Gly Test 3 Practice Ch 19

35 Questions  I  By Elfernagomez
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  • 1. 
    Which one of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Desert landscapes are monotonous, relatively flat areas covered to various depths with sand.

    • B. 

      Deserts and dry lands are concentrated in areas of ascending air masses and relatively low atmospheric pressures.

    • C. 

      Despite infrequent rainfalls, erosional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes.

    • D. 

      Rainshadow deserts occur where air masses descend after first having risen to cross a mountain range.


  • 2. 
    ________ have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands.
    • A. 

      Tundras

    • B. 

      Steppes

    • C. 

      Sundras

    • D. 

      Sabkhas


  • 3. 
    Most dry lands lie between ________ degrees north and south of the equator.
    • A. 

      40 and 50

    • B. 

      20 and 30

    • C. 

      5 and 10

    • D. 

      0 and 5


  • 4. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning rock weathering is true?
    • A. 

      Warm temperatures and high soil moisture contents accelerate chemical weathering.

    • B. 

      Low temperatures and high soil moisture contents accelerate chemical weathering but inhibit mechanical weathering.

    • C. 

      Warm temperatures and low soil moisture contents both promote rapid rates of mechanical weathering.

    • D. 

      Temperature has no effect on rock weathering.


  • 5. 
    A ________ is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States.
    • A. 

      Rivulet

    • B. 

      Playa

    • C. 

      Rill

    • D. 

      Wash


  • 6. 
    ________ refers to the "bouncing" mode of sand transport in a windstorm or stream.
    • A. 

      Saltation

    • B. 

      Ventifaction

    • C. 

      Siltation

    • D. 

      Deflation


  • 7. 
    Which one of the following will effectively limit further deflation in a given area?
    • A. 

      Sea level

    • B. 

      Desert pavement

    • C. 

      A hanging valley

    • D. 

      The repose level


  • 8. 
    Which one of the following statements is correct?
    • A. 

      Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys; playas form in the lowest, interior parts of the valleys.

    • B. 

      Inselbergs are low, circular depressions on gently sloping pediments and bajadas.

    • C. 

      Playas are typically covered with gravel-sized desert pavement and loess deposits.

    • D. 

      Saline sediments and evaporites are common in inselbergs and pediments of desert landscapes.


  • 9. 
    In which area would surface water most effectively infiltrate into the local groundwater system?
    • A. 

      A stream in a steep-sided, bedrock canyon in the mountains

    • B. 

      Streams flowing in the numerous channels of an alluvial fan

    • C. 

      A playa lake with a thick mud bottom

    • D. 

      All of the above would promote infiltration.


  • 10. 
    Which of the following characteristics would suggest geologically recent, fault uplift of a desert mountain range?
    • A. 

      Flat, upland surfaces, steep slopes and small alluvial fans

    • B. 

      Extensive pediments and bajadas and small, deep playas

    • C. 

      Inselbergs, extensive pediments and flat valley floors

    • D. 

      Steep playas with extensive, bedrock alluvial fans and numerous sand dunes


  • 11. 
    How is desert pavement formed?
    • A. 

      Deflation removes the coarse fragments leaving behind a layer of loess.

    • B. 

      Alluvial fans are eroded to form inselbergs with rocky surfaces.

    • C. 

      Groundwater in an alluvial fan evaporates, leaving behind a surface layer of hard-baked mud.

    • D. 

      Runoff and deflation carry off the silt and clay, leaving coarser particles behind.


  • 12. 
    Which one of the following is determined by the angle of repose for dry sand?
    • A. 

      Longitudinal dune gradient angle

    • B. 

      Slope of an alluvial fan

    • C. 

      A vertical cut bank in loess

    • D. 

      Inclination angle of a dune slip face


  • 13. 
    Which one of the following statements about sand dunes is correct?
    • A. 

      A dune migrates in the direction of inclination of the slip face.

    • B. 

      The more gently sloping surface is the leeward slope of the dune.

    • C. 

      Sand is blown up the slip face and rolls down the more gently sloping flank of the dune.

    • D. 

      In a sand dune, the more gently inclined strata lie parallel to the slip face.


  • 14. 
    Deposition of glacial rock flour from blowing winds is responsible for ________.
    • A. 

      Deflation ventifacts

    • B. 

      Blowout pavement

    • C. 

      Star steppes

    • D. 

      Loess deposits


  • 15. 
    Which one of the following is the one best measure of the wetness or dryness of a region?
    • A. 

      Total annual precipitation

    • B. 

      Mean annual temperature

    • C. 

      Difference between annual precipitation and evaporation potential

    • D. 

      Percentage of precipitation that falls during the summer months


  • 16. 
    Which one of the following concerning desert lands is false?
    • A. 

      Less than 30 percent is covered with dunes and drifting sand.

    • B. 

      Wind erosion and deposition are important processes.

    • C. 

      Running water has little effect on shaping the landscape.

    • D. 

      Most desert areas are characterized by descending wind patterns.


  • 17. 
    Desertification has been particularly well documented over the past 50 years in ________.
    • A. 

      The Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula

    • B. 

      The Sahel along the southern margin of the Sahara Desert

    • C. 

      The Dust Bowl states of the Great Plains

    • D. 

      The steppe lands of southern Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan


  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements concerning dry lands is not true?
    • A. 

      Precipitation totals are low; dew points are lower in the summer than winter.

    • B. 

      Evaporation potential exceeds actual precipitation.

    • C. 

      Storms are infrequent and rainfall amounts are highly variable.

    • D. 

      Wind is the dominant agent of erosion and sediment transport.


  • 19. 
    How are sand grains transported by the wind?
    • A. 

      High in the moving air column as suspended load

    • B. 

      By saltation in the first few meters above the land surface

    • C. 

      By deflation of abraded desert pavement

    • D. 

      By being picked up in swirling dust clouds and carried to distant blowouts


  • 20. 
    Which of the following best describes the climatic factors that cause low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa?
    • A. 

      Cool, dry air aloft is descending; surface winds are blowing toward the equator.

    • B. 

      Warm, humid air aloft is descending; surface winds blow away from the equator.

    • C. 

      Warm, humid air is rising; surface winds are calm.

    • D. 

      Cool, dry air at the surface is rising causing winds to blow away from the equator.


  • 21. 
    How is desert pavement formed?
    • A. 

      Deflation and sheet wash remove fine-sized materials leaving coarse, weathered, rock fragments concentrated at the surface.

    • B. 

      Blowing wind removes fine-size soil particles; coarser particles abrades to sand size.

    • C. 

      Running water deposits gravel and sand over the finer-sized soil particles.

    • D. 

      Intense chemical weathering removes the sand- and silt-sized particles, leaving coarse rock debris covering the land surface.


  • 22. 
    Loess deposits in the central United States ________.
    • A. 

      Blew in from the dry areas in the Great Plains and southwestern desert areas

    • B. 

      Originated as rock flour in Pleistocene glacial streams and rivers

    • C. 

      Accumulated from flooding of the Mississippi River

    • D. 

      Were originally deposited as barchanoid dunes and later redeposited by glaciers


  • 23. 
    Assume that the central slip face of a barchan dune slopes downhill toward the east. What is the direction of the prevailing wind?
    • A. 

      East to west

    • B. 

      North to south

    • C. 

      South to north

    • D. 

      West to east


  • 24. 
    Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth's land area?
    • A. 

      10%

    • B. 

      66%

    • C. 

      30%

    • D. 

      3%


  • 25. 
    Inselbergs are ________.
    • A. 

      Insulated icebergs floating in a hot spring

    • B. 

      Blowouts cut from bedrock in mountainous areas

    • C. 

      Lithified rock formed by cementation of wind-deposited, dune sands

    • D. 

      Bedrock hills in a highly eroded desert landscape


  • 26. 
    A ________ is formed by abrasion of rocks by windblown sand.
    • A. 

      Playa

    • B. 

      Ventifact

    • C. 

      Pediment

    • D. 

      Desert pavement


  • 27. 
    Which one of the following would probably not affect the size and depth of a blowout?
    • A. 

      A rise in sea level

    • B. 

      The near surface water table

    • C. 

      Type and density of vegetation

    • D. 

      Areas of desert pavement


  • 28. 
    What mature, desert landscape feature consists of coalesced alluvial fans?
    • A. 

      Balda

    • B. 

      Bajada

    • C. 

      Bahia

    • D. 

      Baja


  • 29. 
    A ________ is a crescent-shaped dune whose tips point downwind.
    • A. 

      Parabarcal

    • B. 

      Transverse

    • C. 

      Barchan

    • D. 

      Star


  • 30. 
    During a typical sandstorm, saltating sand grains reach a maximum height of ________ above the land surface.
    • A. 

      1 inch

    • B. 

      2 meters

    • C. 

      10 centimeters

    • D. 

      40 feet


  • 31. 
    Rainshadow deserts are common in ________.
    • A. 

      Vast, dry, steppe lands like the Great Plains

    • B. 

      North central Africa

    • C. 

      The dry valleys of eastern California and Nevada

    • D. 

      Europe north of the Alps


  • 32. 
    ________ are both dry land, erosional features cut from bedrock.
    • A. 

      Inselbergs and barcanoids

    • B. 

      Pediments and playas

    • C. 

      Bajadas and blowouts

    • D. 

      Pediments and inselbergs


  • 33. 
    ________ dunes result from persistent, onshore winds in certain coastal areas.
    • A. 

      Diabolic

    • B. 

      Barchanoid

    • C. 

      Parabolic

    • D. 

      Staroid


  • 34. 
    ________ dunes are long, high, sand dunes parallel with the prevailing wind direction.
    • A. 

      Transducinal

    • B. 

      Longitudinal

    • C. 

      Latitudinal

    • D. 

      Transversal


  • 35. 
    Which one of the following is a low-latitude desert characterized by high atmospheric pressures and descending air masses (not rain shadow deserts).
    • A. 

      Sahara Desert; northern Africa

    • B. 

      Atacama Desert in Chile, South America

    • C. 

      Gobi Desert, China and Mongolia

    • D. 

      Desert valleys of the Great Basin, U.S.


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