Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

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1.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
4.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
17.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
60.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
62.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
66.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
88.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
119.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
143.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
168.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
171.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
173.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
174.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
177.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.