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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
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1.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
3.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
7.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
14.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
44.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
45.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
75.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
102.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
104.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
122.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
150.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
151.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
152.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
164.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
174.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
178.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
182.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called