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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
25.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
30.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
58.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
70.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
74.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
93.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
106.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
107.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
124.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
125.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
140.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
167.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
174.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
176.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
183.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
185.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
186.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
187.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
188.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
189.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
190.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
192.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
194.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
195.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
196.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
197.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
198.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
199.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
200.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
201.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
202.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
203.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
204.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
205.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
206.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
207.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
208.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
209.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
210.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
211.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
212.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
213.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
214.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
215.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
216.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
217.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
218.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
219.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
220.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.