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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
Microbiology Exam IV - Summer 2011

  
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1.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
6.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
28.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
32.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
36.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
39.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
51.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
53.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
69.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
82.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
118.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
120.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
173.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
174.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
185.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
186.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
187.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
188.  The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
189.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
191.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
192.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
193.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
194.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
195.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
196.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
197.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
198.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
199.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
200.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
201.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
202.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
203.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
204.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
205.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
206.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
207.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
208.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
209.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
210.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
211.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
212.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
213.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
214.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
215.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
216.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
217.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
218.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
219.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune