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Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

229 Questions  I  By Stephens
Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Microbes may evade host defensive responses by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Antibodies
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Avirulent organisms are
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Growth of a parasitic organism in or on the host is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  The infectious dose of most pathogens is about equal.
A.
B.
16.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  High concentrations of some bacteria are necessary for successful invasion because only at high density are their virulence genes expressed.
A.
B.
19.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Which is true about superantigens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  During incubation and convalescence a person may still spread infectious organisms.
A.
B.
35.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  The spread of toxin via the circulation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  C5a peptidase
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Density-dependent expression of virulence factors is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
52.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae by producing hydrogen peroxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is harmed is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
59.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
62.  Which of the following may be considered virulence factors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Transmission of an infectious disease by touching, handshaking, or kissing is considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Which of the following does S. pneumoniae use to survive in the host?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The resident microbial population of the human fetus is
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  The interaction of all organisms within a biological community is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
87.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  In Gram-negative bacteria, many of the genes required for pathogenicity are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  A diet high in meat leads to a population of normal flora with an increased number of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Which of the following compounds are mast cells specialized to secrete?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Which of the following is/are true about endotoxins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
107.  The number of organisms necessary to insure infection is termed the
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  The idea that communicable diseases were caused by the passage of living things from one person to another was first put forth by
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  Which of the following is considered an indirect mode of transmission?
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Bacteria may survive phagocytosis by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
128.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  The lack of susceptibility to diseases of other species in humans may be due to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  A disease is an infection that impairs the normal state of health.
A.
B.
132.  An example of genetic variation used in pathogen survival may be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
134.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Which is true about botox?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Attributes of an organism that promote pathogenicity are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
143.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
146.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
149.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
156.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  People who carry and may spread pathogenic organisms without any overt symptoms of illness are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  The symbiotic relationship wherein both partners benefit is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  Which of the following members of the normal flora inhibits the growth of bacteria by production of fatty acids from lipids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
163.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
164.  Which of the following may inhibit the activity of normal flora and allow pathogens to become established?
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  An obligate intracellular pathogen may
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  Which of the following is NOT an activity of antibodies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Which of the following would be considered a sign of a disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
178.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
179.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  Which is/are true about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
181.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
182.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
183.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
184.  Fomites are involved in
A.
B.