Soc262 Final

159 Questions  I  By Grahamme on December 8, 2011
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1.  Inductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general.
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2.  Bernardo arguess that nothing is really real and what what people see is a product of their position in society. Which perspective is reflected?
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3.  The traditional model of science employs deductive logic.
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4.  The acceptable research behavior of researchers as published by professional associations are known as rules of engagement
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5.  The science of finding out.
6.  The formalized process for securing voluntary participation
7.  Cameroon did a study in which he could identify a given person's responses but promised not to do so publicly. He employed
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8.  The topic of ethics is typically associated with
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9.  Who first coined the term "sociology"
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10.  Debriefing is commonly used to counteract the effects of deception.
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11.  A necessary cause represents a condition that, if it is present, guarantees the effect in question
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12.  Which one of the following is the best example of agreement-based knowledge?
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13.  The traditional model of science begins operationalization
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14.  Deductive theory construction generally beigns with
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15.  The inductive approach to theory construction is seen most often in
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16.  This paradigm shoes how gender differences relate to the rest of social organization
17.  An ethical principle that presupposes the willingness of respondents to participate in social research
18.  The paradigm that accounts for the impact of economic conditions on family structures is
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19.  Most of what we know is a matter of
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20.  The major justification the social scientist has for requesting participation in a study is that
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21.  Nomothetic explanations seek to explain a class of situations or events rather than a single one.
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22.  Whereas theories seek to explain, paradigms provides ways of looking.
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23.  A mechanism for reviewing ethical issues within an institution
24.  Which of the following is not a step in deductive theory construction?
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25.  Professor Havidan studied a prenatal class for expectant partents in his attempt to understand how expectant parents prepare for the role of parenthood and how they gain a sense of themselves as parents. He focused on the language and symbols expectant paretns use to describe their new roles. Which paradigm is he using?
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26.  Professor Lodwicky used the 2000 United States Census and the 1990 Census to compare the average family sixe. This reflects which type of study?
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27.  When Milgram asked research subjects to administer "shocks" to "pupils" who were confederates of the researcher, the subjects generally refused to continue administering shocks.
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28.  Inductive theory is commonly done through observation research.
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29.  "But my professor said that no significant differences exist between men and women regarding intelligence." What source of understanding does this example reflect
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30.  The purpose of research that stresses the determination of causes
31.  Regarding the reporting of study shortcomings, researchers should
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32.  Exceptions frequently disprove a causal relationship in nomothetic explanations.
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33.  Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "ten percent of families in a community move within a year" What unit of analysis is reflected?
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34.  The use of yearbooks as the unit of analysis is an example of social artifacts.
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35.  Professor Todd observes playground interaction for a month to develop a theory that accounts for the problems observed. This is an example of
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36.  Ethical considerations enter at which point in the research process?
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37.  Nate wants to make some causal assertions in his cross-sectional study about the effects of high school involvement on violence among young adults (all the people he studied are in their early 20s). He can approximate a longitudinal study by
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38.  While nomothic explanations are very useful in social scientific research, idiographic explanations are of little use
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39.  Attrition of study participants is most critical for which of the following designs?
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40.  The ethical principle of voluntary participation most threatens which scientific goal?
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41.  A paradigm that examines interaction among individuals and how people gain a sense of self based on their interactions with others
42.  Informed consent pertains to the ethical norms of voluntary participation and no harm to participants
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43.  Whose emphasis on positivism laid the foundation for the development of social science?
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44.  A student meets two fraternity men at a party who talk about all the partying they do. She then concludes that all fraternity men party all the time. What error in understanding does this example reflect?
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45.  Senator Josephson researched the effects of political orientation on attitudes toward abortion. "Political orientation" is an example of
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46.  Karl Marx coined the term sociology
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47.  Explaining a particular phenomenon in terms of limited and/or lower-order concepts
48.  Which on of the following is not a function of theories?
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49.  Which one of the following is not an appropriate strategy for approximating longitudinal studies when only cross-sectional data are available?
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50.  Roberto wants to study how newly engaged couples communicate with eachother. He is particularly interested in how each person defines such symbols as the engagement ring, and how each person communicates the relationships to others. Which paradigm would be best?
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51.  Who was an early theorist concerned with how individuals interacted with one another?
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52.  Which type of study would best enable a researcher to assess changes associated with attending college for four years?
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53.  Frankie assumed that kids like to be respected by other kids. He then developed a specific testable expectation that boys experience more pressures for delinquency than do girls. This expectation is known as a/an"
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54.  Professor Flemming examined the following categories of marital status: married, never married, widowed, separated, and divorced. These categories are known as
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55.  Bernetta did a study in which she, the researcher, could not identify a given response with a given respondent. She employed
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56.  Explanation that seeks to identify the major factos that affect something across many cases.
57.  Longitudinal studies in which independent samples of the same age group are studied at two points in time or more
58.  The paradigm that focuses on how race affects our understanding of social phenomena
59.  Using data on cities to develop conclusions about individuals refects reductionism.
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60.  Published formal guidelines for conduction social research.
61.  This paradigm uses "methodology of people" to examine how poeple continually create social structure through their actions and interactions.
62.  Professor Pellson noticed that the students who sat in the front row in her classes usually got A's. After observing this pattern over several semesters, she decided that students who sit in the front row are generally good students. This is an exaple of
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63.  Logical and persistent patterns in social life.
64.  Read the following statement and then determine the appropriate unit of analysis: "most Americas believe in God" What unit of analysis is reflected?
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65.  Juanita decided to study the differences among students who choose different majors. Everyone in her study, however, has chosen sociology as a major. Which one of the following can be said about her concept of choice of major?
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66.  Regardless of the theory used, there is a close connection between theory and research.
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67.  Makita studied the literature on binge drinking and discovered a pattern between gender and binge drinking that might be logically and theoretically expected. She then did her study of college students and drinking. Which approach is reflected?
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68.  Read the following statement and then deteremine the appropriate unit of analysis: "church records show that contributions have declined over the past 20 years." What unit of analysis is reflect?
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69.  Which one of the following hypotheses best fits the three criteria of causality
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70.  Professor Peters examined the gender makeup of politicians and then made conclusions about how the political institution reflects the other institutions of society. Which paradigm was she using?
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71.  The politics of research centers on the issues of
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72.  Scientists do not study individuals per se, but instead study social patterns reflecting
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73.  Indira wants to study how people make sense of the delays the experience in their daily lives. She asked people to keep diaries about such delays and how they responded to them, particularly how they made sense of them. She also enouraged them to sometimes violate others' expectations in terms of responding to delays. Which paradigm is she using?
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74.  The use of several different research methods to test the same finding
75.  A general framework or viewpoint that organizes our view of something
76.  Dunn was interested in learning more about the negotiation processes couples use when they argue. He was interested in this for its own sake and had no plans to use the results to help improve couples' lives. What type of research is reflected in this example?
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77.  Which of the following is the best example of a hypothesis
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78.  The research proposal generally begins with
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79.  Not being truthful about your identity as a researcher
80.  In your discussion of measurement with a friend, she argues that what you are trying to measure does not exist and that your own point of view will determine what you perceive in your measuring process. She has taken which view of reality?
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81.  For her senior project in poltical science, Cheri confucts a survey on students' attitudes and behavior concerning homosexuality. While distributing the questionnaire, she assures the group of students that no one will be able to trace responses to an individual. However, she has obtained a seating chart with the names of all the students in the class and where they were sitting. Cheri is violating which ethical principle?
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82.  With confidentiality, a researcher has no way of knowing the identity of research participants
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83.  Exploratory studies are done most often for purposes of
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84.  Reasoning from particular instances to generalizations.
85.  The error in which data are gathered from one unit of analysis but conclusions are made about another unit of analysis
86.  Which of the following is not a difference between ethical and political aspects of social research?
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87.  Collective actions and situations of many individuals.
88.  Senator Robertson wants to know how voter interest in issues in his district has changed over time. Which design would be the best to use?
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89.  Attributes are composed of variables
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90.  Experimental research is commonly used to conduct inductive theory construction.
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91.  Longitudinal studies in which the same set of individuals is studied at two or more points in time
92.  The fact that people in social research often reveal personal information about themselves to researchers, who are strangers, is most closely related to the ethical principle of voluntary participation.
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93.  Feminist paradigms look only at the oppression of women
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94.  The three main elements of the traditional model of science are
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95.  The controversy surrounding Laud Humphrey's study of homosexuals suggests he most violated which of the following principles?
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96.  The first two steps in the research proposal are
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97.  The "what" or "whom" that is actually studied
98.  The cause of a particular dependent variable.
99.  The ethical principle that subjects should be free to participate in a study or not is known as the no harm to participants principle
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100.  Ethical considerations are almost always apparent to us.
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101.  Which of the following best reflects the ecological fallacy?
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102.  Pure research pursues knowledge for knowledge's sake, with no concern for how it might be used
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103.  Units of analysis are limited to individuals, groups, organizations, and artifacts.
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104.  Freda developed a theory and an hypothesis about adjustment to retirement as related to gender. She constructed measures for adjustment to retirement. The next step for Freda according to the traditional model of science is:
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105.  A source of knowledge that is obtained from experts.