Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens

  
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1.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
20.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
25.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
44.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
65.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
69.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
93.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
121.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
126.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is