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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
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1.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
40.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
50.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
56.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
70.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
81.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
89.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
99.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
109.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
111.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Typically, adhesins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
138.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
139.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
154.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
155.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
156.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  A strong attachment of a microorganism to a host cell automatically leads to disease.
A.
B.
158.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
162.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
174.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
178.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
182.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?