The Special Senses

54 Questions  I  By Ttsosi20
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  • 1. 
    What is the main function of the rods in the eye?
    • A. 

      Depth perception

    • B. 

      Color vision

    • C. 

      Vision in dim light

    • D. 

      Accommodation for near vision


  • 2. 
    2) What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
    • A. 

      Aqueous humor

    • B. 

      Lens

    • C. 

      Cornea

    • D. 

      Iris


  • 3. 
    Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.
    • A. 

      Cochlea

    • B. 

      Semicircular canals

    • C. 

      Tympanic membrane

    • D. 

      Vestibule


  • 4. 
    Which of the follow types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?
    • A. 

      olfactory receptor cells

    • B. 

      retinal bipolar cells

    • C. 

      retinal ganglion cells

    • D. 

      auditory outer and inner hair cells


  • 5. 
    The oil component found in tears is produced by the ________.
    • A. 

      Lacrimal glands

    • B. 

      Ciliary glands

    • C. 

      Conjunctiva

    • D. 

      Tarsal glands


  • 6. 
    The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.
    • A. 

      Semicircular canals

    • B. 

      Macula

    • C. 

      Utricle

    • D. 

      Cochlear duct


  • 7. 
    Farsightedness is more properly called ________.
    • A. 

      Myopia

    • B. 

      Hypopia

    • C. 

      Hyperopia

    • D. 

      Presbyopia


  • 8. 
    Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.
    • A. 

      Eye

    • B. 

      Ears

    • C. 

      Skin

    • D. 

      Nose


  • 9. 
    Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
    • A. 

      Pinna

    • B. 

      External acoustic meatus

    • C. 

      Tympanic membrane

    • D. 

      Pharyngotympanic tube


  • 10. 
    Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.
    • A. 

      Go to the superior colliculus only

    • B. 

      Pass posteriorly without crossing over the chiasma

    • C. 

      Divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing

    • D. 

      Cross over to the opposire side at the chiasma


  • 11. 
    Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.
    • A. 

      Is not a living tissue

    • B. 

      Has no nerve supply

    • C. 

      has no blood supply

    • D. 

      Does not contain connective tissue


  • 12. 
    The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?
    • A. 

      Scala vestibuli

    • B. 

      External acoustic meatus

    • C. 

      Pharyngotympanic tube

    • D. 

      Scala tympani


  • 13. 
    There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?
    • A. 

      Bipolar cells

    • B. 

      Ganglion cells

    • C. 

      Cone cells

    • D. 

      Rod cells


  • 14. 
    The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partial crossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.
    • A. 

      Superior colliculi

    • B. 

      Lateral geniculate body of the thalamus

    • C. 

      Visual cortex

    • D. 

      Temporal lobe


  • 15. 
    As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.
    • A. 

      Outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

    • B. 

      Outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium

    • C. 

      Inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

    • D. 

      Inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium


  • 16. 
    Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?
    • A. 

      In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic

    • B. 

      The receptors generate an action potential in response to chemical stimuli

    • C. 

      Complete adaption occurs in about one to five minutes.

    • D. 

      All gustatory receptors have the same threshold for activation


  • 17. 
    Taste buds are not found ________.
    • A. 

      In fungiform papillae

    • B. 

      In filiform papillae

    • C. 

      In circumvallate papillae

    • D. 

      Lining the buccal cavity


  • 18. 
    Select the correct statement about olfaction.
    • A. 

      Olfactory receptors have a high degree of specificity toward a single type of chemical.

    • B. 

      Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.

    • C. 

      Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.

    • D. 

      Olfactory adaptation is only due to fading of receptor cell response.


  • 19. 
    What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close?
    • A. 

      Lacrimal fluid

    • B. 

      Ciliary gland secretions

    • C. 

      Tarsal gland secretions

    • D. 

      Conjunctival fluid


  • 20. 
    hich of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce it?
    • A. 

      Sweetorganic substances such as sugar and some lead salts

    • B. 

      Souracids

    • C. 

      Saltymetal ions

    • D. 

      Bitteralkaloids

    • E. 

      Umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine


  • 21. 
    U.S. employees must wear hearing protection at ________ dB or above.
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      90

    • C. 

      80

    • D. 

      70


  • 22. 
    What is a modiolus?
    • A. 

      Bone in the center of a semicircular canal

    • B. 

      Bone around the cochlea

    • C. 

      A bone pillar in the center of the cochlea

    • D. 

      A bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves


  • 23. 
    Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?
    • A. 

      The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.

    • B. 

      Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes

    • C. 

      Visual pigment content is reduced in both rods and cones.

    • D. 

      The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function


  • 24. 
    Dark adaptation ________.
    • A. 

      Is much faster than light adaptation

    • B. 

      Results in inhibition of rod function

    • C. 

      Involves improvement of acuity and color vision

    • D. 

      Involves accumulation of rhodopsin


  • 25. 
    Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.
    • A. 

      Thalamus

    • B. 

      Occipital lobe of the cortex

    • C. 

      Chiasma

    • D. 

      Superior calliculus


  • 26. 
    In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the ________.
    • A. 

      Medial retina

    • B. 

      Lateral geniculate body

    • C. 

      Primary visual cortex

    • D. 

      Optic chiasma


  • 27. 
    Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark.
    • A. 

      Pretectal nuclei

    • B. 

      Lateral geniculate body

    • C. 

      Superior colliculi

    • D. 

      Suprachiasmatic nucleus


  • 28. 
    Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.
    • A. 

      Motor cortex

    • B. 

      Visual cortex

    • C. 

      Brain stem reflex centers

    • D. 

      Back muscles


  • 29. 
    Motion sickness seems to ________.
    • A. 

      Respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins

    • B. 

      Respond best to medication that "boosts" vestibular inputs

    • C. 

      Result from activation of nausea centers in the brain stem

    • D. 

      Result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs


  • 30. 
    In the uterus ________.
    • A. 

      The fetus cannot see and therefore visual cortical connections are not made

    • B. 

      The fetus can see only light and shadow, but not forms, so partial visual connections are made

    • C. 

      Despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established

    • D. 

      Scanty visual connections are made that proliferate greatly during infancy


  • 31. 
    Most newborns ________.
    • A. 

      Are myopic

    • B. 

      Often use only one eye at a time

    • C. 

      See in tones of red and green only

    • D. 

      Cry with copious tears


  • 32. 
    The blind spot of the eye is where ________.
    • A. 

      More rods than cones are found

    • B. 

      The macula lutea is located

    • C. 

      Only cones occur

    • D. 

      The optic nerve leaves the eye


  • 33. 
    The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________.
    • A. 

      Mesenchyme

    • B. 

      Optic discs

    • C. 

      Optic vesicles

    • D. 

      Optic cups


  • 34. 
    Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?
    • A. 

      Frequency: loudness

    • B. 

      Quality: frequency number

    • C. 

      Amplitude: sound intensity

    • D. 

      Frequency: wavelength number


  • 35. 
    Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.
    • A. 

      Substances in solution

    • B. 

      Stretching of the receptor cells

    • C. 

      The movement of otoliths

    • D. 

      Movement of a cupula


  • 36. 
    Which of the following could not be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?
    • A. 

      Macula lutea

    • B. 

      Optic chiasma

    • C. 

      Fovea centralis

    • D. 

      Optic disc


  • 37. 
    The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________.
    • A. 

      Rods and cones

    • B. 

      Bipolar cells

    • C. 

      Ganglion cells

    • D. 

      Amacrine cells


  • 38. 
     During dark adaptation ________.
    • A. 

      The sensitivity of the retina decreases

    • B. 

      The rate of rhodopsin breakdown is accelerated

    • C. 

      Rhodopsin accumulates in the rods

    • D. 

      The cones are activated


  • 39. 
    Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________.
    • A. 

      Ménière's syndrome

    • B. 

      Conjunctivitis

    • C. 

      Strabismus

    • D. 

      Motion sickness


  • 40. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?
    • A. 

      They are ciliated

    • B. 

      They are unipolar neurons

    • C. 

      They are chemoreceptors.

    • D. 

      They have a short life span of about 60 days


  • 41. 
    An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.
    • A. 

      Spiral organ (of Corti)

    • B. 

      Cupula

    • C. 

      Scala media

    • D. 

      Otoliths


  • 42. 
    Which of the following is true about light and vision?
    • A. 

      Human photoreceptors respond to light in the 100-300 nm range.

    • B. 

      When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for the color being experienced

    • C. 

      Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that slows down as it enters a medium of relatively less density

    • D. 

      The greater the incident angle of light striking a refractive surface, the less the amount of light bending.


  • 43. 
    The tarsal plate of the eyelid ________.
    • A. 

      Is composed of connective tissue surrounding a thin cartilage plate

    • B. 

      Is connected to the superior rectus muscle

    • C. 

      Is connected to the levator palpebrae

    • D. 

      Assists in the act of winking


  • 44. 
    Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?
    • A. 

      Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.

    • B. 

      In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.

    • C. 

      Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.

    • D. 

      If all cones are stimulated equally, all colors are absorbed by the cones and the color perceived is black.


  • 45. 
    Select the correct statement about equilibrium.
    • A. 

      The weight of the endolymph contained within the semicircular canals against the maculae is responsible for static equilibrium

    • B. 

      Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.

    • C. 

      Hair cells of both types of equilibrium hyperpolarize only, resulting in an increased rate of impulse transmission.

    • D. 

      Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation of the body continues at a constant rate


  • 46. 
    The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.
    • A. 

      Lateral rectus

    • B. 

      Superior oblique

    • C. 

      Inferior oblique

    • D. 

      Medial rectus


  • 47. 
    The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.
    • A. 

      Basal cells

    • B. 

      Gustatory hairs

    • C. 

      Fungiform papillae

    • D. 

      Taste buds


  • 48. 
    Light passes through the following structures in which order?
    • A. 

      Vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea

    • B. 

      Cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

    • C. 

      Cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor

    • D. 

      Aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor


  • 49. 
    Damage to the medial recti muscles would probably affect ________.
    • A. 

      Refraction

    • B. 

      Accommodation

    • C. 

      Convergence

    • D. 

      Pupil constriction


  • 50. 
    Which statement about sound localization is not true?
    • A. 

      It requires processing at the cortical level.

    • B. 

      It requires input from both ears.

    • C. 

      It uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears.

    • D. 

      It is difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline.


  • 51. 
    Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?
    • A. 

      Impacted cerumen

    • B. 

      Middle ear infection

    • C. 

      Cochlear nerve degeneration

    • D. 

      Otosclerosis


  • 52. 
    Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.
    • A. 

      Depth perception

    • B. 

      High-acuity vision

    • C. 

      Night vision

    • D. 

      Movement perception


  • 53. 
    Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.
    • A. 

      X rays and UV

    • B. 

      Gamma rays and infrared

    • C. 

      Microwaves and radio waves

    • D. 

      UV and infrared


  • 54. 
    Ceruminous glands are ________.
    • A. 

      Saliva glands found at the base of the tongue

    • B. 

      Modified apocrine sweat glands

    • C. 

      Glands found in the lateral corners of your eye

    • D. 

      Modified taste buds


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