Very weak compared with kinetic energies of the molecules
Strong enough to hold molecules relatively close together
Strong enough to keep the molecules confined to vibrating about their fixed lattice points
Not strong enough to keep molecules from moving past each other
Strong enough to hold molecules relatively close together but not strong enough to keep molecules from moving past each other
More separated, more
More separated, less
Closer together, more
Closer together , less
They flow and are highly ordered.
They are highly ordered and not compressible.
They flow and are slightly compressible.
They assume both the volume and shape of their containers.
London dispersion forces
Both hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole interactions
London dispersion force
HF and NH3
The viscosity of the liquid
The type of material the container is made of
The relative magnitudes of cohesive forces in the liquid and adhesive forces between the liquid and its container
The amount of hydrogen bonding in the liquid
The volume of the liquid
Supercritical fluid and gas
Will melt rather than sublime at STP.
Will have a critical point of 211 K and 2.93 atm.
Will have a critical point of 233 K and 2.93 atm.
Will sublime rather than melt at STP.
Will not have a critical point.
Both metallic and covalent network
Excellent thermal conductivity.
Excellent electrical conductivity.
Variable melting point.
O, S, Se
N, O, F
Na, Mg, K
S, Se, Si
Na, Ne, Mg
Azimuthal quantum number
Mg > Na > P > Si > Ar
Ar > Si > P > Na > Mg
Si > P > Ar > Na > Mg
Na > Mg > Si > P > Ar
Ar > P > Si > Mg > Na
Less efficient than that by valence electrons.
More efficient than that by valence electrons.
Essentially identical to that by valence electrons.
Responsible for a general decrease in atomic radius going down a group
Both essentially identical to that by valence electrons and responsible for a general decrease in atomic radius going down a group