Gly Test 3 Practice Ch 18

48 Questions  I  By Elfernagomez
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  • 1. 
    The ________ is not the name of a Pleistocene glacial episode in North America.
    • A. 

      Dakotan

    • B. 

      Kansan

    • C. 

      Illinoian

    • D. 

      Nebraskan


  • 2. 
    The ________ was the most recent Pleistocene glacial episode in North America.
    • A. 

      Dakotan

    • B. 

      Kansan

    • C. 

      Indianan

    • D. 

      Wisconsinan


  • 3. 
    ________ is one of the two major flow mechanisms in a glacier.
    • A. 

      Basal slip

    • B. 

      Crevassal slip

    • C. 

      Frost heaving

    • D. 

      Morainal sliding


  • 4. 
    Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?
    • A. 

      Greenland

    • B. 

      Russia, Siberia

    • C. 

      Iceland

    • D. 

      Antarctica


  • 5. 
    Approximately how long ago did the last of the great North American ice sheets melt?
    • A. 

      1500 yrs

    • B. 

      1.5 million yrs

    • C. 

      15,000 yrs

    • D. 

      150,000 yrs


  • 6. 
    ________ has/have speeds comparable to those of a flowing alpine glacier.
    • A. 

      Soil creep

    • B. 

      Streams

    • C. 

      Mudflows

    • D. 

      Basaltic lava flows


  • 7. 
    The bottom or downward tip of a crevasse marks the ________.
    • A. 

      Boundary between parts of the glacier moving by basal sliding and crevassal slip

    • B. 

      Boundary between the basal sliding and external flowage zones

    • C. 

      Bottom of the basal sliding zone

    • D. 

      Top of the internal deformation and flowage zone


  • 8. 
    Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?
    • A. 

      Wastage exceeds accumulation.

    • B. 

      Accumulation exceeds wastage.

    • C. 

      Accumulation and wastage are about equal.

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 9. 
    Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?
    • A. 

      The internal, flowage zone

    • B. 

      The snout zone

    • C. 

      The surface, brittle zone

    • D. 

      The basal, sliding zone


  • 10. 
    A ________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
    • A. 

      U

    • B. 

      Y

    • C. 

      V

    • D. 

      S


  • 11. 
    ________ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.
    • A. 

      Moraines

    • B. 

      Cirques

    • C. 

      Eskers

    • D. 

      Drumlins


  • 12. 
    A(n) ________ is a depositional feature composed of till and only associated with continental glaciation, not with alpine glaciers.
    • A. 

      Till

    • B. 

      Outwash

    • C. 

      Solid rock

    • D. 

      Outwash deposit


  • 13. 
    Which of the following glacial features would typically be found in close proximity?
    • A. 

      Cirque and terminal moraine

    • B. 

      Outwash plain and horn

    • C. 

      Hanging valley and truncated spur

    • D. 

      Drumlin and fiord


  • 14. 
    A(n) ________ represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled
    • A. 

      Esker

    • B. 

      Yazoo ridge

    • C. 

      Valley plain

    • D. 

      Kettle


  • 15. 
    What type of moraine would be most useful for tracing diamond-bearing kimberlite fragments directly to their bedrock source area?
    • A. 

      Terminal, valley or alpine glacier

    • B. 

      Terminal, continental ice sheet

    • C. 

      Recessional, continental ice sheet

    • D. 

      Lateral, valley or alpine glacier


  • 16. 
    Which one of the following samples and experimental measurements would provide the most information about the Earth's climate over the last 100,000 years or so?
    • A. 

      Cores from sea ice in the Arctic Ocean; NaCl content

    • B. 

      Sediment cores from a terminal moraine in Ohio; sand-to-clay ratio

    • C. 

      Sediment cores from a Pleistocene loess deposit in the state of Mississippi; SiO2 content

    • D. 

      Cores from the Greenland ice sheet; ratios of the oxygen isotopes (0-18/0-16)


  • 17. 
    ________ is the best explanation for a glacial surge.
    • A. 

      The climate cools suddenly and a retreating glacier begins to advance

    • B. 

      Heavy snowfalls resulting in avalanches in the zone of accumulation

    • C. 

      Melting at the base of the glacier resulting in increased rates of basal slip

    • D. 

      Crevasses opening suddenly near the snout of a glacier


  • 18. 
    All of the following descriptions apply to stratified drift (not glacial till) except for ________.
    • A. 

      Deposited directly from melting ice

    • B. 

      Sand and gravel beds

    • C. 

      Deposits are often layered and well-sorted

    • D. 

      Deposited by glacial meltwater streams


  • 19. 
    A(n) ________ is similar in appearance to a sinkhole of a karst area.
    • A. 

      Moraine

    • B. 

      Esker

    • C. 

      Cirque

    • D. 

      Kettle


  • 20. 
    Which one of the following prominent landforms, located from the Wasatch Range, UT, westward to the Sierra Nevada, CA, formed during the Pleistocene glacial episodes?
    • A. 

      Terminal moraines of continental ice sheets that moved south from Canada

    • B. 

      Old shorelines of large, pluvial lakes

    • C. 

      Erosional features produced by continental glaciation

    • D. 

      Subaerial deltas submerged by the post-glacial rise in sea level


  • 21. 
    A fiord is ________.
    • A. 

      A stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises

    • B. 

      A glacier-cut valley that is dammed by an end moraine and a large lake is formed

    • C. 

      A glacier-cut valley which sinks below sea level due to glacial rebound after the ice melts

    • D. 

      A large, kettle-pocked moraine left as an island when sea level rises following melting of the ice


  • 22. 
    Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?
    • A. 

      Kaming

    • B. 

      Calving

    • C. 

      Surging

    • D. 

      Drowning


  • 23. 
    The ________ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age."
    • A. 

      Pleistocene era

    • B. 

      Pliocene epoch

    • C. 

      Pleistocene epoch

    • D. 

      Pliocene era


  • 24. 
    Which of the following is the correct listing of the North American glacial stages from older to younger?
    • A. 

      Indianan, Kansan, Nebraskan, Ohioan

    • B. 

      Kansan, Illinoian, Iowan, Dakotan

    • C. 

      Nebraskan, Indianan, Illinoian, Wisconsinan

    • D. 

      Nebraskan, Kansan, Illinoian, Wisconsinan


  • 25. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning glaciers is not true?
    • A. 

      Ice sheets are larger than ice caps.

    • B. 

      Piedmont glaciers form on lowlands at the base of mountainous terrain.

    • C. 

      The volume of water tied up in the Antarctic ice sheet is about the same as the total discharge of the Amazon River in one year.

    • D. 

      Long, extended, alpine glaciers occupied valleys in most high, mountainous areas in the United States, Canada, and Europe at one or more times during the past two million years.


  • 26. 
    A ________ is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation.
    • A. 

      Lateral moraine

    • B. 

      Drumlin

    • C. 

      Crevasse spur

    • D. 

      U-shaped valley


  • 27. 
    A(n) ________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.
    • A. 

      Outwash plain

    • B. 

      Hanging valley

    • C. 

      Striated drumlin

    • D. 

      Horn peak


  • 28. 
    A ________ is a glacier-cut valley that partly flooded as sea level rose.
    • A. 

      Till crevasse

    • B. 

      Fiord

    • C. 

      Hanging cirque

    • D. 

      Kettle trough


  • 29. 
    A drumlin is a ________.
    • A. 

      Smooth, tapering ridge of till; formed and shaped beneath a continental ice sheet

    • B. 

      Bowl-shaped depression eroded largely by frost action and glacial plucking

    • C. 

      Till mound of outwash deposited by meltwater streams at the snout of a glacier

    • D. 

      Smooth, striated, bedrock ridge shaped and polished by a glacier


  • 30. 
    ________ are both deposited by meltwater streams.
    • A. 

      Terminal moraines and cirques

    • B. 

      Outwash plains and valley trains

    • C. 

      Valley moraines and ice sheet trains

    • D. 

      Recessional kettles and erratics


  • 31. 
    Where is the world's second largest continental ice sheet?
    • A. 

      Iceland

    • B. 

      Greenland

    • C. 

      Antarctica

    • D. 

      Siberian Russia


  • 32. 
    How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?
    • A. 

      By calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland

    • B. 

      As large masses of sea ice that float northward from Antarctica

    • C. 

      As masses of sea ice that float southward from the Arctic Ocean

    • D. 

      As calved blocks of glacial ice that float northward from Antarctica


  • 33. 
    Which of the following best describes the term glacial drift?
    • A. 

      Floating of icebergs southward from the north polar seas

    • B. 

      Slow, plastic flow movement in the brittle zone of a glacier

    • C. 

      The sedimentary materials outwash and till

    • D. 

      The slow, southward advance of the continental ice sheets over Canada and North America during the Pleistocene


  • 34. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning glacial deposits is not true?
    • A. 

      Till is deposited directly from the ice; outwash is deposited by meltwater streams.

    • B. 

      Glacial erratics are blocks of rock that are too large for the glacier to move.

    • C. 

      Tills are poorly sorted and the fragments are mostly angular.

    • D. 

      Outwash is mainly stratified sand and gravel.


  • 35. 
    What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?
    • A. 

      Medial

    • B. 

      Recessional

    • C. 

      Ground

    • D. 

      Kettle


  • 36. 
    A ________ forms when stagnant, glacial ice melts after being buried by drift.
    • A. 

      Tarn

    • B. 

      Kettle

    • C. 

      Drumlin

    • D. 

      Pluvial delta


  • 37. 
    Which one of the following could not have significantly affected climatic variations and advances and retreats of ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch?
    • A. 

      Movements of Earth's tectonic plates

    • B. 

      Variations in the Sun's energy output

    • C. 

      Precession of Earth's orbit

    • D. 

      Wobbling of Earth's rotational axis


  • 38. 
    ________ was a very large, pluvial lake in Utah during the Pleistocene Epoch.
    • A. 

      Lake Caspian

    • B. 

      Lake Aral

    • C. 

      Lake Mead

    • D. 

      Lake Bonneville


  • 39. 
    A(n) ________ would logically be situated next to a large end moraine or terminal moraine.
    • A. 

      Cirque

    • B. 

      Fiord

    • C. 

      Pluvial lake

    • D. 

      Outwash plain


  • 40. 
    Which of the following is often associated with a cirque basin in high, mountainous terrain?
    • A. 

      Loon lake

    • B. 

      Kettle pond

    • C. 

      Tarn lake

    • D. 

      Arête pond


  • 41. 
    ________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier.
    • A. 

      Terminal moraine

    • B. 

      Outwash blanket

    • C. 

      Kame sheet

    • D. 

      Ground moraine


  • 42. 
    All of the following are thought to possibly contribute to the formation of glaciers except for ________.
    • A. 

      Eccentricity

    • B. 

      Precession

    • C. 

      Comets

    • D. 

      Plate tectonics


  • 43. 
    ________ moraine
    • A. 

      Till

    • B. 

      Outwash

    • C. 

      Solid rock


  • 44. 
    ________ erratic
    • A. 

      Till

    • B. 

      Outwash

    • C. 

      Solid rock


  • 45. 
    ________ cirque
    • A. 

      Till

    • B. 

      Outwash

    • C. 

      Solid rock


  • 46. 
    ________ esker
    • A. 

      Till

    • B. 

      Outwash

    • C. 

      Solid rock


  • 47. 
    ________ horn
    • A. 

      Till

    • B. 

      Outwash

    • C. 

      Solid rock


  • 48. 
    ________ drumlin
    • A. 

      Till

    • B. 

      Outwash

    • C. 

      Solid rock


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