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Soc262 Final

159 Questions  I  By Grahamme
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SOC262 Final
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1.  The purpose of research that stresses examining a new area of interest or studying uncharted areas
2.  The paradigm that focuses on how race affects our understanding of social phenomena
3.  Breaking the rules is a technique employed by ethnomethodologists
A.
B.
4.  Deductive theory construction generally beigns with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Cameroon did a study in which he could identify a given person's responses but promised not to do so publicly. He employed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  A paradigm based on the view that social behavior can be explained in terms of genetic characteristics and behavior
7.  Scientists do not study individuals per se, but instead study social patterns reflecting
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Studies in which the units of analysis are studied at one point in time
9.  Professor Lodwicky used the 2000 United States Census and the 1990 Census to compare the average family sixe. This reflects which type of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The inductive approach to theory construction is seen most often in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The use of several different research methods to test the same finding
12.  Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "ten percent of families in a community move within a year" What unit of analysis is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  A student meets two fraternity men at a party who talk about all the partying they do. She then concludes that all fraternity men party all the time. What error in understanding does this example reflect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Identifying your major concepts and variables is the first step in constructing your theory
A.
B.
15.  Whose emphasis on positivism laid the foundation for the development of social science?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Which of the following is the best example of macrotheory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  The cause of a particular dependent variable.
18.  Professor Pellson noticed that the students who sat in the front row in her classes usually got A's. After observing this pattern over several semesters, she decided that students who sit in the front row are generally good students. This is an exaple of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  A researcher who wishes to become familiar with a new area of interest should use an explanatory approach.
A.
B.
20.  Longitudinal studies in which independent samples of the same age group are studied at two points in time or more
21.  It is possible to draw approximate conclusions about processes that occur over time by using cross-sectional data.
A.
B.
22.  The major justification the social scientist has for requesting participation in a study is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  The formalized process for securing voluntary participation
24.  Which of the following is the best example of a hypothesis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The paradigm that accounts for the impact of economic conditions on family structures is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Nomothetic explanations seek to explain a class of situations or events rather than a single one.
A.
B.
27.  In addition to their ethical obligations to subjects, researchers have ethical obligations to their colleagues in the scientfic community as well.
A.
B.
28.  When Milgram asked research subjects to administer "shocks" to "pupils" who were confederates of the researcher, the subjects generally refused to continue administering shocks.
A.
B.
29.  The acceptable research behavior of researchers as published by professional associations are known as rules of engagement
A.
B.
30.  Read the following statement and then deteremine the appropriate unit of analysis: "church records show that contributions have declined over the past 20 years." What unit of analysis is reflect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Makita studied the literature on binge drinking and discovered a pattern between gender and binge drinking that might be logically and theoretically expected. She then did her study of college students and drinking. Which approach is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The modern view of reality states that what is "real" depends on out points of view
A.
B.
33.  Indira wants to study how people make sense of the delays the experience in their daily lives. She asked people to keep diaries about such delays and how they responded to them, particularly how they made sense of them. She also enouraged them to sometimes violate others' expectations in terms of responding to delays. Which paradigm is she using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Feminist paradigms look only at the oppression of women
A.
B.
35.  Logical and persistent patterns in social life.
36.  The three main elements of the traditional model of science are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Attrition of study participants is most critical for which of the following designs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Juanita decided to study the differences among students who choose different majors. Everyone in her study, however, has chosen sociology as a major. Which one of the following can be said about her concept of choice of major?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Josephine is a student at Consolidated Community College and is planning to do a study on how eating disorders affect academic performance. How must review her research before it can be done?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Exceptions frequently disprove a causal relationship in nomothetic explanations.
A.
B.
41.  Roberto wants to study how newly engaged couples communicate with eachother. He is particularly interested in how each person defines such symbols as the engagement ring, and how each person communicates the relationships to others. Which paradigm would be best?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Epistemology is the science of knowing and methodology is the science of finding out
A.
B.
43.  The condition that exists when the researcher cannot identify a given response with a given respondent
44.  Bernardo arguess that nothing is really real and what what people see is a product of their position in society. Which perspective is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Babbie reviews the traditional model for portraying science. This model shows that science generally beings with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Professor Todd observes playground interaction for a month to develop a theory that accounts for the problems observed. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The assumption that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern.
48.  One of the unique advantagws of science is that it can settle debates on values
A.
B.
49.  Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "most Americas believe in God" What unit of analysis is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The fact that people in social research often reveal personal information about themselves to researchers, who are strangers, is most closely related to the ethical principle of voluntary participation.
A.
B.
51.  The paradigm that focuses on how the components of society are interrelated.
52.  Professor Peters examined the gender makeup of politicians and then made conclusions about how the political institution reflects the other institutions of society. Which paradigm was she using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Which on of the following is not a function of theories?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Recently, Marxist scholars have argued that social research should be closely connected to social action. Which feature of science is most threatened by this position?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  In your discussion of measurement with a friend, she argues that what you are trying to measure does not exist and that your own point of view will determine what you perceive in your measuring process. She has taken which view of reality?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Pure research pursues knowledge for knowledge's sake, with no concern for how it might be used
A.
B.
57.  Published formal guidelines for conduction social research.
58.  Collective actions and situations of many individuals.
59.  Freda developed a theory and an hypothesis about adjustment to retirement as related to gender. She constructed measures for adjustment to retirement. The next step for Freda according to the traditional model of science is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Which type of study would best enable a researcher to assess changes associated with attending college for four years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The two foundations of science are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Ethical considerations are almost always apparent to us.
A.
B.
63.  Which one of the following is the best example of agreement-based knowledge?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  The ethical principle that subjects should be free to participate in a study or not is known as the no harm to participants principle
A.
B.
65.  This paradigm shoes how gender differences relate to the rest of social organization
66.  A mechanism for reviewing ethical issues within an institution
67.  The "what" or "whom" that is actually studied
68.  Which one of the following hypotheses best fits the three criteria of causality
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The condition that exists when the researcher is able to identify a given person's responses but promises not to do so publicly
70.  Inductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general.
A.
B.
71.  If a researcher wanted to find out how much time elderly persons in nursing homes spend interacting with each other, the researcher would conduct which kind of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  A necessary cause represents a condition that, if it is present, guarantees the effect in question
A.
B.
73.  Which of the following best reflects the nomothetic model of explanation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Senator Josephson researched the effects of political orientation on attitudes toward abortion. "Political orientation" is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Sociology that is relatively unaffected by personal values
76.  Nate wants to make some causal assertions in his cross-sectional study about the effects of high school involvement on violence among young adults (all the people he studied are in their early 20s). He can approximate a longitudinal study by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Bernetta did a study in which she, the researcher, could not identify a given response with a given respondent. She employed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Frankie assumed that kids like to be respected by other kids. He then developed a specific testable expectation that boys experience more pressures for delinquency than do girls. This expectation is known as a/an"
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Negative findings are less important than positive findings and should not be reported.
A.
B.
80.  Science
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Using data on cities to develop conclusions about individuals refects reductionism.
A.
B.
82.  Exploratory studies are done most often for purposes of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following best reflects the ecological fallacy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Most of what we know is a matter of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Debriefing is commonly used to counteract the effects of deception.
A.
B.
86.  Explaining a particular phenomenon in terms of limited and/or lower-order concepts
87.  Nonspuriousness is the requirement for a causal relationship that says that the effect cannot be explained in terms of some third variable.
A.
B.
88.  Professor Flemming examined the following categories of marital status: married, never married, widowed, separated, and divorced. These categories are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  You have just had a wonderful streak of great luck in your methods class: you've gotten A's on the last three tests and computer assignment. You have a research project due on the last day of class and you just know that you are going to flunk it. After all, something has to happen to break up this streak of good luck. You have fallen prey to the error of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  This paradigm uses "methodology of people" to examine how poeple continually create social structure through their actions and interactions.
91.  The specification of the steps, procedures, or operations followed to actually measure variables
92.  The first two steps in the research proposal are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Professor Johannison has just discovered that amount of time spent in social activities has a causual influence on academic performance. This is an example of which kind of study>
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Interviews conducted following an experiment to discover any problems generated by the research experience so that those problems can be addressed
95.  Overgeneralization is more likely to lead to selective observation than selective observation is to lead to overgeneralization
A.
B.
96.  Igor studied students at his community college and noticed that a slim majority carried no books to class. Then he saw a new set of people in the distance and concluded before seeing them that they would definitely be carrying books to class because someone should do that, especially since he had just seen students without books. Which error in inquiry is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Informed consent pertains to the ethical norms of voluntary participation and no harm to participants
A.
B.
98.  Regardless of the theory used, there is a close connection between theory and research.
A.
B.
99.  Which of the following is not a difference between ethical and political aspects of social research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  The error in which data are gathered from one unit of analysis but conclusions are made about another unit of analysis
101.  The most typical unit of analysis is the individual.
A.
B.
102.  Professor Havidan studied a prenatal class for expectant partents in his attempt to understand how expectant parents prepare for the role of parenthood and how they gain a sense of themselves as parents. He focused on the language and symbols expectant paretns use to describe their new roles. Which paradigm is he using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  An ethical principle that presupposes the willingness of respondents to participate in social research
104.  Regarding the reporting of study shortcomings, researchers should
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  "But my professor said that no significant differences exist between men and women regarding intelligence." What source of understanding does this example reflect
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Longitudinal studies in which the same set of individuals is studied at two or more points in time
107.  Debbie did an experiment and was particularly concerned that her subjects base their voluntary participation on a full understanding of the possible risks involved. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Who first coined the term "sociology"
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Logical groupings of attributes.
110.  Who was an early theorist concerned with how individuals interacted with one another?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  What is considered ethical is based on
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Andrew studied family conflict as portrayed in the media by reading letters to advice columns. What was his unit of analysis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Reasoning from general principles and theories to specific cases
114.  While nomothic explanations are very useful in social scientific research, idiographic explanations are of little use
A.
B.
115.  Karl Marx coined the term sociology
A.
B.
116.  The discussion of the Census best illustrates which of the following points?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Explanation that seeks to identify the major factos that affect something across many cases.
118.  Which of the following is not a step in deductive theory construction?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Senator Robertson wants to know how voter interest in issues in his district has changed over time. Which design would be the best to use?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Inductive theory is commonly done through observation research.
A.
B.
121.  The traditional model of science begins operationalization
A.
B.
122.  When you hear the 4:27 train blow its whistle as you walk home from school every day, you can expect within minutes to smell Ms. Stockland's cooking. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Not being truthful about your identity as a researcher
124.  Attributes are composed of variables
A.
B.
125.  Whereas theories seek to explain, paradigms provides ways of looking.
A.
B.
126.  The purpose of research that stresses the determination of causes
127.  Which one of the following is not an appropriate strategy for approximating longitudinal studies when only cross-sectional data are available?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Interpreting events to fit a general pattern that a researcher believes to be true.
129.  A paradigm that examines interaction among individuals and how people gain a sense of self based on their interactions with others
130.  When social scientists study variables in explanatory research, they focus on
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Experimental research is commonly used to conduct inductive theory construction.
A.
B.
132.  Criminal justice studentent Vierling has noticed in her internship that adolescents who have experienced difficulties in school are more likely to become juvenile deliquents. In her process of going from the specific observations to the discovery of a more general pattern, she has employed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Researcher Lewis spends three months as a choir member touring Europe to see what off-stage choir member interaction is all about. This is an example of which kind of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The politics of research centers on the issues of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The ethical principle of voluntary participation most threatens which scientific goal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  The traditional model of science employs deductive logic.
A.
B.
137.  With confidentiality, a researcher has no way of knowing the identity of research participants
A.
B.
138.  The degree of relationship between two variables is of particular concern in which type of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The controversy surrounding Laud Humphrey's study of homosexuals suggests he most violated which of the following principles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  The use of yearbooks as the unit of analysis is an example of social artifacts.
A.
B.
141.  Ethical considerations enter at which point in the research process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  For her senior project in poltical science, Cheri confucts a survey on students' attitudes and behavior concerning homosexuality. While distributing the questionnaire, she assures the group of students that no one will be able to trace responses to an individual. However, she has obtained a seating chart with the names of all the students in the class and where they were sitting. Cheri is violating which ethical principle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  An association that links variables.
144.  A general framework or viewpoint that organizes our view of something
145.  A source of knowledge that is obtained from experts.
146.  The controversy surrounding Milgram's study involving "shocks" suggests he most violated which ethical principles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Reasoning from particular instances to generalizations.
148.  A particular weakness in cross-sectional studies is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Lying is particularly common in which on of the following research designs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Units of analysis are limited to individuals, groups, organizations, and artifacts.
A.
B.
151.  A review of how support for abortion has changed over a decade is an example of a cross-sectional study
A.
B.
152.  The only partial exception to the lack of poltical norms is the generally accepted view that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Dunn was interested in learning more about the negotiation processes couples use when they argue. He was interested in this for its own sake and had no plans to use the results to help improve couples' lives. What type of research is reflected in this example?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  The reseach proposal begins with the data analysis
A.
B.
155.  The paradigm that is based on Marx's analysis of economic attempts to dominate others and to avoid being dominated.
156.  The science of finding out.
157.  Federally mandated Institutional Review Boards were designed primarily to address which one of the following ethical principles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  The topic of ethics is typically associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  The research proposal generally begins with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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