Microbiology Exam Iv - Summer 2011

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1.  Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  Which of the following is a fomite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  A commensal bacterium
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  A nosocomial infection is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The major significance of Koch's work was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  All of the following are communicable diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Which of the following does NOT contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  All of the following are types of exotoxins EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  All of the following are methods of penetrating and/or avoiding the host EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Endotoxins are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Botulism is caused by an exotoxin, therefore it could be easily prevented by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Which of the following is involved in specific resistance (immunity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  All of the following are associated with complement fixation EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Which of the following is involved in fighting parasitic infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  All of the following occur during inflammation.  What is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of inflammation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Which of the following is NOT a chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Macrophages arise from which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Nonspecific resistance is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Bacteria have siderophores to capture iron; humans counter this by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  In which organism were phagocytes first reported?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  The leukocyte described as having a small amount of cytpolasm surrounding a round nucleus is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Skin and mucous membranes
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  A group of interacting serum proteins that provide a nonspecific defense mechanism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  The first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Which of the following cytokines is most antiviral in its action?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Pyrogens are
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  The hypersensitivity treatment that stimulates an increase of IgG and T suppressor cells, and a decrease in IgE is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  A transfusion reaction primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Regarding a mismatch of either the Rh antigen or the AB antigen both
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Antibodies that have arisen in the blood plasma without any obvious or deliberate stimulus are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  The cell type responsible for Type II hypersensitivity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Type IV hypersensitivity reactions typically peak within
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which of the following is associated with contact dermatitis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Allografts
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  If the thymus fails to develop,
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  The leukocyte that contains histamine is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  In humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  The "voices" of a cell are
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Normal flora
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  The first step in the establishment of infection is that the organism must
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  The complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Opportunists or opportunistic pathogens
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  A relationship in which one partner benefits and the other is unaffected is termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  All of the following are involved in Type II hypersensitivity except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of 
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  A person with O type blood
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent  harm are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  T cells and B cells are manufactured in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Allergic reactions mainly involve
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Delayed type hypersensitivity primarily involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Organisms that are found together and interact on a more or less permanent basis are in a relationship termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  Interferons function to make cells
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  The major categories of hypersensitivities that typically involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  T cells primarily are responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  The series of steps used to connect an organism to a disease are known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Macrophages and dendritic cells are
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  A disease-causing microorganism or virus is referred to as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Which is not a component of innate immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  An infection acquired during hospitalization is reffered to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  The leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  A __________ is an infection indigenous to animals that can, on occasion, be transmitted to humans
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  The body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  A symptom is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Nosocomial infections involve all the following except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  When an individual's immune system comes into contact with an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the course of daily activities, this is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Under normal circumstances, the microbiota of the skin is kept in check by
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  All blood cells originate from the
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  __________ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Which of the following is the endotoxin?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  The transfer of antibodies in colostrum is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodies attack
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  Substances that are recognized as foriegn and provoke immune responses are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Exotoxins
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  The complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the 
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  A properly functioning immune system is responsible for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  Each of the following are inoculation of normal biota to a newborn except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  Which type of hypersensitivity is IgE?
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  All the following are events of early inflammation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Which of the following is not an event of phagocytosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all the following diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  A systemic, sometimes fatal reaction with airway obstruction and circulatory collapse is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  Fever
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  The response of the immune system the second time an invader is encountered is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  The virulence factors of a pathogen are established by how strong or weak a patient's body defenses are at the time of infection.
A.
B.
123.  During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed
A.
B.
124.  Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa.
A.
B.
125.  The production of interferon will protect the host cell from a viral infection.
A.
B.
126.  After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
A.
B.
127.  A person who is Rh- will have anti-Rh antibodies in their serum from early infancy.
A.
B.
128.  When an infected person is in the incubation period, that person cannot transmit the pathogen to others.
A.
B.
129.  Eczema is an autoimmune disorder.
A.
B.
130.  The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response.
A.
B.
131.  Inflammation responses are orchestrated by the immune system and are part of the body's third line of defense.
A.
B.
132.  Which class of antibody accounts for the bulk of the circulating antibody?
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  The beauty of specific immunity is the production of __________ that provides long-lasting protection.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The cytokine produced by animal cells in response to viral infections
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Which is the first antibody class made during the primary response to an antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Diseases constantly present in a population are
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  The only class of antibody that can cross the placenta is
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Diapedesis is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Which white blood cells comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Which of the following is not a method of adhesion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  The immunoglobulin that is important in hypersensitivity reactions is
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  How long after initiation of a primary response do signifiant amounts of antibody appear in the blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  The chemical nature of exotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  The chemical nature of endotoxins is that of a
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
148.  The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Which of the following statements is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
150.  A vaccination is a good example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
151.  The affect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
152.  The most numerous WBC's that have multilobed nuclei and are very phatocytic are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  A person who has anti A and anti B serum antibodies will have blood type
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  Which of the following antibodies is a pentamer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
156.  Tears protect the eyes by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
157.  The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
158.  Which of the following is one of the body's first lines of defense against infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
159.  A substance that can elicit an immune response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
160.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Antibodies are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
162.  Which of the following statements about antibodies is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  The basic function of T cells is to identify and destroy invaders in our __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
164.  Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
165.  Which type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  A researcher detects interferon in a laboratory rat and concludes that __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
167.  Which of the following triggers our nonspecific defense system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
168.  The transfer of antibodies from breast milk to an infant is an example of __________ immunity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
169.  Anaphylactic shock is an example of an __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
170.  Complement proteins assist the immune response by __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
171.  Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
172.  Which of the following is a major function of natural killer (NK) cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
173.  What kinds of cells wander the interstitial fluid eating whatever bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter and recognize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
174.  Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by macrophages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
175.  Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
176.  Which of the following diseases is NOT thought to be an autoimmune disease?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
177.  Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
178.  What is a primary immune response?
A.
B.
C.