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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
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1.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
3.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
6.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
18.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
20.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
36.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
68.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
81.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
90.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
122.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
133.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
135.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
161.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
173.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
174.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.