Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

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1.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
12.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
17.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
44.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
52.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
84.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
92.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
97.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
116.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
128.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
129.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
134.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
136.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
154.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
158.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
170.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
174.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
182.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.