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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
17.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
28.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
34.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
61.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
68.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
70.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
83.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
92.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
106.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
116.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
128.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
131.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
134.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
169.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
173.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
183.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
184.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
185.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
186.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
187.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
188.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
189.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
190.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
191.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
192.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
193.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
194.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
195.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
196.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
197.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
198.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
199.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
200.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
201.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
202.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
203.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
204.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
205.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
206.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
207.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
208.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
209.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
210.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
211.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
212.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
213.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
214.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
215.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
216.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
217.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
218.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
219.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
220.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
221.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
222.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
223.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
224.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.