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Soc262 Final

159 Questions  I  By Grahamme
SOC262 Final
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1.  Lying is particularly common in which on of the following research designs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following best reflects the ecological fallacy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Regardless of the theory used, there is a close connection between theory and research.
A.
B.
4.  The research proposal generally begins with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The paradigm that is based on Marx's analysis of economic attempts to dominate others and to avoid being dominated.
6.  When you hear the 4:27 train blow its whistle as you walk home from school every day, you can expect within minutes to smell Ms. Stockland's cooking. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The topic of ethics is typically associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Reasoning from particular instances to generalizations.
9.  The condition that exists when the researcher is able to identify a given person's responses but promises not to do so publicly
10.  Attributes are composed of variables
A.
B.
11.  Professor Peters examined the gender makeup of politicians and then made conclusions about how the political institution reflects the other institutions of society. Which paradigm was she using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  A particular weakness in cross-sectional studies is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Explaining a particular phenomenon in terms of limited and/or lower-order concepts
14.  Cameroon did a study in which he could identify a given person's responses but promised not to do so publicly. He employed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Frankie assumed that kids like to be respected by other kids. He then developed a specific testable expectation that boys experience more pressures for delinquency than do girls. This expectation is known as a/an"
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Ethical considerations are almost always apparent to us.
A.
B.
17.  Collective actions and situations of many individuals.
18.  This paradigm shoes how gender differences relate to the rest of social organization
19.  The traditional model of science employs deductive logic.
A.
B.
20.  Which of the following is not a step in deductive theory construction?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Debbie did an experiment and was particularly concerned that her subjects base their voluntary participation on a full understanding of the possible risks involved. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Nate wants to make some causal assertions in his cross-sectional study about the effects of high school involvement on violence among young adults (all the people he studied are in their early 20s). He can approximate a longitudinal study by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Senator Josephson researched the effects of political orientation on attitudes toward abortion. "Political orientation" is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The major justification the social scientist has for requesting participation in a study is that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which of the following is the best example of a hypothesis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Epistemology is the science of knowing and methodology is the science of finding out
A.
B.
27.  The use of yearbooks as the unit of analysis is an example of social artifacts.
A.
B.
28.  Igor studied students at his community college and noticed that a slim majority carried no books to class. Then he saw a new set of people in the distance and concluded before seeing them that they would definitely be carrying books to class because someone should do that, especially since he had just seen students without books. Which error in inquiry is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "most Americas believe in God" What unit of analysis is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Dunn was interested in learning more about the negotiation processes couples use when they argue. He was interested in this for its own sake and had no plans to use the results to help improve couples' lives. What type of research is reflected in this example?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  The specification of the steps, procedures, or operations followed to actually measure variables
32.  Professor Lodwicky used the 2000 United States Census and the 1990 Census to compare the average family sixe. This reflects which type of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Freda developed a theory and an hypothesis about adjustment to retirement as related to gender. She constructed measures for adjustment to retirement. The next step for Freda according to the traditional model of science is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Most of what we know is a matter of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Logical groupings of attributes.
36.  What is considered ethical is based on
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Experimental research is commonly used to conduct inductive theory construction.
A.
B.
38.  Makita studied the literature on binge drinking and discovered a pattern between gender and binge drinking that might be logically and theoretically expected. She then did her study of college students and drinking. Which approach is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  A necessary cause represents a condition that, if it is present, guarantees the effect in question
A.
B.
40.  Professor Pellson noticed that the students who sat in the front row in her classes usually got A's. After observing this pattern over several semesters, she decided that students who sit in the front row are generally good students. This is an exaple of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  An ethical principle that presupposes the willingness of respondents to participate in social research
42.  Whose emphasis on positivism laid the foundation for the development of social science?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Units of analysis are limited to individuals, groups, organizations, and artifacts.
A.
B.
44.  A student meets two fraternity men at a party who talk about all the partying they do. She then concludes that all fraternity men party all the time. What error in understanding does this example reflect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Identifying your major concepts and variables is the first step in constructing your theory
A.
B.
46.  Which one of the following is not an appropriate strategy for approximating longitudinal studies when only cross-sectional data are available?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The acceptable research behavior of researchers as published by professional associations are known as rules of engagement
A.
B.
48.  Andrew studied family conflict as portrayed in the media by reading letters to advice columns. What was his unit of analysis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Professor Havidan studied a prenatal class for expectant partents in his attempt to understand how expectant parents prepare for the role of parenthood and how they gain a sense of themselves as parents. He focused on the language and symbols expectant paretns use to describe their new roles. Which paradigm is he using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  Attrition of study participants is most critical for which of the following designs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  While nomothic explanations are very useful in social scientific research, idiographic explanations are of little use
A.
B.
52.  An association that links variables.
53.  Which of the following is not a difference between ethical and political aspects of social research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Recently, Marxist scholars have argued that social research should be closely connected to social action. Which feature of science is most threatened by this position?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Ethical considerations enter at which point in the research process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Which of the following best reflects the nomothetic model of explanation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  A mechanism for reviewing ethical issues within an institution
58.  Feminist paradigms look only at the oppression of women
A.
B.
59.  Published formal guidelines for conduction social research.
60.  Nomothetic explanations seek to explain a class of situations or events rather than a single one.
A.
B.
61.  The most typical unit of analysis is the individual.
A.
B.
62.  One of the unique advantagws of science is that it can settle debates on values
A.
B.
63.  The error in which data are gathered from one unit of analysis but conclusions are made about another unit of analysis
64.  Professor Johannison has just discovered that amount of time spent in social activities has a causual influence on academic performance. This is an example of which kind of study>
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The first two steps in the research proposal are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The modern view of reality states that what is "real" depends on out points of view
A.
B.
67.  Interpreting events to fit a general pattern that a researcher believes to be true.
68.  Longitudinal studies in which independent samples of the same age group are studied at two points in time or more
69.  The "what" or "whom" that is actually studied
70.  In addition to their ethical obligations to subjects, researchers have ethical obligations to their colleagues in the scientfic community as well.
A.
B.
71.  Senator Robertson wants to know how voter interest in issues in his district has changed over time. Which design would be the best to use?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  A source of knowledge that is obtained from experts.
73.  Indira wants to study how people make sense of the delays the experience in their daily lives. She asked people to keep diaries about such delays and how they responded to them, particularly how they made sense of them. She also enouraged them to sometimes violate others' expectations in terms of responding to delays. Which paradigm is she using?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Professor Flemming examined the following categories of marital status: married, never married, widowed, separated, and divorced. These categories are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Exceptions frequently disprove a causal relationship in nomothetic explanations.
A.
B.
76.  "But my professor said that no significant differences exist between men and women regarding intelligence." What source of understanding does this example reflect
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  The paradigm that focuses on how the components of society are interrelated.
78.  The paradigm that focuses on how race affects our understanding of social phenomena
79.  Which one of the following is the best example of agreement-based knowledge?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  When social scientists study variables in explanatory research, they focus on
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The cause of a particular dependent variable.
82.  The degree of relationship between two variables is of particular concern in which type of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  For her senior project in poltical science, Cheri confucts a survey on students' attitudes and behavior concerning homosexuality. While distributing the questionnaire, she assures the group of students that no one will be able to trace responses to an individual. However, she has obtained a seating chart with the names of all the students in the class and where they were sitting. Cheri is violating which ethical principle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Who first coined the term "sociology"
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Bernardo arguess that nothing is really real and what what people see is a product of their position in society. Which perspective is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Criminal justice studentent Vierling has noticed in her internship that adolescents who have experienced difficulties in school are more likely to become juvenile deliquents. In her process of going from the specific observations to the discovery of a more general pattern, she has employed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Overgeneralization is more likely to lead to selective observation than selective observation is to lead to overgeneralization
A.
B.
88.  The science of finding out.
89.  Exploratory studies are done most often for purposes of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  The ethical principle of voluntary participation most threatens which scientific goal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  The purpose of research that stresses examining a new area of interest or studying uncharted areas
92.  Breaking the rules is a technique employed by ethnomethodologists
A.
B.
93.  Scientists do not study individuals per se, but instead study social patterns reflecting
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Negative findings are less important than positive findings and should not be reported.
A.
B.
95.  It is possible to draw approximate conclusions about processes that occur over time by using cross-sectional data.
A.
B.
96.  Juanita decided to study the differences among students who choose different majors. Everyone in her study, however, has chosen sociology as a major. Which one of the following can be said about her concept of choice of major?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  The paradigm that accounts for the impact of economic conditions on family structures is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Josephine is a student at Consolidated Community College and is planning to do a study on how eating disorders affect academic performance. How must review her research before it can be done?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  The reseach proposal begins with the data analysis
A.
B.
100.  Not being truthful about your identity as a researcher
101.  You have just had a wonderful streak of great luck in your methods class: you've gotten A's on the last three tests and computer assignment. You have a research project due on the last day of class and you just know that you are going to flunk it. After all, something has to happen to break up this streak of good luck. You have fallen prey to the error of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  If a researcher wanted to find out how much time elderly persons in nursing homes spend interacting with each other, the researcher would conduct which kind of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Pure research pursues knowledge for knowledge's sake, with no concern for how it might be used
A.
B.
104.  Longitudinal studies in which the same set of individuals is studied at two or more points in time
105.  A paradigm that examines interaction among individuals and how people gain a sense of self based on their interactions with others
106.  A general framework or viewpoint that organizes our view of something
107.  This paradigm uses "methodology of people" to examine how poeple continually create social structure through their actions and interactions.
108.  The three main elements of the traditional model of science are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Using data on cities to develop conclusions about individuals refects reductionism.
A.
B.
110.  Inductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general.
A.
B.
111.  Sociology that is relatively unaffected by personal values
112.  Whereas theories seek to explain, paradigms provides ways of looking.
A.
B.
113.  Which one of the following hypotheses best fits the three criteria of causality
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Informed consent pertains to the ethical norms of voluntary participation and no harm to participants
A.
B.
115.  The use of several different research methods to test the same finding
116.  The only partial exception to the lack of poltical norms is the generally accepted view that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Read the following statement and then deteremine the appropriate unit of analysis: "church records show that contributions have declined over the past 20 years." What unit of analysis is reflect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Who was an early theorist concerned with how individuals interacted with one another?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Which of the following is the best example of macrotheory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Karl Marx coined the term sociology
A.
B.
121.  The politics of research centers on the issues of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  The fact that people in social research often reveal personal information about themselves to researchers, who are strangers, is most closely related to the ethical principle of voluntary participation.
A.
B.
123.  Interviews conducted following an experiment to discover any problems generated by the research experience so that those problems can be addressed
124.  The assumption that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern.
125.  The controversy surrounding Laud Humphrey's study of homosexuals suggests he most violated which of the following principles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Professor Todd observes playground interaction for a month to develop a theory that accounts for the problems observed. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Which on of the following is not a function of theories?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Which type of study would best enable a researcher to assess changes associated with attending college for four years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Researcher Lewis spends three months as a choir member touring Europe to see what off-stage choir member interaction is all about. This is an example of which kind of study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  The traditional model of science begins operationalization
A.
B.
131.  Deductive theory construction generally beigns with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Federally mandated Institutional Review Boards were designed primarily to address which one of the following ethical principles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  A researcher who wishes to become familiar with a new area of interest should use an explanatory approach.
A.
B.
134.  Regarding the reporting of study shortcomings, researchers should
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  With confidentiality, a researcher has no way of knowing the identity of research participants
A.
B.
136.  Explanation that seeks to identify the major factos that affect something across many cases.
137.  Studies in which the units of analysis are studied at one point in time
138.  Science
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "ten percent of families in a community move within a year" What unit of analysis is reflected?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Bernetta did a study in which she, the researcher, could not identify a given response with a given respondent. She employed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  The controversy surrounding Milgram's study involving "shocks" suggests he most violated which ethical principles?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  In your discussion of measurement with a friend, she argues that what you are trying to measure does not exist and that your own point of view will determine what you perceive in your measuring process. She has taken which view of reality?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Logical and persistent patterns in social life.
144.  The two foundations of science are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  When Milgram asked research subjects to administer "shocks" to "pupils" who were confederates of the researcher, the subjects generally refused to continue administering shocks.
A.
B.
146.  The discussion of the Census best illustrates which of the following points?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Reasoning from general principles and theories to specific cases
148.  The ethical principle that subjects should be free to participate in a study or not is known as the no harm to participants principle
A.
B.
149.  A review of how support for abortion has changed over a decade is an example of a cross-sectional study
A.
B.
150.  A paradigm based on the view that social behavior can be explained in terms of genetic characteristics and behavior
151.  The purpose of research that stresses the determination of causes
152.  Nonspuriousness is the requirement for a causal relationship that says that the effect cannot be explained in terms of some third variable.
A.
B.
153.  The condition that exists when the researcher cannot identify a given response with a given respondent
154.  Inductive theory is commonly done through observation research.
A.
B.
155.  The formalized process for securing voluntary participation
156.  Roberto wants to study how newly engaged couples communicate with eachother. He is particularly interested in how each person defines such symbols as the engagement ring, and how each person communicates the relationships to others. Which paradigm would be best?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Debriefing is commonly used to counteract the effects of deception.
A.
B.
158.  The inductive approach to theory construction is seen most often in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Babbie reviews the traditional model for portraying science. This model shows that science generally beings with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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