Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens

  
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1.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
3.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
15.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
23.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
31.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
33.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
44.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
53.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
65.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
67.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
110.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
115.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
150.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
157.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the