumetazoa

    • B. 

      Diploblastic

    • C. 

      Bilateral symmetry

    • D. 

      Deuterostome

    • E. 

      Coelomate

  • 23. 
    Which one of the following terms applies to the phylum Platyhelminthes?
    • A. 

      Spiral cleavage

    • B. 

      Protostome

    • C. 

      Diploblastic

    • D. 

      Acoelomate

    • E. 

      Radial symmetry

  • 24. 
    Which one of the following terms applies to the phylum Nematoda?
    • A. 

      Parazoa

    • B. 

      Radial cleavage

    • C. 

      Diploblastic

    • D. 

      Deuterostome

    • E. 

      Pseudocoelomate

  • 25. 
    Which one of the following terms does not apply to the phylum Annelida?
    • A. 

      Bilateral symmetry

    • B. 

      Triploblastic

    • C. 

      Protostome

    • D. 

      Indeterminate cleavage

    • E. 

      Spiral cleavage

  • 26. 
    Which one of the following terms applies to the phylum Chidaria?
    • A. 

      Radial symmetry

    • B. 

      Pseudocoelomate

    • C. 

      Parazoa

    • D. 

      Triploblastic

    • E. 

      Protostome

  • 27. 
    Which one of the following terms does not apply to adults in the phylum Echinodermata?
    • A. 

      Triploblastic

    • B. 

      Bilateral symmetry

    • C. 

      Coelomate

    • D. 

      Deuterostome

    • E. 

      Eumetazoa

  • 28. 
    Which one of the following terms does not apply to the phylum Porifera?
    • A. 

      Parazoa

    • B. 

      No true tissues

    • C. 

      Asymmetry

    • D. 

      Acoelomate

    • E. 

      Diploblastic

  • 29. 
    Which one of the following terms does not apply to the phylum Nematoda? 
    • A. 

      Asymmetry

    • B. 

      Protostome

    • C. 

      Coelomate

    • D. 

      Triploblastic

    • E. 

      Determinate cleavage

  • 30. 
    Select the phylum that includes deuterostome animals that are exclusively marine and have radial symmetry as adults. 
    • A. 

      Porifera

    • B. 

      Rotifera

    • C. 

      Echinodermata

    • D. 

      Chordata

    • E. 

      Cnidaria

  • 31. 
    Which one of the following terms applies to the phylum Bryozoa?
    • A. 

      Radial symmetry

    • B. 

      Lophophore

    • C. 

      Parazoa

    • D. 

      Deuterostome

    • E. 

      Radial cleavage

  • 32. 
    Select the following phylum that includes protostome animals that are segmented, bilaterally symmetric, and have a chitinous exoskeleton.  
    • A. 

      Arthropoda

    • B. 

      Annelida

    • C. 

      Mollusca

    • D. 

      Brachiopoda

    • E. 

      Platyhelminthes

  • 33. 
    Which one of the following terms applies to the phylum Ctenophora?  
    • A. 

      Often bioluminescent marine animals

    • B. 

      Protostome

    • C. 

      Coelomate

    • D. 

      Deuterostome

    • E. 

      Parazoa

  • 34. 
    Select the phylum that includes coelomate, bilaterian animals that have a structure called a notochord.  
    • A. 

      Echinodermata

    • B. 

      Annelida

    • C. 

      Arthropoda

    • D. 

      Mollusca

    • E. 

      Chordata

  • 35. 
    Select the following phylum that includes animals that are unsegmented, acoelomate, and have a digestive cavity with a single opening. 
    • A. 

      Annelida

    • B. 

      Platyhelminthes

    • C. 

      Nematoda

    • D. 

      Cnidaria

    • E. 

      Rotifera

  • 36. 
    Which one of the following features would indicate that an animal is not a protostome? 
    • A. 

      Bilateral symmetry

    • B. 

      Open or closed circulatory system

    • C. 

      Blastopore opens into the archenteron

    • D. 

      Three primary tissue layers

    • E. 

      Body parts arranged around a central axis

  • 37. 
    Which one of the following is not the type of evidence used in a traditional classification of animals? 
    • A. 

      Coelom type

    • B. 

      RRNA sequences

    • C. 

      Symmetry

    • D. 

      Number of embryonic tissue layers

    • E. 

      Fate of the blastopore

  • 38. 
    Which one of the following features of animals is unique to animals? 
    • A. 

      Cells organized into tissues

    • B. 

      Movement associated with muscle tissue and nervous tissue

    • C. 

      Heterotrophism

    • D. 

      Cells without walls

    • E. 

      Embryonic development

  • 39. 
    Which one of the following statements about molecular systematics and its role in the classification of animals is false?
    • A. 

      Clades consist of monophyletic taxa sharing the same gene sequences.

    • B. 

      Different molecules sometimes support different taxonomic relationships.

    • C. 

      Molecular data suggests that arthropods and annelids are part of the same clade.

    • D. 

      Molecular data suggests that a new group of "molting" animals, the Ecdysozoa, is monophyletic.

    • E. 

      Combining data from many different molecules gives the best picture of phylogenetic relationships.

  • 40. 
    Which one of the following statements about segmentation is false?
    • A. 

      Segmentation can produce redundant systems.

    • B. 

      Segmentation can enhance locomotion

    • C. 

      Only three phyla show true segmentation.

    • D. 

      The evolution of segmentation is highly convergent.

    • E. 

      Although fusion of segments is common, a study of embryology makes segmentation evident.

  • 41. 
    Which one of the following statements about origins of animals is false?
    • A. 

      Most taxonomists agree that the origin of the metazoans is polyphyletic.

    • B. 

      The multinucleate hypothesis states that metazoans arose from multinuclear protists.

    • C. 

      The colonial flagellate hypothesis states that metazoans arose from choanoflagellate-like protists.

    • D. 

      The polyphyletic origin hypothesis states that the sponges evolved independently from the eumetazoans.

    • E. 

      Molecular data shows that metazoans are more closely related to flagellates than to ciliates.

  • 42. 
    Two phyla that belong to the Ecdysozoan clade are
    • A. 

      Platyhelminthes and Nematoda.

    • B. 

      Nematoda and Arthropoda.

    • C. 

      Annelida and Mollusca.

    • D. 

      Mollusca and Arthropoda.

    • E. 

      Platyhelminthes and Arthropoda.

  • 43. 
    Sponges are unique in possessing special flagellated cells whose beating drives water through the body cavity. These specialized cells are known as
    • A. 

      Cnidocytes.

    • B. 

      Planulae.

    • C. 

      Nematocysts.

    • D. 

      Choanocytes.

    • E. 

      Spicules.

  • 44. 
    Radially symmetrical marine animals that propel themselves through the water by means of eight comb-like plates of fused cilia belong to the Phylum
    • A. 

      Cnidaria.

    • B. 

      Ctenophora.

    • C. 

      Platyhelminthes.

    • D. 

      Eumentazoan

    • E. 

      Parazoa

  • 45. 
    Most species of tapeworms live in the
    • A. 

      Stomachs of vertebrates.

    • B. 

      Lungs of vertebrates.

    • C. 

      Livers of vertebrates.

    • D. 

      Intestines of vertebrates.

    • E. 

      Hearts of vertebrates.

  • 46. 
    Which of the following is the key transitions in body design that are responsible for most of the differences of Eumetazoa? 
    • A. 

      Distinct tissues

    • B. 

      Radial to bilateral symmetry

    • C. 

      No body cavity to body cavity

    • D. 

      Unsegmented to segmented bodies

    • E. 

      Protostome to deuterostome development

  • 47. 
    Sponges exhibit all of the following general characteristics except 
    • A. 

      Eating by flow of water through canals and pores.

    • B. 

      Free-swimming larvae; sessile adults.

    • C. 

      Lack of specialized tissues and organs.

    • D. 

      Lack of symmetry (may be radial in small species).

    • E. 

      Head or appendages, mouth or anus.

  • 48. 
    The vase-like body of a simple sponge is likely to contain all of the following materials or layers except
    • A. 

      A digestive cavity lined with enzyme-secreting cells.

    • B. 

      Mesophyl, a protein-rich matrix.

    • C. 

      A somewhat contractile outer epithelium.

    • D. 

      Specialized collar cells or choanocytes.

    • E. 

      Spicules or a spongin skeleton, or both.

  • 49. 
    All of the following are true about Cnidarians except
    • A. 

      They are widespread and abundant especially in shallow, warm-temperature or subtropical waters.

    • B. 

      They are basically gelatinous in composition.

    • C. 

      Their bodies are made up of distinct organs.

    • D. 

      They exist either as polyps or medusae.

    • E. 

      They contain specialized cells called "cnidocytes" within which nematocysts are found.

  • 50. 
    Which of the following belongs to the phylum Ctenophora?
    • A. 

      Hydra

    • B. 

      Jellyfish

    • C. 

      Anemones

    • D. 

      Comb jellies

    • E. 

      Corals

  • 51. 
    Anthozoan corals are characterized by all of the following except
    • A. 

      Some may have hard calcium carbonate exoskeletons.

    • B. 

      The coral animals are always found in nutrient-rich waters.

    • C. 

      Some participate in the formation of shallow-water limestone ridges.

    • D. 

      Many harbor symbiotic algae.

    • E. 

      They are a class of cnidarians.

  • 52. 
    Phylum Platyhelminthes is characterized by all of the following except
    • A. 

      Bilateral symmetry.

    • B. 

      Solid bodies with an inner digestive cavity.

    • C. 

      Flat ribbon-shaped bodies with dorso-ventral parts and anterior head.

    • D. 

      All are free-living.

    • E. 

      Possess an excretory system.

  • 53. 
    Flatworms are similar to sponges, cnidarians, and ctenophores in which of the following?
    • A. 

      Contain an excretory system lined with a network of fine tubules running through the body

    • B. 

      Contain an incomplete gut with only one opening

    • C. 

      Cilia line the hollow centers of bulb-like flame cells

    • D. 

      Lack circulatory systems for transport of oxygen and food

    • E. 

      Most are hermaphroditic

  • 54. 
    Flukes are parasitic worms whose hosts during the larval stage are usually
    • A. 

      Aquatic insects.

    • B. 

      Cyprinid fishes.

    • C. 

      Humans.

    • D. 

      Free-living flatworms.

    • E. 

      Snails.

  • 55. 
    The stage in the fluke's life history in which it escapes from the snail and is ready to enter the intermediate or final host is the
    • A. 

      Cercariae.

    • B. 

      Fertilized eggs.

    • C. 

      Miracidia.

    • D. 

      Rediae.

    • E. 

      Sporocytes.

  • 56. 
    Schistosomiasis is a serious disorder afflicting humans mainly in tropical regions; it is caused by a
    • A. 

      Carp or goldfish.

    • B. 

      Fluke.

    • C. 

      Nematode.

    • D. 

      Snail.

    • E. 

      Tapeworm.

  • 57. 
    The long, flat bodies of tapeworms are made up of repeating segments known as
    • A. 

      Antheridia.

    • B. 

      Gut blocks.

    • C. 

      Proglottids.

    • D. 

      Scolex.

    • E. 

      Miracidia.

  • 58. 
    Which of the following is not true about beef tapeworms?
    • A. 

      Occur as a juvenile in the intermuscular tissue of cattle

    • B. 

      Found as an adult in the intestines of human beings

    • C. 

      Able to produce embryos, which may be viable for up to five months

    • D. 

      Able to reach adult length of up to 10 meters

    • E. 

      More than 10% of the cattle are infected in the United States

  • 59. 
    Which of the following is not true about pseudocoelomates? 
    • A. 

      They possess an internal body cavity called a pseudocoel.

    • B. 

      They contain a bony skeleton.

    • C. 

      They possess a complete, one-way digestive tract.

    • D. 

      The pseudocoel permits resistance to muscle contraction.

    • E. 

      They lack a defined circulatory system.

  • 60. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of rotifers? 
    • A. 

      Bilaterally symmetrical

    • B. 

      Corona is food gathering organ

    • C. 

      Live on mouthparts of lobsters

    • D. 

      Complete gut with mouth and anus

    • E. 

      Most occur in fresh water