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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
2.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
30.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
36.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
50.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
51.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
67.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
76.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
78.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
108.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
122.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
129.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
173.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
182.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
185.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
186.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.