Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

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1.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
22.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  If a disease affects only a human and not an animal, then it would be difficult to fulfill Koch's postulate number ___.
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Which of the following cell types initiates a secondary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
58.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
86.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
87.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  A member of the normal flora that becomes an opportunist if it invades the urinary bladder is
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Which of the following is true about the role normal flora play in maintaining host health?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
112.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
114.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
128.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Infection always leads to disease.
A.
B.
131.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
144.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
153.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
154.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
159.  Only Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
A.
B.
160.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
161.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
166.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  The portal of entry
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
173.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
174.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
177.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
180.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
182.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.