Chapter 27 - Fluid, Electrolyte, And Acid-base Homeostasis

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1.  Second most prevalent extracellular anion; mainly regulated by the kidneys; important for acid-base balance.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
2.  The most abundant mineral in the body; plays important roles in blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, maintenance of muscle tone, an excitability of nervous and muscle tissue.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
3.  Inorganic substances that dissociate into ions when in solution.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
4.  Can be caused by excessive sodium in diet or with dehydration.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
5.  The most abundant extracellular cation; essential in fluid and electrolyte balance.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
6.  Ions that are mostly combined with lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and ATP inside cells.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
7.  The primary means of regulating body water gain is adjusting ......
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Which of the following are mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  Occurs when water loss is greater than water gain.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
10.  The source of water that is derived from aerobic cellular respiration and dehydration synthesis is ___________ water.
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Which of the following stimulate thirst?  (1) a decreased production of saliva; (2) a decrease in nerve impulses from hypothalamic osmoreceptors; (3) an increase in osmolarity of body fluids; (4) angiotensin II release; (5) release of atrial natriuretic peptide; (6) an increase in blood volume.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Can be caused by excessive water intake, excessive vomiting, or aldosterone deficiency.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
13.  In the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system, the ______ acts as a weak base, and _____ acts as a weak acid.
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
15.  Can be caused by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of kidneys to excrete H+.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
16.  The two compartments in which water can be found are plasma and cytosol.
A.
B.
17.  The phosphate buffer system is an important regulator of pH in the cytosol.
A.
B.
18.  Can be caused by decreased potassium intake or kidney disease; results in muscle fatigue, increased urine ouput, changes in electrocardiogram.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
19.  Can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
20.  Most prevalent extracellular anion; can help balance the level of anions in different fluid compartments.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
21.  The swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
22.  The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid: plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential.  Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
23.  Can be caused by oxygen deficiency at high altitude, stroke, or severe anxiety.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
24.  Can occur from hypoparathyroidism.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
25.  An abnormal increase in the volume of interstitial fluid.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
26.  Substances that act to prevent rapid, drastic changes in the pH of the body fluid.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
27.  Can occur during renal failure or destruction of body cells, which releases phosphates into the blood.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
28.  Which of the following hormones regulate fluid loss?  (1) antidiuretic hormone; (2) aldosterone; (3) atrial natriuretic peptide; (4) thyroxine; (5) cortisol
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Second most common intracellular cation; is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carbohydrate, protein, and Na+/K+ ATPase metabolism.Enter choice 1-9 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) sodium; (2) chloride; (3) electrolytes; (4) bicarbonate; (5) buffers; (6) phosphate; (7) magnesium; (8) potassium; (9) calcium
30.  Can be caused by excessive vomiting of gastric contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs.Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces.  (1) respiratory acidosis; (2) respiratory alkalosis; (3) metabolic acidosis; (4) metabolic alkalosis; (5) dehydration; (6) hypovolemia; (7) water intoxication; (8) edema; (9) hypokalemia; (10) hypernatremia; (11) hyponatremia; (12) hyperphosphatemia; (13) hypocalcemia
31.  Which of the following is not true concerning the protein buffer system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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