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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
Microbiology Exam IV - Summer 2011

  
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1.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
9.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
11.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
15.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
30.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
40.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
72.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
140.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
141.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
151.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
157.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
161.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
164.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
166.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
173.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
174.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
178.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
182.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
184.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
185.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
186.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
187.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
188.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
189.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
190.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
191.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
192.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
194.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
195.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
196.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
197.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
198.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
199.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
200.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
201.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
202.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
203.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
204.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
205.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
206.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
207.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
208.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
209.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
210.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
211.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
212.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
213.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
214.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
215.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
216.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
217.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
218.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
219.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.