Chapter 3, 4, & 26

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1.   _____________ does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR).
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to ____________ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces _______________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  A cell finishing mitosis has ________________ DNA molecules, while a cell finishing DNA replication has ______________ DNA molecules.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.   Since there are no genes coding for carbohydrates, nucleic acids, or lipids, how do cells produce them?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The greater the concentration gradient the faster the diffusion rate.
A.
B.
7.  Most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  After mitosis each chromosome consists of two parallel filaments called sister chromatids.
A.
B.
9.  Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  All of the body's nonreproductive cells, called ________________, usually have ______________ and are thus called ____________ cells.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Transcription occurs in the _________________, but most translation occurs in the _____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  During the postabsorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  A karyotype shows the __________________ chromosomes sorted and isolated from a cell in ________________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  HDL comes from _________?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  These are all membranous organelles except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  . ______ describes the number of particles of a solute in a solution, whereas ______ is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume in a cell.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Macronutrients include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which of these is (are) always hydrophobic?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  The sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pump transports both sodium and potassium __________ their concentration gradients in a process called ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to _____________ them
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  ________ is a product of glycolysis
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Mitosis is responsible for embryonic development and tissue growth.
A.
B.
25.  Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  All of the following are directly involved in translation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Transmembrane proteins that make up enzymes in the plasma membrane are made up of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are ________, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Which of these processes occurs during a cell's first gap (G1) phase?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Minerals are ________   , whereas vitamins are __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The human genome consists of?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  The liver performs all of the following functions except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.   ______ provide motility to a cell, ______ act as sensory "antenna" in many cells, and ____________ increase cell's surface area.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Lipid functions include all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Many genes occur in alternative forms called alleles.
A.
B.
37.  Which of these is an example of active transport?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Only approximately _____________% of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Most carbohydrates in the body are found in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  _______ is a product of aerobic respiration.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  If one allele is not phenotypically expressed in the presence of another, we say that it is a(an) ________________ allele.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  ___________ is secreted during the postabsorptive state.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  The synthese of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.   The quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  High-quality _________  proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Proteins are associated with all these functions except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  This figure shows translation of mRNA. What does "C" show?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Microvilli and cilia differ in their function but have the same internal structure.
A.
B.
49.  Fats should account for about _______ percent of the daily caloric intake.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of solutes in the solution is __________ than the concentration of solutes in the intracellular fluid and will cause the cell to ______________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  The liver does not
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  _________  constitutes the so-called "bad cholesterol."
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  What metabolic process produces ammonia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  Copying genetic information from DNA into RNA is called ________________________, whereas using the information contained in mRNA to make a polypeptide is called ________________________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  Which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Vitamin                        deficiency is the most common worldwide.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.   ____________ gives structural support, determines the shape of a cell, and directs the movement of substances through the cell.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Most body 's fat is stored in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  ___________________ are turned on or off by regulatory proteins in accordance with changing needs for the ___________________ they encode.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Facilitated diffusion and active transport have in common that both
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.   Which of the following omits some stage(s) of the cell cycle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  After translation, a protein may undergo structural changes called ________________ modifications.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Which of these is hydrophobic?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  A nude body at a room temperature of 21°C (70°F) loses most of its heat by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Cytokinesis overlaps with which phase of mitosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  What metabolic process produces ammonia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  During the absorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  A patient was severely dehydrated, losing a large amount of fluid. The patient was given intravenous fluids of Normal saline. Normal saline is ________ to your blood cells and is about __________ NaCl.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Water flows through a selectively permeable membrane in a process called __________, but water molecules cross the membrane more easily through channels of transmembrane proteins called __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The enzyme RNA polymerase participates in translation.
A.
B.
72.  The stage at which chromosomes aggregate along the equator of a cell is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  This figure shows translation of mRNA. What does "E" show?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Hemophilia is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. This means that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  During the postabsorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  Heat exhaustion results from
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  ___________ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas _________  yield about 9kcal/g
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  This figure shows translation of mRNA. What does "A" show?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  People on weight-loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more slowly. This is for all the following reasons except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Most protein in the body is found in ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Glycogenesis is stimulated by ____________, and glycogenolysis is stimulated by ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces ____________, which might lead to ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Cells lining the small intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has ?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  During the postabsorptive state
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the
A.
B.
88.  Oxygen ?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Which is the healthiest ratio?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  The basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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