Renal Failure (acute & Chronic) By Rnpedia.com

65 Questions  I  By Rnpedia
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1.  How much water do normal kidneys excrete each day?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  A client suffering from acute renal failure has an unexpected increase in urinary output to 150ml/hr. The nurse assesses that the client has entered the second phase of acute renal failure. Nursing actions throughout this phase include observation for signs and symptoms of   
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Which of the following are abnormal to be found in the urine?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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4.  A patient rapidly progressing toward ESRD asks about the possibility of a kidney transplant. In responding to the patient, the nurse knows that contraindications to kidney transplantation include
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  A client is admitted to the hospital and has a diagnosis of early stage chronic renal failure. Which of the following would the nurse expect to note on assessment of the client?
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B.
C.
D.
6.  __________ failure is caused by obstruction of urine flow. (urethral obstruction by enlarged prostate or tumor; ureteral or kidney pelvis obstruction by calculi)
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  ________ failure is caused by Acute damage to renal tissue and nephrons or acute tubular necrosis: abrupt decline in tubular and glomerular function due to either prolonged ischemia and/or exposure to nephrotoxins. (Acute glomerulonephritis, malignant hypertension, ischemia; nephrotoxic drugs or substances; red blood cell destruction; muscle tissur breakdown due to trauma, heatstroke)
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C.
D.
8.  A client in acute renal failure is a candidate for continuous renal placement therapy (CRRT). The most common indication for use of CRRT is
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B.
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D.
9.  How acidic is urine compared to blood?
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B.
C.
D.
10.  During the _________ phase of Acute Renal Failure, Oliguria develops and the kidneys cannot efficiently eliminate metabolic wastes, water, electrolytes, and acids.
11.  What electrolytes are in urine?
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B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  How many ml/hr of urine output is the normal minimum?
13.  Acute renal failure is generally identified by oliguria (urine output <_____ mL/day).
14.  Clients with chronic renal failure should notify the physician of any weight:
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B.
C.
D.
15.  End-stage renal disease is defined as GFR less than ________________ ml/min per 1.73m2.
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16.  Whici is a normal value of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)?
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17.  Which phase of Acute Renal Failure results in FVE and edema due to salt and water retention, hypertension, Azotemia, hyperkalemia, muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, and high serum creatinine and BUN levels?
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B.
C.
D.
18.  After 1 week a client with acute renal failure moves, into the diuretic phase. During this phase the client must be carefully assessed for signs of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Marina with acute renal failure moves into the diuretic phase after one week of therapy. During this phase the client must be assessed for signs of developing:  
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  What is the most common early manifestation of kidney disease _____ and _____
21.  True or false? Creatinine, phosphate, sulfates, and uric acid should not be present in urine because they signify renal failure.
A.
B.
22.  What is the #1 cause of death when kidneys fail?
23.  What could a decrease in BUN/Creatinine ratio indicate?
24.  A female client is admitted with a diagnosis of acute renal failure. She is awake, alert, oriented, and complaining of severe back pain, nausea and vomiting and abdominal cramps. Her vital signs are blood pressure 100/70 mm Hg, pulse 110, respirations 30, and oral temperature 100.4°F (38°C). Her electrolytes are sodium 120 mEq/L, potassium 5.2 mEq/L; her urinary output for the first 8 hours is 50 ml. The client is displaying signs of which electrolyte imbalance?   
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The cause of ___________ failure is impaired blood supply to the kidney (Fluid Volume Deficit, hemorrhage, heart failure, shock)
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B.
C.
D.
26.  ESRD occurs when the GFR is less than ___ per minute.
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B.
C.
D.
27.  Nurse Tristan is caring for a male client in acute renal failure. The nurse should expect hypertonic glucose, insulin infusions, and sodium bicarbonate to be used to treat:    
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B.
C.
D.
28.  The charge nurse assigned in the care for a client with acute renal failure and hypernatremia to you, a newly graduated RN. Which actions can you delegate to the nursing assistant?    
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29.  The nurse is caring for the client who has had a renal biopsy. Which of the following interventions would the nurse avoid in the care of the client after this procedure?
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B.
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D.
30.  Which of these drugs is nephrotoxic?
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B.
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D.
31.  A female client with acute renal failure is undergoing dialysis for the first time. The nurse in charge monitors the client closely for dialysis equilibrium syndrome, a complication that is most common during the first few dialysis sessions. Typically, dialysis equilibrium syndrome causes:  
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B.
C.
D.
32.  The client with renal failure should be on which type of diet?
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B.
C.
D.
33.  The leading cause of ESRD is the client with a history of
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C.
D.
34.  Which of the following medications does not interfere with either creatinine secretion or the assay used to measure the serum creatinine?
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B.
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35.  Which diagnostic test would be monitored to evaluate glomerulat filtration rateand renal function?
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B.
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D.
36.  Nurse Liza is assigned to care for a client who has returned to the nursing unit after left nephrectomy. Nurse Liza’s highest priority would be…
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B.
C.
D.
37.  When the kidneys cannot effectively regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and eliminate metabolic waste products, intake of these substances must be regulated. Fluid and Sodium intahe are ________.
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B.
C.
38.  Agents that damage the kidney tissue are called:
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B.
C.
D.
39.  _________ is the most frequent complication during hemodialysis.
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D.
40.   The nurse is reviewing laboratory results on a client with acute renal failure. Which one of the following should be reported immediately?  
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B.
C.
D.
41.  Anti-hypertensive therapy in patients with chronic renal disease is for?
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D.
42.  The nurse is reviewing laboratory results on a client with acute renal failure. Which one of the following should be reported IMMEDIATELY?  
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  For a male client in the oliguric phase of acute renal failure (ARF), which nursing intervention is most important?  
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B.
C.
D.
44.  What is the # 1 renal function test?
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D.
45.  A client on peritoneal dialysis notices that the collecting bag of dialysate is cloudy, what is this an indication of?
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D.
46.  How much salt do normal kidneys excrete each day?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Clients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) must empty their peritoneal cavity and replace the dialysate every __________ hours.
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B.
C.
D.
48.  _________ renal Failure is a rapid decline in renal function with an abrupt onset
49.  A client with acute renal failure is aware that the most serious complication of this condition is:
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B.
C.
D.
50.  How much KCL do normal kidneys excrete each day?
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D.
51.  The nurse is performing an assessment on a client who has returned from the dialysis unit following hemodialysis. The client is complaining of a headache and nausea and is extremely restless. Which of the following is the most appropriate nursing action?
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B.
C.
D.
52.  The risk for __________________ is particularly high when ischemia and exposure to a nephrotoxin occur at the same time.
53.  How do kidneys control Na+ levels and K+ levels?
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B.
C.
54.  Signs and symptoms of acute kidney rejection that the nurse should teach the patient to observe for include
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B.
C.
D.
55.  ____________ is a treatment for renal failure in which blood id continuously circulated (artery to vein or vein to vein) and filtered, allowing excess water and solutes to empty into a collecting device. Fluid may be replaced with a balanced electrolyte solution as needed during treatment.
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B.
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D.
56.  ________ renal failure is a slow, insidious process of kidney destruction. It may go unrecognized for years as nephrons are destroyed and renal mass is reduced.
57.  What tests and results prove the presence of dilute urine?
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B.
C.
58.  Chronic kidney disease is defined by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) as evidence of structural or functional kidney abnormalities (abnormal urinalysis, imaging studies, or histology) that persists for at least ______________ months, with or without a decreased GFR.
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59.  "urine in the blood"
60.  Impaired metabolic processes such as Hyperkalemia, Acidosis, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperuricemia, and malnutrition are some effects of ___________.
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B.
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D.
61.  The client with ESRD tells the nurse that she hates the thought of being tied to the machine, but is also glad to start dialysis because she will be able to eat and drink what she wants. Based on this information, the nuse identifies the nursing diagnosis of
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B.
C.
D.
62.  What does urine mostly consist of?
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B.
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D.
63.  A history of infection specifically caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci is associated with which of the following disorders?
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B.
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D.
64.  When the kidneys have too few nephrons to excrete metabolic wastes and regulate fluid and electrolyte balance adequately, the client is said to have ____________, the final stage of Chronic Renal Failure.
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B.
C.
D.
65.  The most serious electrolyte disorder associated with kidney disease is
A.
B.
C.
D.
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