Soc262 Final

159 Questions  I  By Grahamme
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  • 1. 
    The science of finding out.

  • 2. 
    Explanation that seeks to identify the major factos that affect something across many cases.

  • 3. 
    A source of knowledge that is obtained from experts.

  • 4. 
    The assumption that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern.

  • 5. 
    Interpreting events to fit a general pattern that a researcher believes to be true.

  • 6. 
    Logical and persistent patterns in social life.

  • 7. 
    Logical groupings of attributes.

  • 8. 
    An association that links variables.

  • 9. 
    Collective actions and situations of many individuals.

  • 10. 
    The cause of a particular dependent variable.

  • 11. 
    Most of what we know is a matter of
    • A. 

      Personal experience

    • B. 

      A result of scientific discovery

    • C. 

      Empirical evidence

    • D. 

      Agreement reality

    • E. 

      Logical support


  • 12. 
    Which one of the following is the best example of agreement-based knowledge?
    • A. 

      You meet 15 Graskinos and conclude that they are all prejudiced

    • B. 

      You develop a scale to measure love and give it to 20 people

    • C. 

      You accept prejudice as wrong because that is what the Bible says

    • D. 

      You do not get right next to people when you talk to them because it violates a norm

    • E. 

      You run an experiment to test the effect of crowding


  • 13. 
    The two foundations of science are
    • A. 

      Tradition and observation

    • B. 

      Observation and logic

    • C. 

      Logic and theory

    • D. 

      Theory and observation

    • E. 

      Logic and generalization


  • 14. 
    When you hear the 4:27 train blow its whistle as you walk home from school every day, you can expect within minutes to smell Ms. Stockland's cooking. This is an example of
    • A. 

      Understanding without prediction

    • B. 

      Understanding with prediction

    • C. 

      Prediction with understanding

    • D. 

      Prediction without understanding

    • E. 

      Scientific reasoning


  • 15. 
    "But my professor said that no significant differences exist between men and women regarding intelligence." What source of understanding does this example reflect
    • A. 

      Personal experience

    • B. 

      Tradition

    • C. 

      Authority

    • D. 

      Public opinion

    • E. 

      Science


  • 16. 
    A student meets two fraternity men at a party who talk about all the partying they do. She then concludes that all fraternity men party all the time. What error in understanding does this example reflect?
    • A. 

      Inaccurate observation

    • B. 

      Overgeneralization

    • C. 

      Selective observation

    • D. 

      Illogical reasoning

    • E. 

      Overemphasis on authority


  • 17. 
    In your discussion of measurement with a friend, she argues that what you are trying to measure does not exist and that your own point of view will determine what you perceive in your measuring process. She has taken which view of reality?
    • A. 

      Correct

    • B. 

      Premodern

    • C. 

      Modern

    • D. 

      Postmodern

    • E. 

      Scientific


  • 18. 
    You have just had a wonderful streak of great luck in your methods class: you've gotten A's on the last three tests and computer assignment. You have a research project due on the last day of class and you just know that you are going to flunk it. After all, something has to happen to break up this streak of good luck. You have fallen prey to the error of
    • A. 

      Illogical reasoning

    • B. 

      Inaccurate observation

    • C. 

      Selective observation

    • D. 

      Over-emphasis on tradition

    • E. 

      Overgeneralization


  • 19. 
    Criminal justice studentent Vierling has noticed in her internship that adolescents who have experienced difficulties in school are more likely to become juvenile deliquents. In her process of going from the specific observations to the discovery of a more general pattern, she has employed
    • A. 

      Social regularity thinking

    • B. 

      Illogical reasoning

    • C. 

      Deductive reasoning

    • D. 

      Inductive reasoning

    • E. 

      Nomothetic inquiry


  • 20. 
    Science
    • A. 

      Deals with what we should be not with what is

    • B. 

      Can settle debates on value

    • C. 

      Is exclusively descriptive

    • D. 

      Has to do with disproving philosophical beliefs

    • E. 

      Has to do with how things are and why


  • 21. 
    Scientists do not study individuals per se, but instead study social patterns reflecting
    • A. 

      Aggregates

    • B. 

      Collectivities

    • C. 

      Theories

    • D. 

      Attributes

    • E. 

      Norms


  • 22. 
    Professor Flemming examined the following categories of marital status: married, never married, widowed, separated, and divorced. These categories are known as
    • A. 

      Variables

    • B. 

      Attributes

    • C. 

      Variable categories

    • D. 

      Units of analysis

    • E. 

      Theoretical elements


  • 23. 
    When social scientists study variables in explanatory research, they focus on
    • A. 

      Attributes

    • B. 

      Groups

    • C. 

      People

    • D. 

      Characteristics

    • E. 

      Relationships


  • 24. 
    Senator Josephson researched the effects of political orientation on attitudes toward abortion. "Political orientation" is an example of
    • A. 

      An attribute

    • B. 

      An independent variable

    • C. 

      An aggregate

    • D. 

      A unit of analysis

    • E. 

      A dependent variable


  • 25. 
    Dunn was interested in learning more about the negotiation processes couples use when they argue. He was interested in this for its own sake and had no plans to use the results to help improve couples' lives. What type of research is reflected in this example?
    • A. 

      Funded

    • B. 

      Applied

    • C. 

      Pure

    • D. 

      Ethical

    • E. 

      Idiographic


  • 26. 
    Bernardo arguess that nothing is really real and what what people see is a product of their position in society. Which perspective is reflected?
    • A. 

      Modern

    • B. 

      Premodern

    • C. 

      Postmodern

    • D. 

      Anti-modern

    • E. 

      Pesudeomodern


  • 27. 
    Igor studied students at his community college and noticed that a slim majority carried no books to class. Then he saw a new set of people in the distance and concluded before seeing them that they would definitely be carrying books to class because someone should do that, especially since he had just seen students without books. Which error in inquiry is reflected?
    • A. 

      Illogical reasoning

    • B. 

      Overgeneralization

    • C. 

      Selective observation

    • D. 

      Inaccurate observation

    • E. 

      Scapegoat


  • 28. 
    Makita studied the literature on binge drinking and discovered a pattern between gender and binge drinking that might be logically and theoretically expected. She then did her study of college students and drinking. Which approach is reflected?
    • A. 

      Deductive

    • B. 

      Transductive

    • C. 

      Applied

    • D. 

      Ethical

    • E. 

      Inductive


  • 29. 
    Juanita decided to study the differences among students who choose different majors. Everyone in her study, however, has chosen sociology as a major. Which one of the following can be said about her concept of choice of major?
    • A. 

      She needs to study more people

    • B. 

      She can go ahead and do her study relating the two variables

    • C. 

      She really has only one concept

    • D. 

      One of her variables isn't really a variable because it has only one attribute

    • E. 

      It is far too idiographic to be useful


  • 30. 
    The first two steps in the research proposal are
    • A. 

      Introduction and review of the literature

    • B. 

      Review of the literature and specifying the problem

    • C. 

      Specifying the problem and research design

    • D. 

      Research design and data collection

    • E. 

      Data collection and ethical issues


  • 31. 
    Epistemology is the science of knowing and methodology is the science of finding out
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 32. 
    Overgeneralization is more likely to lead to selective observation than selective observation is to lead to overgeneralization
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 33. 
    The modern view of reality states that what is "real" depends on out points of view
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 34. 
    One of the unique advantagws of science is that it can settle debates on values
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 35. 
    The reseach proposal begins with the data analysis
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 36. 
    Attributes are composed of variables
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 37. 
    Nomothetic explanations seek to explain a class of situations or events rather than a single one.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 38. 
    Inductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 39. 
    While nomothic explanations are very useful in social scientific research, idiographic explanations are of little use
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 40. 
    Pure research pursues knowledge for knowledge's sake, with no concern for how it might be used
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 41. 
    The specification of the steps, procedures, or operations followed to actually measure variables

  • 42. 
    Reasoning from particular instances to generalizations.

  • 43. 
    A paradigm that examines interaction among individuals and how people gain a sense of self based on their interactions with others

  • 44. 
    This paradigm shoes how gender differences relate to the rest of social organization

  • 45. 
    This paradigm uses "methodology of people" to examine how poeple continually create social structure through their actions and interactions.

  • 46. 
    Reasoning from general principles and theories to specific cases

  • 47. 
    A general framework or viewpoint that organizes our view of something

  • 48. 
    The paradigm that focuses on how the components of society are interrelated.

  • 49. 
    The paradigm that focuses on how race affects our understanding of social phenomena

  • 50. 
    The paradigm that is based on Marx's analysis of economic attempts to dominate others and to avoid being dominated.

  • 51. 
    Whereas theories seek to explain, paradigms provides ways of looking.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 52. 
    Feminist paradigms look only at the oppression of women
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 53. 
    Karl Marx coined the term sociology
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 54. 
    Breaking the rules is a technique employed by ethnomethodologists
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 55. 
    The traditional model of science begins operationalization
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 56. 
    The traditional model of science employs deductive logic.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 57. 
    Identifying your major concepts and variables is the first step in constructing your theory
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 58. 
    Inductive theory is commonly done through observation research.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 59. 
    Regardless of the theory used, there is a close connection between theory and research.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 60. 
    Experimental research is commonly used to conduct inductive theory construction.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 61. 
    Professor Peters examined the gender makeup of politicians and then made conclusions about how the political institution reflects the other institutions of society. Which paradigm was she using?
    • A. 

      Ethnomethodology

    • B. 

      Post=positivism

    • C. 

      Role theory

    • D. 

      Feminist

    • E. 

      Exchange


  • 62. 
    The three main elements of the traditional model of science are
    • A. 

      Theory, operationalization, observation

    • B. 

      Operationalization, hypothesis testing, theory

    • C. 

      Observation, experimentation, operationalization

    • D. 

      Theory, observation, hypothesis testing

    • E. 

      Experimentation, hypothesis testing, theory


  • 63. 
    Which of the following is the best example of a hypothesis
    • A. 

      The greater the level of education, the greater the tolerance for alternative lifestyles.

    • B. 

      Socialization in childhood has a significant impact on adolescent gender-role identity

    • C. 

      There are more female than male college students

    • D. 

      Religiosity equals frequency of church attendance and praying.

    • E. 

      Actions are based on perceived costs and rewards.


  • 64. 
    Which of the following is the best example of macrotheory?
    • A. 

      A study of play interactions among children

    • B. 

      A study of arguments among friends

    • C. 

      A study of cheating among students

    • D. 

      A study of the role of corporate mergers in the global economy

    • E. 

      A study of tax audits conducted by the IRS


  • 65. 
    Professor Pellson noticed that the students who sat in the front row in her classes usually got A's. After observing this pattern over several semesters, she decided that students who sit in the front row are generally good students. This is an exaple of
    • A. 

      Deductive reasoning

    • B. 

      Inductive reasoning

    • C. 

      Probabilistic reasoning

    • D. 

      Causal reasoning

    • E. 

      Deterministic reasoning


  • 66. 
    Babbie reviews the traditional model for portraying science. This model shows that science generally beings with
    • A. 

      Theories

    • B. 

      Hypotheses

    • C. 

      Observations

    • D. 

      Empirical conclusions

    • E. 

      Measurement


  • 67. 
    Whose emphasis on positivism laid the foundation for the development of social science?
    • A. 

      Weber

    • B. 

      Darwin

    • C. 

      Comte

    • D. 

      Garfinkel

    • E. 

      Mead


  • 68. 
    Professor Havidan studied a prenatal class for expectant partents in his attempt to understand how expectant parents prepare for the role of parenthood and how they gain a sense of themselves as parents. He focused on the language and symbols expectant paretns use to describe their new roles. Which paradigm is he using?
    • A. 

      Role theory

    • B. 

      Feminist

    • C. 

      Ethnomethodology

    • D. 

      Structural functionalism

    • E. 

      Symbolic interactionism


  • 69. 
    Deductive theory construction generally beigns with
    • A. 

      Specifying topic of interest

    • B. 

      Specifying the range of phenomena the theory addresses

    • C. 

      Identifying and specifying the major concepts and variables

    • D. 

      Finding out what is known about the hypothesized relationships

    • E. 

      Reasoning logically from the propositions obtained to the specific topic under analysis


  • 70. 
    The inductive approach to theory construction is seen most often in
    • A. 

      Survey research

    • B. 

      Experimental research

    • C. 

      Field research

    • D. 

      Use of available data

    • E. 

      Content analysis


  • 71. 
    The paradigm that accounts for the impact of economic conditions on family structures is
    • A. 

      Symbolic interactionism

    • B. 

      Structural functionalism

    • C. 

      Positivism

    • D. 

      Conflict

    • E. 

      Exchange


  • 72. 
    Which of the following is not a step in deductive theory construction?
    • A. 

      Specify the topic

    • B. 

      Identify the major concepts and variables

    • C. 

      Identify propositions about the relationships among those variables

    • D. 

      Reason logically from those propositions to the specific topic one is examining

    • E. 

      All are steps


  • 73. 
    Professor Todd observes playground interaction for a month to develop a theory that accounts for the problems observed. This is an example of
    • A. 

      Deductive theorizing

    • B. 

      Grounded theory

    • C. 

      Conceptualization

    • D. 

      Ex post facto hypothesizing

    • E. 

      Paradigm estimation


  • 74. 
    Indira wants to study how people make sense of the delays the experience in their daily lives. She asked people to keep diaries about such delays and how they responded to them, particularly how they made sense of them. She also enouraged them to sometimes violate others' expectations in terms of responding to delays. Which paradigm is she using?
    • A. 

      Ethnomethodology

    • B. 

      Symbolic interactionism

    • C. 

      Structural functionalism

    • D. 

      Conflict

    • E. 

      Feminist


  • 75. 
    Roberto wants to study how newly engaged couples communicate with eachother. He is particularly interested in how each person defines such symbols as the engagement ring, and how each person communicates the relationships to others. Which paradigm would be best?
    • A. 

      Ethnomethodology

    • B. 

      Symbolic interactionism

    • C. 

      Structural functionalism

    • D. 

      Conflict

    • E. 

      Feminist


  • 76. 
    Who first coined the term "sociology"
    • A. 

      Durkheim

    • B. 

      Marx

    • C. 

      Comte

    • D. 

      Mead

    • E. 

      Cooley


  • 77. 
    Who was an early theorist concerned with how individuals interacted with one another?
    • A. 

      Durkheim

    • B. 

      Simmel

    • C. 

      Mead

    • D. 

      Spencer

    • E. 

      Parsons


  • 78. 
    Frankie assumed that kids like to be respected by other kids. He then developed a specific testable expectation that boys experience more pressures for delinquency than do girls. This expectation is known as a/an"
    • A. 

      Hypothesis

    • B. 

      Concept

    • C. 

      Variable

    • D. 

      Proposition

    • E. 

      Conclusion


  • 79. 
    Freda developed a theory and an hypothesis about adjustment to retirement as related to gender. She constructed measures for adjustment to retirement. The next step for Freda according to the traditional model of science is:
    • A. 

      To consider the ethics of the study

    • B. 

      Redevelop the theory

    • C. 

      Analyze the data

    • D. 

      Observation (gathering data)

    • E. 

      Construct a sample


  • 80. 
    Which on of the following is not a function of theories?
    • A. 

      They prevent our being taken in by flukes

    • B. 

      They make sense of observed patterns to suggest other possibilities

    • C. 

      They shape and direct research efforts

    • D. 

      They help identify the more appropriate ways to view the world

    • E. 

      All of these are functions of theory


  • 81. 
    An ethical principle that presupposes the willingness of respondents to participate in social research

  • 82. 
    The condition that exists when the researcher cannot identify a given response with a given respondent

  • 83. 
    The condition that exists when the researcher is able to identify a given person's responses but promises not to do so publicly

  • 84. 
    Published formal guidelines for conduction social research.

  • 85. 
    Sociology that is relatively unaffected by personal values

  • 86. 
    A mechanism for reviewing ethical issues within an institution

  • 87. 
    Interviews conducted following an experiment to discover any problems generated by the research experience so that those problems can be addressed

  • 88. 
    Not being truthful about your identity as a researcher

  • 89. 
    The formalized process for securing voluntary participation

  • 90. 
    The ethical principle that subjects should be free to participate in a study or not is known as the no harm to participants principle
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 91. 
    Informed consent pertains to the ethical norms of voluntary participation and no harm to participants
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 92. 
    With confidentiality, a researcher has no way of knowing the identity of research participants
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 93. 
    Debriefing is commonly used to counteract the effects of deception.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 94. 
    In addition to their ethical obligations to subjects, researchers have ethical obligations to their colleagues in the scientfic community as well.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 95. 
    The acceptable research behavior of researchers as published by professional associations are known as rules of engagement
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 96. 
    Ethical considerations are almost always apparent to us.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 97. 
    Negative findings are less important than positive findings and should not be reported.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 98. 
    The fact that people in social research often reveal personal information about themselves to researchers, who are strangers, is most closely related to the ethical principle of voluntary participation.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 99. 
    When Milgram asked research subjects to administer "shocks" to "pupils" who were confederates of the researcher, the subjects generally refused to continue administering shocks.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 100. 
    Ethical considerations enter at which point in the research process?
    • A. 

      Selection of topic

    • B. 

      Selection of subjects

    • C. 

      Data gathering

    • D. 

      Data analysis

    • E. 

      At all stages


  • 101. 
    The topic of ethics is typically associated with
    • A. 

      Humanity

    • B. 

      Religion

    • C. 

      Medicine

    • D. 

      Psychology

    • E. 

      Morality


  • 102. 
    The major justification the social scientist has for requesting participation in a study is that
    • A. 

      It may help the respondent

    • B. 

      It may help all humanity

    • C. 

      It may help the social scientist

    • D. 

      It may help government officials make policy decisions

    • E. 

      It may help improve the educational system


  • 103. 
    The ethical principle of voluntary participation most threatens which scientific goal?
    • A. 

      Parsimony

    • B. 

      Objectivity

    • C. 

      Cumulativeness

    • D. 

      Generalizability

    • E. 

      Intersubjectivity


  • 104. 
    For her senior project in poltical science, Cheri confucts a survey on students' attitudes and behavior concerning homosexuality. While distributing the questionnaire, she assures the group of students that no one will be able to trace responses to an individual. However, she has obtained a seating chart with the names of all the students in the class and where they were sitting. Cheri is violating which ethical principle?
    • A. 

      Confidentiality

    • B. 

      Anonymity

    • C. 

      Harm to subjects

    • D. 

      Concealed identity of researcher

    • E. 

      Voluntary participation


  • 105. 
    The controversy surrounding Milgram's study involving "shocks" suggests he most violated which ethical principles?
    • A. 

      Harm to subjects and concealed purpose of study

    • B. 

      Anonymity and harm to subjects

    • C. 

      Confidentiality and harm to subjects

    • D. 

      Concealed purpose of study and anonymity

    • E. 

      Concealed purpose of study and confidentiality


  • 106. 
    The controversy surrounding Laud Humphrey's study of homosexuals suggests he most violated which of the following principles?
    • A. 

      Anonymity and confidentiality

    • B. 

      Harm to subjects and data reporting without identification

    • C. 

      Concealed identity of researcher and anonymity

    • D. 

      Value-free inquiry and concealed identity of researcher

    • E. 

      Harm to subjects and anonymity


  • 107. 
    What is considered ethical is based on
    • A. 

      A list of moral absolutes

    • B. 

      The authority of the state

    • C. 

      Agreed upon principles within a community

    • D. 

      Cultural directives

    • E. 

      Codes of political behavior


  • 108. 
    Federally mandated Institutional Review Boards were designed primarily to address which one of the following ethical principles?
    • A. 

      No harm to participants

    • B. 

      Confidentiality

    • C. 

      Anonymity

    • D. 

      Voluntary participation

    • E. 

      Identification of research purpose


  • 109. 
    Which of the following is not a difference between ethical and political aspects of social research?
    • A. 

      Ethical considerations are more objective than political considerations

    • B. 

      Ethical aspects include a professional code of ethics, whereas political aspects do not.

    • C. 

      Ethics deal more with methods, whereas political issues deal with substance.

    • D. 

      Ethical norms have been established, whereas political norms, for the most part, have not been established

    • E. 

      All are differences


  • 110. 
    Recently, Marxist scholars have argued that social research should be closely connected to social action. Which feature of science is most threatened by this position?
    • A. 

      Intersubjectivity

    • B. 

      Objectivity

    • C. 

      Parsimony

    • D. 

      Cumulativeness

    • E. 

      Generalizability


  • 111. 
    The politics of research centers on the issues of
    • A. 

      Voluntary participation and anonymity

    • B. 

      Anonymity and no harm to subjects

    • C. 

      No harm to subjects and objectivity

    • D. 

      Objectivity and ideology

    • E. 

      Ideology and voluntary participation


  • 112. 
    Josephine is a student at Consolidated Community College and is planning to do a study on how eating disorders affect academic performance. How must review her research before it can be done?
    • A. 

      The federal government

    • B. 

      The state government

    • C. 

      The American Sociological Association

    • D. 

      The Institutional Review Board

    • E. 

      Her department chair


  • 113. 
    The discussion of the Census best illustrates which of the following points?
    • A. 

      The government needs to get more people to respond to the Census surveys

    • B. 

      Undercounting segments of the population has political implications

    • C. 

      The government needs to better address ethical issues, particularly voluntary participation

    • D. 

      Census workers need to be better trained

    • E. 

      Anonymity is not preserved very well in Census surveys


  • 114. 
    The only partial exception to the lack of poltical norms is the generally accepted view that
    • A. 

      Governments should not dictate codes of ethics

    • B. 

      A researcher's personal political orientation should not interfere with or influence the research

    • C. 

      Politics should not be discussed in social research because no one can agree on what should be done

    • D. 

      Professional associations should incorporate more about politics in their codes of ethics.

    • E. 

      Researchers should get training in how politics affects Institutional Review Boards


  • 115. 
    Bernetta did a study in which she, the researcher, could not identify a given response with a given respondent. She employed
    • A. 

      Anonymity

    • B. 

      Deception

    • C. 

      Value-free sociology

    • D. 

      Confidentiality

    • E. 

      Ideological bias


  • 116. 
    Debbie did an experiment and was particularly concerned that her subjects base their voluntary participation on a full understanding of the possible risks involved. This is an example of
    • A. 

      A code of ethics

    • B. 

      An Institutional Review Board

    • C. 

      Informed consent

    • D. 

      Deception

    • E. 

      Debriefing


  • 117. 
    Cameroon did a study in which he could identify a given person's responses but promised not to do so publicly. He employed
    • A. 

      Anonymity

    • B. 

      Deception

    • C. 

      Value-free sociology

    • D. 

      Confidentiality

    • E. 

      Ideological bias


  • 118. 
    Lying is particularly common in which on of the following research designs?
    • A. 

      Surveys

    • B. 

      Laboratory experiments

    • C. 

      Field research

    • D. 

      Field experiments

    • E. 

      Nonparticipant observation


  • 119. 
    Regarding the reporting of study shortcomings, researchers should
    • A. 

      Tell readers about the shortcomings

    • B. 

      Include them only in oral presentations

    • C. 

      Make it look like there were not any shortcomings in the study

    • D. 

      Explain why the shortcomings were really no big deal

    • E. 

      Bury them in a footnote


  • 120. 
    Explaining a particular phenomenon in terms of limited and/or lower-order concepts

  • 121. 
    The purpose of research that stresses the determination of causes

  • 122. 
    The "what" or "whom" that is actually studied

  • 123. 
    The error in which data are gathered from one unit of analysis but conclusions are made about another unit of analysis

  • 124. 
    The purpose of research that stresses examining a new area of interest or studying uncharted areas

  • 125. 
    Studies in which the units of analysis are studied at one point in time

  • 126. 
    Longitudinal studies in which independent samples of the same age group are studied at two points in time or more

  • 127. 
    Longitudinal studies in which the same set of individuals is studied at two or more points in time

  • 128. 
    A paradigm based on the view that social behavior can be explained in terms of genetic characteristics and behavior

  • 129. 
    The use of several different research methods to test the same finding

  • 130. 
    A researcher who wishes to become familiar with a new area of interest should use an explanatory approach.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 131. 
    Nonspuriousness is the requirement for a causal relationship that says that the effect cannot be explained in terms of some third variable.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 132. 
    A necessary cause represents a condition that, if it is present, guarantees the effect in question
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 133. 
    The most typical unit of analysis is the individual.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 134. 
    The use of yearbooks as the unit of analysis is an example of social artifacts.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 135. 
    Using data on cities to develop conclusions about individuals refects reductionism.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 136. 
    A review of how support for abortion has changed over a decade is an example of a cross-sectional study
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 137. 
    It is possible to draw approximate conclusions about processes that occur over time by using cross-sectional data.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 138. 
    Units of analysis are limited to individuals, groups, organizations, and artifacts.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 139. 
    Exceptions frequently disprove a causal relationship in nomothetic explanations.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 140. 
    Exploratory studies are done most often for purposes of
    • A. 

      Predicting future behavior, testing feasibility of a more careful study, developing methods to be used in a more careful study.

    • B. 

      Conecting empirical reality with theory, satisfying a researcher's curiosity, developing methods to be used in a more careful study.

    • C. 

      Satisfying a reasearcher's curiosity, testing feasibility of a more careful study, developing methods to be used in a more careful study.

    • D. 

      Connecting empirical reality with theory, predicting future behavior, developing methods to be used in a more careful study.

    • E. 

      Satisfying a researcher's curiosity, testing feasibility of a more careful study, connecting empirical reality with theory.


  • 141. 
    The degree of relationship between two variables is of particular concern in which type of study?
    • A. 

      Exploratory

    • B. 

      Descriptive

    • C. 

      Explanatory

    • D. 

      Qualitative

    • E. 

      Panel


  • 142. 
    Researcher Lewis spends three months as a choir member touring Europe to see what off-stage choir member interaction is all about. This is an example of which kind of study?
    • A. 

      Cohort

    • B. 

      Cross-sectional

    • C. 

      Exploratory

    • D. 

      Descriptive

    • E. 

      Trend


  • 143. 
    Professor Johannison has just discovered that amount of time spent in social activities has a causual influence on academic performance. This is an example of which kind of study>
    • A. 

      Explanatory

    • B. 

      Exploratory

    • C. 

      Cross-sectional

    • D. 

      Descriptive

    • E. 

      Trend


  • 144. 
    If a researcher wanted to find out how much time elderly persons in nursing homes spend interacting with each other, the researcher would conduct which kind of study?
    • A. 

      Exploratory

    • B. 

      Cohort

    • C. 

      Explanatory

    • D. 

      Descriptive

    • E. 

      Time-lag


  • 145. 
    Which of the following best reflects the ecological fallacy?
    • A. 

      Data gathered from individuals, conclusions drawn about individuals

    • B. 

      Data gathered from individuals, conclusions drawn about groups

    • C. 

      Data gathered from groups, conclusions drawn about organizations

    • D. 

      Data gathered from groups, conclusions drawn about individuals

    • E. 

      Data gathered from organizations, conclusions drawn about nations


  • 146. 
    Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "most Americas believe in God" What unit of analysis is reflected?
    • A. 

      Individual

    • B. 

      Group

    • C. 

      Organization

    • D. 

      Social artifact

    • E. 

      Social interaction


  • 147. 
    Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "ten percent of families in a community move within a year" What unit of analysis is reflected?
    • A. 

      Individual

    • B. 

      Group

    • C. 

      Organization

    • D. 

      Social artifact

    • E. 

      Social interaction


  • 148. 
    Read the following statement and then deteremine the appropriate unit of analysis: "church records show that contributions have declined over the past 20 years." What unit of analysis is reflect?
    • A. 

      Individual

    • B. 

      Group

    • C. 

      Organization

    • D. 

      Social artifact

    • E. 

      Social interaction


  • 149. 
    A particular weakness in cross-sectional studies is that
    • A. 

      Too often too few people are studied

    • B. 

      Too often too few variables are studied

    • C. 

      They are limited to individuals as the units of analysis

    • D. 

      They are too descriptive and insufficiently explanatory

    • E. 

      They make it difficult to infer causality


  • 150. 
    Professor Lodwicky used the 2000 United States Census and the 1990 Census to compare the average family sixe. This reflects which type of study?
    • A. 

      Cross-sectional exploratory

    • B. 

      Cross-sectional descriptive

    • C. 

      Trend exploratory

    • D. 

      Trend descriptive

    • E. 

      Panel exploratory


  • 151. 
    Which type of study would best enable a researcher to assess changes associated with attending college for four years?
    • A. 

      Cross-sectional

    • B. 

      Longitudinal

    • C. 

      Trend

    • D. 

      Cohort

    • E. 

      Panel


  • 152. 
    Which one of the following is not an appropriate strategy for approximating longitudinal studies when only cross-sectional data are available?
    • A. 

      Using logical inference

    • B. 

      Examining differences in responses of those who return their questionnaires early versus late

    • C. 

      Examining the time order of the variables

    • D. 

      Examining age differences

    • E. 

      Asking respondents to recall their pasts


  • 153. 
    The research proposal generally begins with
    • A. 

      A literature review

    • B. 

      A statement of a problem or objective

    • C. 

      Identifying subjects for study

    • D. 

      Measurement

    • E. 

      Data collection


  • 154. 
    Which of the following best reflects the nomothetic model of explanation
    • A. 

      Professor Guys wishes to explain alienation with causal variables

    • B. 

      Professor Owings wishes to identify all or most all the reasons why people retire early

    • C. 

      Professor Wong wishes to identify the major causes of religiousity

    • D. 

      Professor Rumpley wishes to perform an exploratory study of doctor-nurse interactions

    • E. 

      Professor Hmong wishes to extend the generalizability of his grounded theory analysis of death anxiety.


  • 155. 
    Which one of the following hypotheses best fits the three criteria of causality
    • A. 

      An increase in status attainment causes an increase in age

    • B. 

      An increase in educational attainment causes an increase in status attainment in occupation, controlling for several variables

    • C. 

      An increase in drowning causes an increase in ice cream consumption

    • D. 

      An increase in conservatism causes a religious conversion, controlling for several variables

    • E. 

      More males than females frequent bars.


  • 156. 
    Senator Robertson wants to know how voter interest in issues in his district has changed over time. Which design would be the best to use?
    • A. 

      Trend

    • B. 

      Cohort

    • C. 

      Panel

    • D. 

      Cross-sectional

    • E. 

      Experimental


  • 157. 
    Nate wants to make some causal assertions in his cross-sectional study about the effects of high school involvement on violence among young adults (all the people he studied are in their early 20s). He can approximate a longitudinal study by
    • A. 

      Using path analysis

    • B. 

      Using age differences

    • C. 

      Following the same individuals over time

    • D. 

      Making logical inferences based on the time order of the variables

    • E. 

      Improving the sampling design


  • 158. 
    Attrition of study participants is most critical for which of the following designs?
    • A. 

      Cross-sectional

    • B. 

      Trend

    • C. 

      Cohort

    • D. 

      Panel

    • E. 

      Triangulation


  • 159. 
    Andrew studied family conflict as portrayed in the media by reading letters to advice columns. What was his unit of analysis?
    • A. 

      Individuals

    • B. 

      Groups

    • C. 

      Organizations

    • D. 

      Social interactions

    • E. 

      Artifacts


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