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History Of Graphic Design Test 5

70 Questions  I  By Makusan
Architecture Quizzes & Trivia

  
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1.  Typogram
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2.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A firm’s book of guidelines and standards for implementing its corporate identity program ____
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3.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Particularly innovative in photography, photomontage, and darkroom manipulation of images, visual pattern and form were explored in _____________’s close-up photographs of common objects, whose texture and detail were transformed into abstract images. Ideas about color and form from his paintings often found their way into his graphic designs; conversely, wide-ranging form experimentation in search of design solutions seems to have provided shapes and compositional ideas for his fine art. After the war, his work started to crystallize into what was to become his major contribution to graphic design: the creation of visual forms to communicate invisible processes and physical forces.
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4.  Phototypography
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5.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The visual identification systems during the 1950s went beyond_____________ , which had been in use since the medieval guilds, to produce consistent design systems that projected a cohesive image for corporations with expanding national and multinational presences.
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6.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} As photography stole illustration’s traditional function, a new approach to illustration emerged. This more conceptual approach to illustration began with a group of young New York graphic artists: Seymour Chwast, Milton Glaser, Reynolds Ruffins, and Edward Sorel banded together and shared a loft studio. Freelance assignments were solicited through a joint publication called the 188 _____________. Published bimonthly, it featured interesting editorial material from old almanacs illustrated by the group.
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7.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The trademark for International Business Machines (IBM) was developed from an infrequently used typeface called City Medium, designed by Georg Trump in 1930. City Medium is a geometric slab-serif typeface. The slab serifs and square negative spaces in the B lent the trademark unity and distinction. In the 1970s, the IBM corporate trademark was updated by introducing stripes to unify the three letterforms and evoke scan lines on video terminals. Who designed this powerful logo? ___________
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8.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The _____________has a three-to-five ratio. A rectangle with this ratio was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the most beautifully proportioned rectangle.
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9.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Who designed the United States postage stamp commemorating the onehundredth anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation?
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10.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________, an international design firm, was founded in Chicago by a group of partners including Ralph Eckerstrom, James K. Fogleman, and Massimo Vignelli. The firm rejected individualistic design, believing that design could be a system: a basic structure set up so that other people could implement it effectively. The basic tool for this effort was the grid, which standardized all graphic communications for dozens of large clients, including Alcoa, Ford Motor Company, JCPenney, Memorex, Panasonic, Steelcase, and Xerox. Helvetica was the preferred typeface for all their visual identity systems, as it was considered the most legible type family. Objectivity was the firm’s goal, and it 181 spread a generic conformity across the face of multinational corporate communications. The design programs that it created were rational and so rigorously systemized that they became virtually foolproof as long as the standards were maintained.
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11.  Visual/verbal syntax
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12.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Over the course of the 1950s, a revolution in editorial design occurred, and editorial design experienced one of its greatest eras. In 1953, ____________ was named the art director of McCall’s magazine and in 1958 was given a free hand to upgrade the graphics; an astounding visual approach subsequently developed. Typography was unified with photography by designing the type to lock tightly into the photographic image. Type was warped and bent, or became the illustration. He ranks among the major innovators of the period. His philosophy that idea, copy, art, and typography should be inseparable in editorial design influenced both editorial and advertising graphics.
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13.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A publication that federal law requires all public companies to provide to their stockholders ____
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14.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The emerging Swiss design gained its alphabetical expression in several sansserif type families designed in the 1950s. The geometric sans-serif styles, mathematically constructed with drafting instruments during the 1920s and 1930s, were rejected in favor of new designs inspired by nineteenth-century Akzidenz Grotesk fonts. One of the new typefaces designed during this period was _____________, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually related fonts. All twenty-one have the same x-height and baseline, and all ascenders and descenders are the same length. Numbers replaced conventional nomenclature.
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15.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1990s, a poetic approach to graphic design emerged in Europe. It was based on imagery and its manipulation through collage, montage, and both photographic and photomechanical techniques. _______________, a German master of this movement, is a brilliant imagist who consistently demonstrated an ability to invent unexpected visual content to solve communications problems. He brings together images or ideas to create a new vitality, new arrangements, and the synthesis of disparate objects. His “Alabama Blues” poster combines two photographs, of a dove and a civil-rights demonstration, with typography inspired by nineteenth-century wood type (Fig. 21-49). His poetic visual statements always have a rational basis that link expressive forms to communicative content. It is this ability that separates him from design practitioners who use fantasy or surrealism as ends rather than means.
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16.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The poster craze in the United States during the 1960s was a grassroots affair fostered by a climate of social activism. These posters made statements about social viewpoints rather than advertising commercial messages. The first wave of poster culture emerged from the late-1960s hippie subculture centered in the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Because the media and general public related these posters to antiestablishment values, rock music, and psychedelic drugs, they were called psychedelic posters. The graphics movement that expressed this cultural climate drew from a number of resources: the flowing, sinuous curves of ____________; intense optical color vibration associated with the brief op-art movement popularized by a Museum of Modern Art exhibition; and the recycling of images from popular culture or by manipulation that was prevalent in pop art (such as reducing continuous-tone images to high-contrast black-and-white).
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17.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Siegfried Odermatt played an important role in applying the International Typographic Style to the communications of business and industry. He combined a succinct, efficient presentation of information with a dynamic visual quality, using straightforward photography with drama and impact. Ordinary images were turned into convincing and engaging photographs through the careful use of cropping, scale, and lighting, with attention to shape and texture as qualities that cause an image to emerge from the page. In the early 1960s, _____________ joined Odermatt. They loosened the boundaries of the International Typographic Style and introduced elements of chance, the development of surprising and inventive forms, and intuitive visual organization into the vocabulary of graphic design. This phase of the studio’s development marked the beginning of a break with the traditions of Swiss design.
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18.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} After the death of the designer referred to in the previous question, ______________, a professor at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, became the spiritual head of Polish graphic design. His posters, such as the football poster for the Olympic Games in 1948, were composed of bits of torn and cut paper, then printed by the silkscreen process. He led the trend toward developing an aesthetically pleasing approach, escaping from the somber world of tragedy and remembrance into a bright, decorative world of color and shape.
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19.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} After World War II, the technological advances made during the war were applied to the production of _____________.
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20.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Which designer designed the trademarks for the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and Westinghouse? ________
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21.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} __________ was the designer of the typeface mentioned in the preceding question, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually-related fonts that 160 all have the same x-height and baseline and whose ascenders and descenders are the same length.
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22.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Chermayeff & Geismar Associates moved to the forefront of the corporate identity movement in 1960 with a comprehensive visual image program for _____________. The logo was composed of four geometric wedges rotating around a central square to form an external octagon. It was an abstract form unto itself, free from alphabetic, pictographic, or figurative connotations. Although it had overtones of security or protection because four elements confined the square, it proved a completely abstract form could successfully function as a large organization’s visual identifier.
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23.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A mundane advertising slogan, “End Bad Breath,” gained new life when it was combined with a blue woodcut and offset-printed green and red areas in this 1968 poster (Fig. 21-26) protesting the American bombing of Hanoi. Who is its designer? _________
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24.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Lettering becomes an image, signifying a cultural and generational shift in values in this 1966 concert poster for The Association (Fig. 21-43). Who is its designer? ___________
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25.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica} “A symbol is an image of a company, an institution or an idea that should convey with a clear statement, or by suggestion, the activity it represents…. The symbol, besides being memorable and legible, must be designed so that it can be used in many sizes and situations without losing its identity. The designer must distort, unify, and create a new form for the letter, so that it is unique, and yet has the necessary attributes of the letter for recognition. There is no part of a symbol that can be eliminated without destroying the image it creates. It is a true gestalt, in which the psychological effect of the total image is greater than the sum of its parts would indicate….” Who said this in 1960 about the designer’s mission in logo design?
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26.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1960s, literary and graphic design communities throughout the world were astounded and delighted by the experimental typography of French designer ______________, whose work has affinities with futurist and Dadaist typography. His designs for Eugène Ionesco’s plays combine the pictorial conventions of the comic book with the sequencing and visual flow of the cinema. The drama of La Cantatrice Chauve (The Bald Soprano) is enacted through Henry Cohen’s high-contrast photographs (Fig. 21-59). Each character is assigned a typeface for his or her speaking voice (Fig. 21-60) and is identified not by name but by a small photographic portrait. ______________
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27.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The concept of a logo with a constantly changing persona is contrary to the widely held belief that trademarks and visual identifiers should be absolutely fixed and used in a consistent manner. The _____________ logo changed the face, the idea, and the speed of graphic design; it played a major role in redefining visual identity in the electronic age. This logo anticipated the kinetic world of motion graphics soon to explode as cable television, video games, and computer graphics expanded the variety and range of kinetic graphic messages.
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28.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________’s vision is very personal, yet communicates on a universal level. In his work, an absolute flatness is usually maintained. He has a love of Victorian and figurative letterforms; the ability to integrate figurative and alphabetic information has enabled him to produce unexpected design solutions. His album cover for The Threepenny Opera demonstrates his ability to synthesize diverse resources—the German expressionist woodcut, surreal spatial dislocations, and dynamic color found in primitive art—into an appropriate expression of the subject. From antiwar protest to food packaging and magazine covers, he has reformulated earlier art and graphics to express new concepts in new contexts.
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29.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A company brand mark consisting of only letterforms ____
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30.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the decades after World War II, the conceptual image emerged. It dealt with the design of the entire space, including the integration of word and image, and conveyed not merely narrative information but ideas and concepts. The creation of conceptual images became a significant design approach in Poland, the United States, Germany, and Cuba. The first poster artist to emerge in Poland after World War I was ______________. His famous 1953 antiwar poster (Fig. 21-3) demonstrates his technique of distilling content to the simplest statement. A few simple shapes symbolize a devastated city, which is superimposed on a silhouette of a falling bomb. The word nie! (no!) expresses the tragedy of war.
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31.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1947, Armin Hofmann began teaching graphic design at the _____________, and together with Emil Ruder, he developed an educational model linked to the elementary design principles of the Vorkurs (Preliminary Course) established in 1908. The same year, he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife, Dorothea, where he applied deep aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. As time passed, he evolved a design philosophy 163 based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane, replacing traditional pictorial ideas with a modernist aesthetic. In 1965, he published Graphic Design Manual, a book that presents his application of elemental design principles to graphic design.
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32.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In May 1974, the U.S. government initiated the Federal Design Improvement Program in response to a growing awareness of design as an effective tool for achieving objectives. All aspects of federal design, including architecture, interior space planning, landscaping, and graphic design were upgraded under the program. The Graphics Improvement Program set out to improve the quality of visual communications and the ability of governmental agencies to communicate effectively to citizens. One of the most successful federal visual identification systems was the Unigrid system, developed in 1977 for the _______________. The Unigrid unified the hundreds of informational folders used at about 350 different locations. The standardized format of the Unigrid enabled the publications staff to focus on achieving excellence in the development and presentation of pictorial and typographic information.
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33.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1950, Max Bill became involved in developing the graphic design program at the Institute of Design Institute in Ulm, Germany, which attempted to establish a center for research and training to address the design problems of the era. Otl Aicher, one of the Ulm cofounders, played an important role in establishing the graphic design program, and Anthony Froshaug set up the typography workshop. The curriculum included a study of __________: the general philosophical theory of signs and symbols.
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34.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Music Television (MTV), a round-the-clock music television station, first went on the air in 1981 at a time when music videos had not yet reached their peak as a creative medium. ___________, a New York City studio noted for its independence and risk-taking experimentation, especially for music-industry clients, was commissioned to design the logo.
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35.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The initial contribution of Brownjohn, Chermayeff, and Geismar to American graphic design sprang from a strong aesthetic background and an understanding of the major ideas of European modern art, which had been reinforced by their contacts with architect-teacher Serge Chermayeff, Ivan Chermayeff’s father; László Moholy-Nagy, with whom Brownjohn had studied painting and design; and Alvin Lustig, for whom Ivan Chermayeff had worked as an assistant. Solutions grew out of the needs of the client, and design problems were characterized by inventive and symbolic manipulation of imagery and forms, including letterforms and typography. Images and symbols were combined with a surreal sense of dislocation to convey the essence of the subject on posters and book jackets, such as the cover of Bertrand Russell’s Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare, on which the atomic blast became a visual metaphor for the brain. In 1960, Brownjohn left the partnership and moved to England, where he made significant contributions to British graphic design, especially in the area of film titles, such as for the motion picture Goldfinger. The firm then changed its name to Chermayeff & Geismar Associates and played a major role in the development of _____________.
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36.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Milton Glaser’s 1967 image of the popular folk-rock singer Bob Dylan is presented as a black silhouette with brightly colored hair patterns inspired by _____________ sources. Nearly six million copies of the poster were produced for inclusion in a best-selling record album. It became a graphic icon in the collective American experience. A photographer told Glaser about being on assignment on the Amazon River and seeing the Dylan poster in a hut in a remote Indian village.
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37.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A native of Nuremberg, Germany, _____________ apprenticed as a photo retoucher and studied calligraphy after he acquired a copy of Rudolph Koch’s book Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit (Writing as an Art Form). He became a freelance book designer and typographic designer, and at age twenty-two the first of his more than fifty typefaces was designed and cut for Stempel foundry. He developed an extraordinary sensitivity to letterforms in his activities as a calligrapher, typeface designer, typographer, and graphic designer. He viewed typeface design as “one of the most visible visual expressions of an age.” He designed Palatino in 1950, Melior in 1952, and Optima in 1958.
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38.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} By the late 1960s, the concept of comprehensive design systems had become a reality. Planners realized that comprehensive planning for large organizations and events was not only functional and desirable but actually necessary if large numbers of people were to be accommodated. This was particularly true for international events, including world’s fairs and Olympic Games, for which international and multilingual audiences had to be directed and informed. Among many outstanding efforts to develop comprehensive design systems for the Olympic Games, three of the following were cited in Chapter 20 as milestones in the evolution of graphic systems. Which one does NOT belong? ____________
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39.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} William Golden designed one of the most successful trademarks of the twentieth century for ____________. Two circles and two arcs form a pictographic eye. When the pictographic eye first appeared, it was superimposed over a cloudfilled sky and projected an almost surreal sense of an eye in a sky. The effectiveness of the symbol demonstrated to the larger management community 178 how a contemporary graphic mark could compete successfully with more traditional illustrative or alphabetic trademarks.
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40.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _______________ was the rallying cry within the graphic design community during the 1950s, and more perceptive corporate leaders understood the need to develop corporate design programs to help shape their companies’ reputations for quality and reliability.
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41.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} More than any other designer, ____________ initiated the American approach to modern design. He had an ability to manipulate visual form (i.e., shape, color, space, line, and value), and to skillfully analyze communications content, reducing it to a symbolic essence without making it sterile or dull. Visual contrasts marked his work: he played red against green, organic shape against geometric shape, photographic tone against flat color, cut or torn edges against 168 sharp forms, and the textural pattern of type against white margins. The cover design for Direction magazine shows the important role of visual and symbolic contrast in his designs. His 1946 book Thoughts on Design inspired a generation of designers. His collaborations with copywriter Bill Bernbach became a prototype for the now ubiquitous art/copy team at advertising agencies. The emphasis of his later work was on trademark and corporate design for such clients as IBM.
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42.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Both ____________ and _____________ developed a number of novelty display typefaces. Often these began as lettering for assignments that were then developed into full alphabets. Fig. 21-27 shows the logo developed for Artone Ink; the graded version of Blimp, based on old woodtypes; a geometric face inspired by the logo designed for a film studio; a typeface based on lettering first 189 developed for a Mademoiselle poster; and the Buffalo typeface, originally devised for a French product named Buffalo Gum, which was never produced.
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43.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Launched in Munich in 1959, the German periodical Twen (Fig. 21-52) derived its name by chopping the last two letters from the English word that signified the age group of sophisticated young adults to whom the magazine was addressed. The magazine featured excellent photography used in dynamic layouts by its art director, _____________.
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44.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1940s, only a moderate number of American magazines were designed well. These included Fortune, Harper’s Bazaar, and Vogue. An art director’s assistant at Vogue during the 1930s, ____________ made a major contribution to editorial design during the 1940s and 1950s, first as the art director at Glamour, then at Seventeen, Charm, and Mademoiselle. Her publication designs were characterized by a lyrical appreciation of color, pattern, and form. She became the first woman admitted to membership in the New York Art Director’s Club. On a cover for Seventeen she designed in 1949, stripe patterns and a mirror-image reflection achieved a graphic vitality.
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45.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1950s, a design movement emerged in Switzerland and Germany that has been called Swiss design or, more appropriately, the __________. The visual characteristics of this design movement include visual unity of design achieved through the asymmetrical organization of the design elements on a mathematically constructed grid; objective photography and copy that present visual and verbal information in a clear and factual manner, free from the exaggerated claims of much propaganda and commercial advertising; and sansserif typography set flush left, ragged right. The initiators of this movement believed sans-serif typography expressed the spirit of a progressive age and that mathematical grids were the most legible and harmonious means for structuring information. This design movement won converts throughout the world and remained a major force for over two decades, and its influence continues.
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46.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} More important than the visual appearance of Swiss design is the attitude developed by early pioneers about their profession. Which of the following statements does NOT belong? ____________
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47.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1960s in America, a new, smaller-format breed of periodicals emerged and thrived by addressing the interests of specialized audiences. The new editorial climate, with more emphasis on content, longer articles, and less opportunity for lavish visual treatment, necessitated a new approach to editorial design. Layout became more controlled, and the use of a consistent typographic 171 format and grid became the norm. Among the magazines listed below, which one became the journal of record for public opposition to the Vietnam War and for a host of other social and environmental issues? The art director, Dugald Stermer, did not commission images to illustrate the articles and topics; he used images as a separate communication to provide “information, direction, and purpose” distinct from the printed word. One cover of this magazine depicted four hands burning facsimile draft cards of Stermer and the three editors. ______________
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48.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Although talented European immigrants who had fled totalitarianism in Europe introduced modern design in America during the 1940s, an original American approach to modernist design gained international prominence in the 1950s and continued as a dominant force in graphic design until the 1970s. An egalitarian society with capitalist values, limited artistic traditions before World War II, and a diverse ethnic heritage engendered an original approach to American modernist design. Where European design was often theoretical and highly structured, American design was pragmatic, intuitive, and less formal in its approach to organizing space. Emphasis was placed on the expression of _____________ and an open, direct presentation of information. Novelty of technique and originality of concept were much prized in this highly competitive society, and designers sought to solve communications problems while satisfying a need for personal expression.
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49.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Hailed as the typographic genius of his time (1918–1981), ____________’s achievements included advertising and editorial design, trademark and typeface design, posters, and packaging. He abandoned traditional typographic rules and practice and looked at the characters of the alphabet as both visual forms and a means of communication. Words and letters could become images; images could become a word or a letter. He practiced design as a means of giving visual form to a concept or message, as in the proposed logo for Mother and Child magazine, in which the ampersand enfolds and protects the “child” in a visual metaphor for motherly love. Among his typeface designs is Avant Garde. He was also the design director for International Typeface Corporation’s tabloid-size journal known as U&lc.
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50.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A system of visual elements used in a comprehensive program to project a consistent image of the company ____
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51.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In his work and in his teaching, __________ sought a dynamic harmony through which all the parts of a design were unified. He saw the relationship of contrasting elements as the means of breathing life into a visual design. These contrasts included light to dark, curved lines to straight lines, form to counterform, and dynamic to static. He began teaching at the Basel School of Design in 1947, after completing his education in Zurich, Switzerland, and working as a staff designer for several studios. At the same time he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife. He applied a deep sense of aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. He evolved a design philosophy based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane. His work includes the logotype for the Stadt Theater Basel (Basel Civic Theater), 1954; the poster for the Basel Theater’s production of Giselle, 1959; and the trademark for the Swiss National Exhibition, Expo 1964.
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52.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Early black-and-white television was incapable of differentiating between subtle color and tonal contrasts, and television sets often markedly cropped the edges of the signal. Two-dimensional titles were only on the air for a few seconds, requiring rapid viewer comprehension. To overcome these problems, _____________ designed on-air graphics from the center out, using simple symbolic imagery with strong silhouettes and linear properties. Emphasis was placed on concepts that quickly captured the essence of each program, using the connotative power of simple signs, symbols, and images, such as the zippered mouth (Fig. 20-6) that becomes an immediate and unequivocal symbolic statement for the television program I’ve Got a Secret. This designer was the grandson of a slave from a northern Kentucky plantation and the first African American to achieve prominence as a graphic designer.
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53.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Just as Paris had been receptive to new ideas and images during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ____________ assumed that role during the middle of the twentieth century.
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54.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} ___________ was a leading design theorist and practitioner in Zurich, Switzerland. He sought absolute and universal graphic expression through an objective and impersonal presentation, communicating to the audience without the interference of the designer’s subjective feelings or propagandistic techniques of persuasion, as in his 1960 public awareness poster “Weniger Lärm” (“Less Noise”). In his celebrated concert posters, like the “Musica Viva” concert poster of 1972, the language of constructivism created a visual equivalent to the structural harmony of the music to be performed. He worked extensively with mathematical grid structures. His 1960 exhibition poster “der Film” demonstrates the universal design harmony achieved by mathematical spatial division.
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55.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The 1940s were a lackluster decade for advertising. On June 1, 1949, a new advertising agency opened its doors at 350 Madison Avenue in New York City. For each campaign, this agency developed strategy surrounding any important advantage, useful difference, or superior feature of the product. It combined words and images in a new way and established a synergistic relationship between visual and verbal components. It evolved the visual/verbal syntax: word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent. One of its most memorable ad campaigns was for Volkswagen, in which “strange little cars with their beetle shapes” were marketed to a public used to luxury and high horsepower as status symbols. What is the name of the agency? ___________
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56.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Many of the pioneers of the New York School were either guest lecturers or served on the faculty of _____________’s graphic design program under the direction of Alvin Eisenman and later Sheila de Bretteville, the current director. This program has contributed to the advancement of graphic design and design education throughout the world, as many of its alumni have become prominent designers and educators; the first among them to receive an MFA after Josef Spelling Albers restructured the program was Norman Ives.
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57.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In the 1950s and 1960s, a playful direction called ____________ emerged among New York graphic designers. Letterforms became objects; objects became letterforms. Gene Federico was one of the first graphic designers who delighted in using letterforms as images, as shown in this 1953 double-page advertisement from the New Yorker magazine, in which the perfectly round Os of Futura form bicycle wheels.
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58.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1974, the U.S. Department of Transportation commissioned ____________ to create a master set of thirty-four passenger- and pedestrian-oriented symbols for use in transportation facilities. This effort represented an important first step toward the goal of unified and effective graphic communications transcending cultural and linguistic barriers in a shrinking world. A 225-page book published by the Department of Transportation provides invaluable information about the design and evaluation process used to arrive at this system.
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59.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________ became the art director for CBS Radio in 1946; in 1954 he was named the director of advertising and promotion for the CBS Radio Network. After William Golden’s sudden death at age forty-eight, he became the creative director of CBS Television. He was named director of design for the entire CBS Corporation in 1964 and vice president in 1968, in keeping with CBS President Frank Stanton’s philosophy that design is a vital area that should be managed by a professional.
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60.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Illustrative, conceptual images and the influence of Push Pin Studios often mingled with Wild West, Mexican, and Native American motifs and colors in a regional school of graphic design that emerged in Texas during the 1970s and became a major force in the 1980s. The work of ______________, one of many major Texas designers who worked for the Stan Richards Group in Dallas during their formative years, epitomizes the originality of Texas graphics. His logo for Mr. and Mrs. Aubrey Hair (Fig. 21-41) evidences an unexpected wit, while his Knoll “Hot Seat” poster (Fig. 21-42) ironically combines the clean Helvetica type and generous white space of modernism with regional iconography. In 1988, he moved on to join the Manhattan office of the British design studio Pentagram.
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61.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A Grateful Dead poster (Fig. 21-44) designed by Robert Wesley “Wes” Wilson contains swirling lines and letterforms, which are variants of Alfred Roller’s art nouveau. Wilson was the innovator of the psychedelic poster style and created many of its stronger images. According to newspaper reports, respectable and intelligent businessmen were unable to comprehend the lettering on these posters, yet they communicated well enough to fill auditoriums with members of a younger generation who deciphered, rather than read, their messages. Other prominent members of this brief movement included Kelly/Mouse Studios and______________, the only major artist of the movement with formal art training (Figs. 21-45 and 21-46).
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62.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________’s mastery of elemental form can be seen in the iconic and widely imitated trademarks produced by his firm. He believed a trademark must be readily understood yet possess elements of metaphor and ambiguity that will attract the viewer again and again. Many of his trademarks became important cultural icons. Within two years after he redesigned the Bell Telephone System bell trademark, public recognition of the symbol rose from 71 to more than 90 percent. After the AT&T long-distance telephone network was split from the local Bell system telephone companies in 1984, he designed a new mark to reposition the firm as “a global communications company” rather than “the national telephone system.” This concept was expressed through a computer graphics animation with information bits circling a globe, which became the identification tag for AT&T television commercials.
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63.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1953, Vienna-born ________________ became the art director of Esquire, and in 1958 he became art director of Harper’s Bazaar. He sought to make the magazines he designed visually beautiful. He experimented with typography, making it large enough to fill the page on one spread and then using petite headlines on other pages. His vision of the magazine cover was an exquisitely simple image conveying a visual idea. The sophistication and inventiveness of photography commissioned by Harper's Bazaar during his tenure were extraordinary.
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64.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The vibrant contrasting colors and Vienna Secession lettering inside of the sunglasses implies the drug culture of the period in this 1967 poster for the Chambers Brothers. Who is the designer? __________
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65.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The Swiss style was embraced in American corporate and institutional graphics during the 1960s and remained a prominent aspect of American design for over two decades. A notable example was found in the graphic design office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In the early 1950s, MIT established a graphic design program enabling all members of the university community to benefit from free, professional design assistance on their publications and publicity materials. This was an early recognition of the cultural and communicative value of design by an American university. MIT based its graphic design program on a commitment to the grid and sans-serif typography. The staff was innovative in the use of designed letterforms, and manipulated words as vehicles to express content. This approach evolved in the work of ___________, the director of the Design Services Office. Letterforms became illustrations, for the design and arrangement of the letters in key words frequently became the dominant image, as in the 1974 poster for an MIT open house in which stencil letterforms announce the open house, and the open O does double duty as a concrete symbol of the opening of the campus to visitors.
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66.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} ____________ brought the sensibilities of the New York School to Los Angeles in 1950. He frequently reduced his graphic designs to a single dominant image, often centered in the space. The simplicity and directness of his work allowed the viewer to interpret the content immediately. He had a remarkable ability to identify the nucleus of a design problem and to express it with images that became glyphs, or elemental pictorial signs, which exerted great graphic power. The 1955 design program for Otto Preminger’s film The Man with the Golden Arm was the first comprehensive design program unifying both print and media graphics for a movie. In addition to his film work, he created numerous corporateidentity programs, such as AT&T’s, the Girl Scouts’, and United Airlines’.
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67.  Figurative typography
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68.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Another new sans-serif was released as Neue Haas Grotesk by Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger. When this design was produced in Germany by the now-defunct D. Stempel AG in 1961, the face was renamed with the traditional Latin name for Switzerland. _________
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69.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________ emerged as one of the most influential graphic designers in postwar America. His designs for Westvaco Inspirations, four-color publications demonstrating printing papers, made a significant impact. A thorough knowledge of printing and typesetting, combined with a penchant for adventurous experimentation, allowed him to expand the range of design possibilities. He discovered and explored the potential of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century engravings as design resources. Large, bold, organic and geometric shapes were used to bring graphic and symbolic power to the page. Letterforms and patterns, such as the details from halftone reproductions, were often enlarged and used as design elements or to create visual patterns and movements. During the 1960s and 1970s, he turned increasingly to a classical approach to book and editorial format design. Readability, formal harmony, and a sensitive use of old style typefaces marked his work for periodicals such as Smithsonian and ARTnews.
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70.  p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Who designed the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad trademark in 1954? The design included a geometric slab-serif capital N above an H, and a red, black, and white color scheme.
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