Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
23.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
32.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
36.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
41.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
56.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
59.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
63.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
70.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
75.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
100.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
110.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
152.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
163.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
173.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
178.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
182.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
183.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.