Soc262 Final

159 Questions  I  By Grahamme
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1.  Exploratory studies are done most often for purposes of
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2.  One of the unique advantagws of science is that it can settle debates on values
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3.  Professor Flemming examined the following categories of marital status: married, never married, widowed, separated, and divorced. These categories are known as
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4.  The formalized process for securing voluntary participation
5.  Experimental research is commonly used to conduct inductive theory construction.
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6.  The "what" or "whom" that is actually studied
7.  You have just had a wonderful streak of great luck in your methods class: you've gotten A's on the last three tests and computer assignment. You have a research project due on the last day of class and you just know that you are going to flunk it. After all, something has to happen to break up this streak of good luck. You have fallen prey to the error of
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8.  The paradigm that focuses on how race affects our understanding of social phenomena
9.  The modern view of reality states that what is "real" depends on out points of view
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10.  Nate wants to make some causal assertions in his cross-sectional study about the effects of high school involvement on violence among young adults (all the people he studied are in their early 20s). He can approximate a longitudinal study by
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11.  In addition to their ethical obligations to subjects, researchers have ethical obligations to their colleagues in the scientfic community as well.
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12.  A source of knowledge that is obtained from experts.
13.  Regardless of the theory used, there is a close connection between theory and research.
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14.  The research proposal generally begins with
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15.  Criminal justice studentent Vierling has noticed in her internship that adolescents who have experienced difficulties in school are more likely to become juvenile deliquents. In her process of going from the specific observations to the discovery of a more general pattern, she has employed
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16.  Interviews conducted following an experiment to discover any problems generated by the research experience so that those problems can be addressed
17.  Freda developed a theory and an hypothesis about adjustment to retirement as related to gender. She constructed measures for adjustment to retirement. The next step for Freda according to the traditional model of science is:
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18.  Roberto wants to study how newly engaged couples communicate with eachother. He is particularly interested in how each person defines such symbols as the engagement ring, and how each person communicates the relationships to others. Which paradigm would be best?
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19.  Studies in which the units of analysis are studied at one point in time
20.  Units of analysis are limited to individuals, groups, organizations, and artifacts.
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21.  The purpose of research that stresses the determination of causes
22.  The politics of research centers on the issues of
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23.  Makita studied the literature on binge drinking and discovered a pattern between gender and binge drinking that might be logically and theoretically expected. She then did her study of college students and drinking. Which approach is reflected?
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24.  Inductive theory is commonly done through observation research.
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25.  This paradigm shoes how gender differences relate to the rest of social organization
26.  The two foundations of science are
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27.  Who first coined the term "sociology"
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28.  The major justification the social scientist has for requesting participation in a study is that
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29.  Using data on cities to develop conclusions about individuals refects reductionism.
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30.  What is considered ethical is based on
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31.  Bernetta did a study in which she, the researcher, could not identify a given response with a given respondent. She employed
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32.  The traditional model of science employs deductive logic.
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33.  With confidentiality, a researcher has no way of knowing the identity of research participants
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34.  The topic of ethics is typically associated with
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35.  Exceptions frequently disprove a causal relationship in nomothetic explanations.
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36.  The error in which data are gathered from one unit of analysis but conclusions are made about another unit of analysis
37.  The cause of a particular dependent variable.
38.  The ethical principle of voluntary participation most threatens which scientific goal?
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39.  Babbie reviews the traditional model for portraying science. This model shows that science generally beings with
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40.  The degree of relationship between two variables is of particular concern in which type of study?
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41.  While nomothic explanations are very useful in social scientific research, idiographic explanations are of little use
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42.  Deductive theory construction generally beigns with
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43.  Federally mandated Institutional Review Boards were designed primarily to address which one of the following ethical principles?
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44.  The discussion of the Census best illustrates which of the following points?
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45.  The use of yearbooks as the unit of analysis is an example of social artifacts.
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46.  A student meets two fraternity men at a party who talk about all the partying they do. She then concludes that all fraternity men party all the time. What error in understanding does this example reflect?
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47.  Overgeneralization is more likely to lead to selective observation than selective observation is to lead to overgeneralization
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48.  The three main elements of the traditional model of science are
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49.  Juanita decided to study the differences among students who choose different majors. Everyone in her study, however, has chosen sociology as a major. Which one of the following can be said about her concept of choice of major?
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50.  The specification of the steps, procedures, or operations followed to actually measure variables
51.  Andrew studied family conflict as portrayed in the media by reading letters to advice columns. What was his unit of analysis?
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52.  Dunn was interested in learning more about the negotiation processes couples use when they argue. He was interested in this for its own sake and had no plans to use the results to help improve couples' lives. What type of research is reflected in this example?
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53.  Recently, Marxist scholars have argued that social research should be closely connected to social action. Which feature of science is most threatened by this position?
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54.  Regarding the reporting of study shortcomings, researchers should
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55.  Negative findings are less important than positive findings and should not be reported.
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56.  Scientists do not study individuals per se, but instead study social patterns reflecting
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57.  Pure research pursues knowledge for knowledge's sake, with no concern for how it might be used
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58.  Senator Robertson wants to know how voter interest in issues in his district has changed over time. Which design would be the best to use?
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59.  Read the following statement and then deteremine the appropriate unit of analysis: "church records show that contributions have declined over the past 20 years." What unit of analysis is reflect?
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60.  Whose emphasis on positivism laid the foundation for the development of social science?
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61.  The paradigm that focuses on how the components of society are interrelated.
62.  Which of the following is not a step in deductive theory construction?
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63.  A paradigm that examines interaction among individuals and how people gain a sense of self based on their interactions with others
64.  Which one of the following hypotheses best fits the three criteria of causality
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65.  When Milgram asked research subjects to administer "shocks" to "pupils" who were confederates of the researcher, the subjects generally refused to continue administering shocks.
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66.  Feminist paradigms look only at the oppression of women
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67.  A mechanism for reviewing ethical issues within an institution
68.  The condition that exists when the researcher is able to identify a given person's responses but promises not to do so publicly
69.  Breaking the rules is a technique employed by ethnomethodologists
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70.  Which one of the following is not an appropriate strategy for approximating longitudinal studies when only cross-sectional data are available?
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71.  Informed consent pertains to the ethical norms of voluntary participation and no harm to participants
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72.  The first two steps in the research proposal are
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73.  Which of the following is the best example of macrotheory?
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74.  The traditional model of science begins operationalization
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75.  The fact that people in social research often reveal personal information about themselves to researchers, who are strangers, is most closely related to the ethical principle of voluntary participation.
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76.  Which of the following best reflects the ecological fallacy?
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77.  Nonspuriousness is the requirement for a causal relationship that says that the effect cannot be explained in terms of some third variable.
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78.  The inductive approach to theory construction is seen most often in
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79.  Cameroon did a study in which he could identify a given person's responses but promised not to do so publicly. He employed
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80.  Reasoning from general principles and theories to specific cases
81.  Professor Lodwicky used the 2000 United States Census and the 1990 Census to compare the average family sixe. This reflects which type of study?
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82.  Karl Marx coined the term sociology
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83.  Professor Pellson noticed that the students who sat in the front row in her classes usually got A's. After observing this pattern over several semesters, she decided that students who sit in the front row are generally good students. This is an exaple of
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84.  For her senior project in poltical science, Cheri confucts a survey on students' attitudes and behavior concerning homosexuality. While distributing the questionnaire, she assures the group of students that no one will be able to trace responses to an individual. However, she has obtained a seating chart with the names of all the students in the class and where they were sitting. Cheri is violating which ethical principle?
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85.  Bernardo arguess that nothing is really real and what what people see is a product of their position in society. Which perspective is reflected?
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86.  Debriefing is commonly used to counteract the effects of deception.
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87.  In your discussion of measurement with a friend, she argues that what you are trying to measure does not exist and that your own point of view will determine what you perceive in your measuring process. She has taken which view of reality?
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88.  The controversy surrounding Laud Humphrey's study of homosexuals suggests he most violated which of the following principles?
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89.  Identifying your major concepts and variables is the first step in constructing your theory
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90.  Sociology that is relatively unaffected by personal values
91.  A necessary cause represents a condition that, if it is present, guarantees the effect in question
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92.  Whereas theories seek to explain, paradigms provides ways of looking.
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93.  The most typical unit of analysis is the individual.
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94.  The use of several different research methods to test the same finding
95.  Lying is particularly common in which on of the following research designs?
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96.  A paradigm based on the view that social behavior can be explained in terms of genetic characteristics and behavior
97.  Reasoning from particular instances to generalizations.
98.  Ethical considerations enter at which point in the research process?
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99.  Explaining a particular phenomenon in terms of limited and/or lower-order concepts
100.  Logical and persistent patterns in social life.
101.  The assumption that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern.
102.  The ethical principle that subjects should be free to participate in a study or not is known as the no harm to participants principle
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103.  When you hear the 4:27 train blow its whistle as you walk home from school every day, you can expect within minutes to smell Ms. Stockland's cooking. This is an example of
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104.  Not being truthful about your identity as a researcher
105.  Attributes are composed of variables
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106.  Interpreting events to fit a general pattern that a researcher believes to be true.
107.  Epistemology is the science of knowing and methodology is the science of finding out
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