Chapter 3, 4, & 26

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1.  Which of these is (are) always hydrophobic?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Which of these is hydrophobic?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are ________, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  . ______ describes the number of particles of a solute in a solution, whereas ______ is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Water flows through a selectively permeable membrane in a process called __________, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Facilitated diffusion and active transport have in common that both
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  The greater the concentration gradient the faster the diffusion rate.
A.
B.
8.  The sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pump transports both sodium and potassium __________ their concentration gradients in a process called ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of solutes in the solution is __________ than the concentration of solutes in the intracellular fluid and will cause the cell to ______________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which of these is an example of active transport?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Microvilli and cilia differ in their function but have the same internal structure.
A.
B.
14.   ______ provide motility to a cell, ______ act as sensory "antenna" in many cells, and ____________ increase cell's surface area.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Cells lining the small intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has ?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids of Normal saline. Normal saline is ________ to your blood cells and is about __________ NaCl.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  These are all membranous organelles except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.   ____________ gives structural support, determines the shape of a cell, and directs the movement of substances through the cell.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Copying genetic information from DNA into RNA is called ________________________, whereas using the information contained in mRNA to make a polypeptide is called ________________________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Transcription occurs in the _________________, but most translation occurs in the _____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  After translation, a protein may undergo structural changes called ________________ modifications.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  All of the following are directly involved in translation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  This figure shows translation of mRNA. What does "A" show?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  This figure shows translation of mRNA. What does "E" show?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  This figure shows translation of mRNA. What does "C" show?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  The enzyme RNA polymerase participates in translation.
A.
B.
28.   Which of the following omits some stage(s) of the cell cycle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  After mitosis each chromosome consists of two parallel filaments called sister chromatids.
A.
B.
30.  Mitosis is responsible for embryonic development and tissue growth.
A.
B.
31.  Cytokinesis overlaps with which phase of mitosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Which of these processes occurs during a cell's first gap (G1) phase?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  A cell finishing mitosis has ________________ DNA molecules, while a cell finishing DNA replication has ______________ DNA molecules.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  If one allele is not phenotypically expressed in the presence of another, we say that it is a(an) ________________ allele.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Hemophilia is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. This means that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.   Since there are no genes coding for carbohydrates, nucleic acids, or lipids, how do cells produce them?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  ___________________ are turned on or off by regulatory proteins in accordance with changing needs for the ___________________ they encode.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  The human genome consists of?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Many genes occur in alternative forms called alleles.
A.
B.
40.  The stage at which chromosomes aggregate along the equator of a cell is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  A karyotype shows the __________________ chromosomes sorted and isolated from a cell in ________________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  All of the body's nonreproductive cells, called ________________, usually have ______________ and are thus called ____________ cells.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Macronutrients include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Most carbohydrates in the body are found in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Lipid functions include all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  _________  constitutes the so-called "bad cholesterol."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Which is the healthiest ratio?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Oxygen ?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  _______ is a product of aerobic respiration.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Heat exhaustion results from
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.   The quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  A nude body at a room temperature of 21°C (70°F) loses most of its heat by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Only approximately _____________% of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Glycogenesis is stimulated by ____________, and glycogenolysis is stimulated by ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Fats should account for about _______ percent of the daily caloric intake.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.   _____________ does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  ___________ is secreted during the postabsorptive state.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  The basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  During the absorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  People on weight-loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more slowly. This is for all the following reasons except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  During the postabsorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  During the postabsorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  During the postabsorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The liver performs all of the following functions except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  The liver does not
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  The highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the
A.
B.
71.  The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to _____________ them
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces ____________, which might lead to ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  What metabolic process produces ammonia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  What metabolic process produces ammonia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to ____________ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces _______________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Most body 's fat is stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The synthese of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  ________ is a product of glycolysis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Vitamin                        deficiency is the most common worldwide.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Minerals are ________   , whereas vitamins are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Proteins are associated with all these functions except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  High-quality _________  proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Most protein in the body is found in ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  HDL comes from _________?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  ___________ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas _________  yield about 9kcal/g
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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