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Chapter 27 - Fluid, Electrolyte, And Acid-base Homeostasis

31 Questions
Homeostasis Quizzes & Trivia

Self-test questions from Wiley

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The source of water that is derived from aerobic cellular respiration and dehydration synthesis is ___________ water.
    • A. 

      Drinking

    • B. 

      Reabsorbed

    • C. 

      Metabolic

    • D. 

      Interstitial

  • 2. 
    In the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system, the ______ acts as a weak base, and _____ acts as a weak acid.
    • A. 

      Carbonic acid; bicarbonate ion

    • B. 

      Bicarbonate ion; carbonic acid

    • C. 

      Hydronium; hydroxide

    • D. 

      Acid; base

  • 3. 
    The phosphate buffer system is an important regulator of pH in the cytosol.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    The primary means of regulating body water gain is adjusting ......
    • A. 

      The volume of water intake.

    • B. 

      The rate of cellular respiration.

    • C. 

      The formation of metabolic water.

    • D. 

      The volume of metabolic water.

    • E. 

      The metabolic use of water.

  • 6. 
    • A. 

      1, 2, 4, 6

    • B. 

      1, 3, 5, 6

    • C. 

      1, 3, 4

    • D. 

      2, 4, 6

    • E. 

      1, 4, 5, 6

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is not true concerning the protein buffer system?
    • A. 

      Albumin is considered the main protein buffer in blood plasma.

    • B. 

      Albumin is the most abundant buffer in blood plasma and intracellular fluid.

    • C. 

      The functional components of a protein buffer system are the carboxyl group and the amino group.

    • D. 

      Protein buffers are the primary buffers of acids in urine.

    • E. 

      Proteins can buffer both acids and bases.

  • 8. 
    Which of the following hormones regulate fluid loss?  (1) antidiuretic hormone; (2) aldosterone; (3) atrial natriuretic peptide; (4) thyroxine; (5) cortisol
    • A. 

      1, 3, 5

    • B. 

      1, 2, 3

    • C. 

      2, 4, 5

    • D. 

      2, 3, 4

    • E. 

      1, 3, 4

  • 9. 
    Which of the following are mismatched?
    • A. 

      Hypoventilation: respiratory alkalosis

    • B. 

      Severe diarrhea: metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Excessive vomiting: metabolic alkalosis

    • D. 

      Airway obstruction: respiratory acidosis

    • E. 

      Inability of kidneys to excrete H+ from dietary protein metabolism: metabolic acidosis

  • 10. 
    The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid: plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential.  Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 11. 
    The most abundant mineral in the body; plays important roles in blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, maintenance of muscle tone, an excitability of nervous and muscle tissue.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 12. 
    Second most common intracellular cation; is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carbohydrate, protein, and Na+/K+ ATPase metabolism.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 13. 
    The most abundant extracellular cation; essential in fluid and electrolyte balance.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 14. 
    Ions that are mostly combined with lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and ATP inside cells.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 15. 
    Most prevalent extracellular anion; can help balance the level of anions in different fluid compartments.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 16. 
    Second most prevalent extracellular anion; mainly regulated by the kidneys; important for acid-base balance.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 17. 
    Substances that act to prevent rapid, drastic changes in the pH of the body fluid.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 18. 
    Inorganic substances that dissociate into ions when in solution.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
  • 19. 
    An abnormal increase in the volume of interstitial fluid.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 20. 
    Can occur during renal failure or destruction of body cells, which releases phosphates into the blood.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 21. 
    The swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 22. 
    Occurs when water loss is greater than water gain.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 23. 
    Can be caused by excessive sodium in diet or with dehydration.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 24. 
    Condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 25. 
    Can be caused by decreased potassium intake or kidney disease; results in muscle fatigue, increased urine ouput, changes in electrocardiogram.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 26. 
    Can occur from hypoparathyroidism.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 27. 
    Can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 28. 
    Can be caused by excessive water intake, excessive vomiting, or aldosterone deficiency.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 29. 
    Can be caused by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of kidneys to excrete H+.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 30. 
    Can be caused by excessive vomiting of gastric contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
  • 31. 
    Can be caused by oxygen deficiency at high altitude, stroke, or severe anxiety.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia