Real Estate Final Examination

200 Questions  I  By Joco
Real Estate Final Examination
Rizal Final Examination

  
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1.  Property exclusively owned by the husband is called:
A.
B.
C.
2.  When the register of deeds is in doubt as to what proper action to take regarding a deed ofabsolute sale presented for registration, he may bring the question to the Land RegistrationAuthority by means of
A.
B.
C.
3.  After the 1992 Rio Summit, it became a buzzword for measuring the health of the planet.And for referring to number of species found there
A.
B.
C.
4.  Are the differences between condominium & a subdivision project:-except?
A.
B.
C.
5.  In Philippine Laws, the equivalent of real estate is:
A.
B.
C.
6.  Enumerated are the advantages of Condominium Concept, which does not belong;
A.
B.
C.
7.  May be defined briefly as that which constitutes a just cause of exclusive possession, orwhich is the foundation of owner of property.
A.
B.
C.
8.  Planning and designing a condominium project shall conform with the minimum designstandards prescribed by:
A.
B.
C.
9.  Which of the following lands of the public domain may be alienated or disposed of by thegovernment?
A.
B.
C.
10.  A real estate mortgage that covers several properties is called
A.
B.
C.
11.  It is referring to a characteristic of land wherein land is considered fixed in place.
A.
B.
C.
12.  HDMF Maximum loan amount
A.
B.
C.
13.  If a person cannot locate or find his original owners copy of the transfer certificate of title andis therefore lost and missing, he must execute this document to annotate in the title the fact ofloss
A.
B.
C.
14.  T is the national agenda for sustainable development It outlines the integrating strategies forthe country's overall sustainable development and identifies the intervention areas from thenational to the regional level.
A.
B.
C.
15.  _____ explores how and why people adopt new ducts, services and ideas.
A.
B.
C.
16.  A passageway with only one outlet. A blind alley.
A.
B.
C.
17.  The owner of a house and lot located in Metro Manila lives in Canada and wanted to sell herhouse and lot and gave a power of attorney to her daughter to sell the property. The ownershould therefore execute this document in favor of her daughter to sell the property
A.
B.
C.
18.  It is the study of how organisms live and how they interact with their environment.
A.
B.
C.
19.  It is a process which tells o a development of all aspects of human life affecting sustenance.
A.
B.
C.
20.  Where the settlement has developed along a line, the kind of settlement according to shape
A.
B.
C.
21.  In a legal contract/instrument between individuals as parties, the instrument must contain thefollowing data concerning the parties, except:
A.
B.
C.
22.  Advertisement materials shall form part of the sales warranties enforceable against theOwner/ Developer.
A.
B.
C.
23.  Under RA 891, the maximum redemption period after extrajudicial foreclosure cf a=mortgageexecuted by a corporation in favor of a bank is:
A.
B.
C.
24.  HDMF Collateral Ratio to a P400,000.00 loan amount is:
A.
B.
C.
25.  The first requirement for a Filipino who had become an American citizen to acquire land forresidential purpose under B.P. 185 is as follows
A.
B.
C.
26.  Contract of Sale is to Deed of Sale; Contract to Sell
A.
B.
C.
27.  It is the.guide to the proper location of activities in space.
A.
B.
C.
28.  Three (3) types of transactions, under PD 957, exempted from securing license to sell:-except?
A.
B.
C.
29.  The seller of a family home who fails to utilize the proceeds to acquire a new residencewithin 18 months from the sale shall be assessed an additional deficiency capital gains taxinclusive of penalties and and surcharges of:
A.
B.
C.
30.  Husband and wife cannot sell property to each other except when a separation of property isagreed upon in the "ante-nuptial" contract and
A.
B.
C.
31.  The contract of lease shall be binding even on third parties if the Contract of lease is
A.
B.
C.
32.  It refers to a document embodying specific proposals for guiding, regulating growth anddevelopment of a city or municipality
A.
B.
C.
33.  What land of the public domain is alienable and disposable?
A.
B.
C.
34.  A deed of absolute sale of a parcel of land signed by the buyer and the seller but notnotarized is considered
A.
B.
C.
35.  Pre-selling of subdivislpn lot, or house and lot is allowed under PD 957.
A.
B.
C.
36.  Mr. C rented out a condominium unit to a foreigner, Mr. X and Mr. X paid the deposit and theadvance rental while Mr. C gave the keys to the unit to the foreigner. The contract of lease wasnot put down in writing, it is therefore
A.
B.
C.
37.  The life of the condominium corporation shall be co-terminus with the life of the-
A.
B.
C.
38.  To be able to sell and buy real property a person must already be legal age, or alsoreferred to as the age of emancipation. What is the legal age for a person to have capacity toenter into a contract of sale
A.
B.
C.
39.  Payment of realty taxes shall be the sole responsibility of the buyers on installment paymentat all times.
A.
B.
C.
40.  The group interacting and interbreeding organism of the same species
A.
B.
C.
41.  The law that protects buyers in a condominium of a subdivision project.
A.
B.
C.
42.  It has been singled out in the Local Government Code as the principal instrument forimplementing the CLUP.
A.
B.
C.
43.  1t is a document that outlines the preferred future spatial arrangement of land uses, with a setof proposed actions to turn the plan a reality.
A.
B.
C.
44.  Where these areas are found in fertile farming sites and has many services e.g. shops andoffices, the kind of settlement according to function
A.
B.
C.
45.  The registration of a deed of absolute is done with the Register of Deeds:Under whatgovernment agency is the Register of Deeds directly under and reporting to
A.
B.
C.
46.  Are types of condominium projects: -except?
A.
B.
C.
47.  Advertisement materials may contain disclaimers.
A.
B.
C.
48.  Under BP 185, a former natural born Filipino may acquire residential land in the Philippineseven if already a foreign citizen provided that it should not exceed the following area in case ofurban land.
A.
B.
C.
49.  Maximum loan entitlement of Pag-ibig member paying P1,300D0 monthly contribution
A.
B.
C.
50.  What is the current maximum selling price of a house & lot under BP 220 economic type ofsubdivision?
A.
B.
C.
51.  The law that authorized HLURB to promulgate standards different from the required by PD 957, building code & fire Code.
A.
B.
C.
52.  In a contract to sell by a corporation, the instrument must include the following except:
A.
B.
C.
53.  The minimum width of road required for residential projects falling under PD 957.
A.
B.
C.
54.  Annotation of Section 4, Rule 74 of the Rules of Court on the title to the property of adeceased person, a surviving spouse and children ; provides that the property shall be subject to the rights of three of the following. Who among the four does not have the right to the subject property?
A.
B.
C.
55.  When land is subject to applications which bring about changes, alterations, and modifications so much so that it preempts the original use or it is physically impossible to restore the land to its previous state or conditions, this type of land use is
A.
B.
C.
56.  The Philippine Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) System was formally established in 1978 by virtue of ________
A.
B.
C.
57.  Special power of attorney executed abroad must be authenticated by any of the following,EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
58.  The Owner/Developer may collect additional fees from buyers anytime.
A.
B.
C.
59.  Right of way is a kind of
A.
B.
C.
60.  It is a spatial (non-spatial) and social process which refers to the changes of behavior andsocial relationships that occur in social dimensions as a result of people living in towns and cities
A.
B.
C.
61.  Which of the following is not en example of in involuntary alienation?
A.
B.
C.
62.  HDMF Maximum Loan Term
A.
B.
C.
63.  Application for an Original Certificate of Title (OCT) should contain the ff: except?
A.
B.
C.
64.  A house and lot, with a land area of 400 square meters was sold at P2,500,000. Per taxdeclaration, the fair market value of the house is P1,000,000, and the lot is P1,200,000. Thezonal value of the lot is P5,000 per square meter. The sale is subject to capital gains tax.How much is the capital gains tax?
A.
B.
C.
65.  Upon completion of the subdivision project as certified by the HLURB, the open spaces shallbe donated by the Owner/Developer to t Home Owners Association.
A.
B.
C.
66.  Are types of complaints of buyers against the Owner/Developer  whichshall be filed withHLURB:-except?
A.
B.
C.
67.  It refers to meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of futuregenerations to meet their own needs
A.
B.
C.
68.  Mr. Castro owns a 240 sqm rectangular lot with a 12-meter frontage. He wanted to enclose itwith a fence made of hollow blocks, 1.7 meters high above the ground with 03 meters below the ground. The fence cost P750.00/sqm. How much will the fencing cost if a 4 feet meter wide steel gate costing P25,000.00 is installed?
A.
B.
C.
69.  The following are lands of public domain, except
A.
B.
C.
70.  In the phrase "save in cases of hereditary succession" in Sec.7, Art. XII (National Economyand Patrimony), Phil. Charter, what kind of transferee of private land does it refer to?
A.
B.
C.
71.  The deed of absolute was to be notarized and the parties appeared before the notary publicand they have to show identification documents to the notary public. The following areacceptable documents for notarization, except
A.
B.
C.
72.  The transfer tax on the sale of real property shall be paid to the local government, under thelocal government code, within a period of:
A.
B.
C.
73.  It is a process by which radiative energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by someatmospheric gases.
A.
B.
C.
74.  The "bundle of rights theory" also means
A.
B.
C.
75.  If a person is married, she should state her marital status as married and also indicate thename of her husband in a sale of real property, The law that provides this requirement is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
76.  On a Pacto de Retro contract of sale which there is no stipulation of the period to which thevendor shall have the right to buy back or redeem of the property, the period of redemption shall be:
A.
B.
C.
77.  It is referring a characteristic of land wherein land is considered not reproducible.
A.
B.
C.
78.  This area. composed of a community and the physical environment it occupies is called
A.
B.
C.
79.  Identify the housing program of the government & the project set tor intended for theunderprivileged and homeless citizens.
A.
B.
C.
80.  A couple was delinquent in the payment of real estate taxes on their house and lot locatedin Quezon City and so the property was sold by the city government at public auction due to the delinquent taxes. The mode of acquisition of title in this case is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
81.  It measures how much land and water area a human population requires to produce theresource it consumes and to absorb its wastes, using prevailing technology and also called"appropriated carrying capacity'.
A.
B.
C.
82.  Donation of a property is void when:
A.
B.
C.
83.  A contract of sale whereby part of the purchase price is paid upon execution of the contractand the balance to be paid within a stipulated period and the property is mortgaged back to thevendor to secure the payment of the balance:
A.
B.
C.
84.  The urban land use class includes public or government areas and special uses such ascemeteries and memorial parks
A.
B.
C.
85.  All ecological space that shares the same species, climate, animals, and plants is called
A.
B.
C.
86.  The thin film on the surface of the earth in which all life exists is called
A.
B.
C.
87.  If a person died leaving a will, what is that special court proceeding that must be instituted todetermine the validity of the testamentary disposition of the deceased?
A.
B.
C.
88.  Mr. Villanueva inherited a piece of land when he was still single. Then he got married onOctober 1, 2000 without a marriage settlement. What is the nature of the property now that he is married? 
A.
B.
C.
89.  In case of sale of agricultural lands not exceeding five (5) hectares, aside from clearance fromDAR, buyer must also submit what document?
A.
B.
C.
90.  Penalty for late payment of monthly amortization is computed
A.
B.
C.
91.  The part/percentage of subdivision project allocated exclusively for parks, playgrounds &recreational use roads, aIleys & sidewalks classified under PD957.
A.
B.
C.
92.  It is a land use policy area which is focused on economic production from the extractive tothe modern service sectors.
A.
B.
C.
93.  As provided for by the Agrarian Reform Law, lands awarded to a tenant beneficiary cannot bethe subject of a conversion permit:
A.
B.
C.
94.  Zonal value of a property can be obtained from
A.
B.
C.
95.  The retention unit of landowners under the CARP is
A.
B.
C.
96.  ___is a co-ownership undertaking for the development of condominiums and other propertyprojects which allows unit buyers to acquire a condominium unit at a significantly lower cost bydirectly engaging the services of a construction industry professional to develop the condominiumproperty.
A.
B.
C.
97.  It is a land use policy area referring to resources that need to be protected, conserved, andrehabilitated, including areas that require prevention and mitigation of disasters
A.
B.
C.
98.  In the conjugal partnership of gains, what kind of property does the spouses have conjugalpartnership on:
A.
B.
C.
99.  Condominium unit owners are mandated to font a
A.
B.
C.
100.  They are more expansive and contain a wide range of land uses
A.
B.
C.
101.  — a lot adjoining a corner lot and fronting an intersecting street.
A.
B.
C.
102.  A tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a largescale with a specific volume of units.
A.
B.
C.
103.  The administrative reconstitution under RA No 6732 of lost or destroyed certificates in theRegistry of Deeds may be availed when the number of certificates lost or destroyed is at least_____of all times in the Registry
A.
B.
C.
104.  Are features of P.D. 957: except?
A.
B.
C.
105.  Three of the following are important information in the documentation and registration of areal estate sale. Which information is false?
A.
B.
C.
106.  What is legitime?
A.
B.
C.
107.  Registration of a contract of sale in the Registry of Deeds is not an element of sale because:
A.
B.
C.
108.  A house and lot, with a land area of 400 square meters was sold at P2,500,000. Per taxdeclaration, the fair market value of the house is P1,000,000, and the lot is P1,200,000. Thezonal value of the lot is P5,000 per square meter. The sale is subject to capital gains tax.How much is the documentary tax?
A.
B.
C.
109.  For the exemption in payment of capital gains tax to be valid, within how many months fromthe sale or disposition of their principal residence should Jake and Rosie use the proceeds inacquiring or constructing their new principal residence:
A.
B.
C.
110.  A contract which is merely an executory contract or a mere promise to sell with no transfer ofownership
A.
B.
C.
111.  Mortgage of a subdivision project by the Owner/Developer requires _______ by HLURB.
A.
B.
C.
112.  They rely on a local and agricultural-based economy with dependencies 011 services, suchas hospitals and educational establishments in nearby urban centers
A.
B.
C.
113.  In a sale of a parcel of land it is required that in a contract it must be identifiable and clearlydefined and it is necessary to indicate the
A.
B.
C.
114.  In general, a mortgagor who mortgaged his real property and later was foreclosedextrajudicial and sold at public auction may redeem the property within the period of
A.
B.
C.
115.  A kind of possession of property that is actual, continuous, adversarial, visible and is requiredas an element of prescription:
A.
B.
C.
116.  The Foreign Investments Act of 1991 allows former natural born Filipinos to acquire land forbusiness purpose in a rural area not to exceed an area of
A.
B.
C.
117.  It is a general term used for a permanent or temporary community in which people live,without being specific as to size, population or importance.
A.
B.
C.
118.  Are types of subdivision projects: except?
A.
B.
C.
119.  This is composed of different populations living together interacting as competitors, predatorand prey, or symbiotically.
A.
B.
C.
120.  The sale by a dealer of a residential property is not subject to E-VAT when the price doesnot exceed:
A.
B.
C.
121.  When land uses can be combined in a single site or parcel of land at the same time, thistype of land uses is
A.
B.
C.
122.  The purposes of Land Registration Law in general, are: EXCEPT?
A.
B.
C.
123.  In the case of a property that is sold to two or more buyers who are all presumed to haveacted in good faith, who is the buyer who has a better right to the property?
A.
B.
C.
124.  A parcel of land was sold by a corporation to the buyer. In case of a corporation, it isrequired that the person Who will sign the deed of absolute sale must be
A.
B.
C.
125.  Jake and Rosie sold their house which is their principal residence. You as their broker have to advise them that the transaction is exempt from the capital gains tax if they spend how many percent of the sales proceeds in acquiring or constructing heir new principal residence?
A.
B.
C.
126.  Buyers on installment may cease and desist from further payments of monthly amortization, ifthe owner/ developer failed to complete the project on time.
A.
B.
C.
127.  This urban land use class includes single- and multiple-family dwellings
A.
B.
C.
128.  A document in order to be called a public instrument must be
A.
B.
C.
129.  A buyer on installment who has paid at least two years of installments, under R.A. 6552, isentitled to a refund of 50% of total payments effected during the first five years and an additional______ every year but not to exceed 90% of total payments made
A.
B.
C.
130.  Spouses who were married after the effectivity of the family code without any pre-nuptialagreement shall be governed by
A.
B.
C.
131.  HDMF Retention Fee (accounts secured by Contract to Sell) for loans over P 500,000.00 to P1,000,000.00
A.
B.
C.
132.  Assuming due cause , for foreclosure; what s the condition for a real estate mortgage to beforeclosed extra judicially?
A.
B.
C.
133.  R.A. 9225 (Citizenship Retention and Reacquisition Act) dated August 29, 2003, provides thatnatural born citizens of the Philippines, who have lost their citizenship by reason of theirnaturalization as citizens of a foreign country are deemed to have reacquired Philippinecitizenship (who shall thereafter enjoy full civil and political rights) after compliance with whatprocess?
A.
B.
C.
134.  It is used to describe the relationship if both species benefit from each other.
A.
B.
C.
135.  Juan checked the title of the land he was intending to buy and upon verification he foundout that there was a notice of lis pendens at the back of the title. This means that:
A.
B.
C.
136.  What is that cash or payment in kind given by landowner or developer to tenants, farmworkers or bonafide occupants to be affected by the DAR conversion?
A.
B.
C.
137.  Consequences of non-payment of assessment are: except?
A.
B.
C.
138.  Buyers in a subdivision or condominium project may file a criminal case againstOwner/Developer before the regular court.
A.
B.
C.
139.  If the owner / developer of a subdivision project will not donate the open spaces to the localgovernment, the ____ shall remain responsible for its the maintenance.
A.
B.
C.
140.  Where the buildings are spread apart, the kind of settlement according to shape
A.
B.
C.
141.  A house and lot, with a land area of 400 square meters was sold at P2,500,000. Per taxdeclaration, the fair market value of the house is P1,000,000, and the lot is P1,200,000. Thezonal value of the lot is P5,000 per square meter. The sale is subject to capital gains tax.What is the tax base?
A.
B.
C.
142.  If the value added tax P720,000, what would be the selling price before VAT?
A.
B.
C.
143.  Which of these does not belong to the Greenhouse gases
A.
B.
C.
144.  A former natural born Filipino who migrated to Canada may still own land in the Philippineseven if already a Canadian citizen through
A.
B.
C.
145.  The living organisms are the ____components of an ecosystem.
A.
B.
C.
146.  In reference to Q#130, documentary stamps tax is?
A.
B.
C.
147.  Your client Ricky has a property in a residential area that is actually being used as a beauty salon. The tax declarations of the lot and the structure indicate the following data:Lot area = ,275 sqmMarket value of the land = P4,525.00 per sqmMarket value of the structure = P2,400,000.00Assessment level: Residential = 20%Commercial = 50%Property tax rate = 1.5%Special Education Fund = 1% of the assessed valueWhat is the total combined assessed value of the land and the improvement?
A.
B.
C.
148.  The legal right of the state to acquire property of a deceased who died without a will andwithout heirs is referred to as what
A.
B.
C.
149.  After full payment of capital gains tax and documentary stamp tax on sale of a piece of land,the BIR shall then issue this document to the taxpayer
A.
B.
C.
150.  The mortgagee of a subdivision or condominium project can hold the release of titles to fully paid buyers until full payment of obligations of the mortgagor.
A.
B.
C.
151.  It is an interest in a real estate consisting of a separate interest in a building & an undividedinterest in common directly or indirectly in the land on which it is located.
A.
B.
C.
152.  The heirs of Mr. X inherited a piece of land and after the extrajudicial settlement of theestate, the title was transferred to the heirs and contained an annotation of Sec. 4, Rule 74 of the Rules of Court which provides that heirs who were not included in the settlement may claim within a period of _____.
A.
B.
C.
153.  Sale of a subdivision lot resulting from partition of land among co-owners and heirs is requiredto secure license to sell from HLURB.
A.
B.
C.
154.  The activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, andexchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.
A.
B.
C.
155.  Are powers of the HLURB: except?
A.
B.
C.
156.  Right to foreclosure of real estate mortgage prescribes in
A.
B.
C.
157.  This refers to the rights or attributes which are inherent in, or appurtenant to ownership
A.
B.
C.
158.  Capacity to pay shall be limited to an amount for which the monthly amortization shall notexceed ____% of the member's Net Disposable Income
A.
B.
C.
159.  In acquisition of title through hereditary succession or inheritance, the rights of thedeceased person are transmitted to the heirs at what point in time
A.
B.
C.
160.  The Department of Justice has issued an opinion that there is no provision under theCondominium Act expressly prohibiting a 100% foreign-owned corporation from setting up acondominium project on
A.
B.
C.
161.  This urban land use class refers to manufacturing areas consisting of factories
A.
B.
C.
162.  The title of the land of a condominium project shall remain undivided at all times.
A.
B.
C.
163.  The Owner/Developer shall deliver the title of a lot to unit buyer upon full payment of lot orunit.
A.
B.
C.
164.  The Owner/Developer may discourage the organization of Home Owners Association.
A.
B.
C.
165.  Mr Juan de la Rosa sold his property at P5,000,000.00 inclusive of the capital gains tax,documentary stamp tax and the broker's commission of five (5%) percent. What will be his netproceeds after deduction of expenses?
A.
B.
C.
166.  The Owner/Developer of a subdivision project may alter the subdivision plan without notifyingthe existing buyer.
A.
B.
C.
167.  The 2 criteria for CARP coverage is suitability of the land for agriculture and
A.
B.
C.
168.  In the event that Mr. Jose, who was a former natural born Filipino and who became anAustralian citizen would like to acquire land in the Philippines for the purpose of buying aresidential house and lot, Mr. Jose must execute the following additional document in order toacquire said land
A.
B.
C.
169.  Are parts of the condominium project classified as common area:-except?
A.
B.
C.
170.  The following are lands of the public domain, except
A.
B.
C.
171.  You have just closed the sale of a 700 square meter commercial lot in Pasig. The sellingprice agreed upon is P35,000 per square meter. You have advise the seller, who has agreedto pay all the expenses, to prepare several checks,- The zonal valuation of the lot is P37,000 per sq. meter. What amounts should he indicate for the;capital gains tax?
A.
B.
C.
172.  Real property declared for the first time shall be assessed for the period during which itwould have been liable but in no case for more than
A.
B.
C.
173.  Type of management bodies for condominium projects allowed by law-except?
A.
B.
C.
174.  This law governs the titling and other transfers of title and encumbrances and other incidentsof involving ,the transfer certificate of title and is referred to as Presidential Decree No. 1529 is called
A.
B.
C.
175.  A Zoning ordinance is a locally enacted legislation.
A.
B.
C.
176.  DEVELOPMENT ITEMS include the ff.-except.
A.
B.
C.
177.  Long-term lease of private lands by foreign investors is governed by the Investor's LeaseAct, which lists down the following conditions: except-
A.
B.
C.
178.  It refers to the management of the earth's resources in a way which aims to restore andmaintain the balance between human requirements and the other species of  the world.
A.
B.
C.
179.  It is an anticipated list of activities for the achievement of a target by a unit or person
A.
B.
C.
180.  An adverse claim lapses after how many days from annotation in the certificate of land title?
A.
B.
C.
181.  Refers to the inherent or implies the right of the state to interfere with or regulate privaterights in the interests of the public health, public safety, peace and order, public moral, publiccomfort & convenience d general welfare.
A.
B.
C.
182.  If the value added tax is P720,000, what would be the selling price inclusive of VAT?
A.
B.
C.
183.  It refers to the rational and judicious approach of allocating available land resources todifferent land using activities
A.
B.
C.
184.  When the inherent features or characteristics of land have not been considerably altered ormodified, this type of land uses is
A.
B.
C.
185.  Where these areas have railways and canals for transports and housing and industry mixedtogether, the kind of settlement according to function
A.
B.
C.
186.  Acronym that stands for the.sights of buyers in a subdivision project.
A.
B.
C.
187.  The seller who lived in Makati City sold a house in Quezon City to the buyer who lives inPasig City. The broker, who lives in Marikina City should therefore have the deed of absolutesale duly notarized along with the parties in
A.
B.
C.
188.  The right of pre-emption or right of 1 st refusal under PD 1517 (Urban Land Reform) is exercisable by a legitimate tenant in urban land if he has occupied the land for
A.
B.
C.
189.  The document issued to buyers of unit in a condominium evidencing proof of his/herownership.
A.
B.
C.
190.  DEVELOPMENT ITEMS include the ff.-except-
A.
B.
C.
191.  For the subdivision with an area of one (1) hectare and above, allocation of reserved 30% ofthe gross area for open spaces is not mandatory.
A.
B.
C.
192.  It is how land is perceived when it is considered as a private commodity which can beowned, used, bought or sold for personal comfort and profit.