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Chapter 18 Reaction Rates And Equilibrium

42 Questions
Chemical Reaction Quizzes & Trivia

Chapter 18 REACTION RATES AND EQUILIBRIUM

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    How are rates of chemical change expressed?
    • A. 

      Rates of chemical change are usually expressed as the amount of energy changing per unit time.

    • B. 

      Rates of chemical change are usually expressed as the amount of non- reactant changing per unit time.

    • C. 

      Rates of chemical change are usually expressed as the amount of reactant changing per unit time.

  • 2. 
     Look at Figure 18.3 on page 542. In a typical reaction, as time passes, the amount of____________ decreases and the amount of ____________ increases.
    • A. 

      Reactant, product

    • B. 

      Cataltyst, energy

    • C. 

      Inhibitor, equilibrium

  • 3. 
        What does collision theory say about atoms, ions, ormolecules reacting to  form products when they collide?
    • A. 

      Collision theory states that the particles must have enough kinetic energy when they collide to form products.

    • B. 

      Collision theory states that the particles must have enough potential energy when they collide to form products.

    • C. 

      Collision theory states that the particles must have enough no kinetic energy when they collide to form products.

  • 4. 
    Particles lacking the necessary kinetic energy to react bounce apart ____________ when they collide.   
    • A. 

      Reactant

    • B. 

      Changed

    • C. 

      Unchanged

  • 5. 
    Look at Figure 18.5 on page 543. Which arrangement of atoms contains the least amount of energy?
    • A. 

      Reactants

    • B. 

      Activated complex

    • C. 

      Products

  • 6. 
    Circle the letter of the term that completes the sentence correctly. The minimum amount of energy that particles must have in order to react is called the _______ .
    • A. 

      Kinetic energy

    • B. 

      Activation energy

    • C. 

      Potential energy

    • D. 

      Collision energy

  • 7. 
    An activated complex is the arrangement of atoms at the ______________________ of the activation-energy barrier.
    • A. 

      Product

    • B. 

      Reactant

    • C. 

      Peak

  • 8. 
    Circle the letter of the term that best describes the lifetime of an activated complex.
    • A. 

      10–15 s

    • B. 

      10 13 s

    • C. 

      10–13 s

    • D. 

      10–1 s

  • 9. 
    Why is an activated complex sometimes called the transition state?
    • A. 

      It is called the transition state because an activated complex is unstable and is as likely to re-form reactants as it is to form products.

    • B. 

      It is called the transition state because an activated complex is stable and is as likely to re-form reactants as it is to form products.

    • C. 

      It is called the transition state because an activated complex is unstable and is as likely to re-form reactants as it is to form reactant.

  • 10. 
    Changes in the rate of chemical reactions depend on conditions such as
    • A. 

      Reactant, product, and activation

    • B. 

      Temperature, concentration, and particle size

    • C. 

      Collision, intervals, and kenetic energy

  • 11. 
    The main effect of increasing the temperature of a chemical reaction is to ______________________ the number of particles that have enough kinetic energy to react when they collide.
    • A. 

      Increase

    • B. 

      Decrease

    • C. 

      Interpret

  • 12. 
    What happens when you put more reacting particles into a fixed volume?
    • A. 

      The concentration of reactants increases, the collision frequency increases, and, therefore, the reaction rate decreases.

    • B. 

      The concentration of reactants increases, the collision frequency increases, and, therefore, the reaction rate increases.

    • C. 

      The concentration of reactants decreases, the collision frequency increases, and, therefore, the reaction rate increases.

  • 13. 
    The smaller the particle size, the larger the surface area of a given _____________.
    • A. 

      Absorbant of a particle.

    • B. 

      Mass of a particle.

    • C. 

      Release of a particle.

  • 14. 
    What are some ways to increase the surface area of solid reactants?
    • A. 

      One way is to dissolve the solid; another way is to grind the solid into a fine powder.

    • B. 

      One way is to leave it as a solid; another way is to make it into a liquid.

    • C. 

      One way is to make into a vapor; another way is to change it into rough powder.

  • 15. 
    A ______________________ is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up itself during the reaction.
    • A. 

      Product

    • B. 

      Reactant

    • C. 

      Catalyst

  • 16. 
    What does a catalyst do?
    • A. 

      A catalyst permits reactions to proceed at a lower energy than is normally required. A catalyst lowers the activation energy.

    • B. 

      A catalyst permits reactions to proceed at a higher energy than is normally required. A catalyst lowers the activation energy.

    • C. 

      A catalyst permits reactions to proceed at a lower energy than is normally required. A catalyst raises the activation energy.

  • 17. 
    In a chemical equation, how do you show that catalysts are not consumed or chemically altered during a reaction?
    • A. 

      The catalyst is often written above the stop arrow in the equation.

    • B. 

      The catalyst is often written below the yield arrow in the equation.

    • C. 

      The catalyst is often written above the yield arrow in the equation.

  • 18. 
    A(n) ______________________ is a substance that interferes with the action of a catalyst.
    • A. 

      Particle size

    • B. 

      Reactant

    • C. 

      Inhibitor

  • 19. 
    What happens in reversible reactions?
    • A. 

      In reversible reactions, two opposite products occur simultaneously.

    • B. 

      In reversible reactions, two opposite reactions occur simultaneously.

    • C. 

      In reversible reactions, two of the same reactions occur simultaneously.

  • 20. 
    Chemical equilibrium is a stateof balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions __________; no net change in the amount of reactants and products occurs in the chemical system.
    • A. 

      Not equal

    • B. 

      Are equal

    • C. 

      The same at some points

  • 21. 
    The equilibrium position of a reaction is given by the relative_______________ of the system’s components at equilibrium.
    • A. 

      Pressure

    • B. 

      Concentration

    • C. 

      Temperature

  • 22. 
    At equilibrium, how many types of molecules are present in
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      6

    • C. 

      9

  • 23. 
    What is Le Châtelier’s principle?
    • A. 

      Le Châtelier’s principle states that if a stress is applied to a system in dynamic no equilibrium, the system changes to relieve the stress.

    • B. 

      Le Châtelier’s principle states that if a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system changes to relieve the stress.

    • C. 

      Le Châtelier’s principle states that if a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system stays the same to relieve the stress.

  • 24. 
    Stresses that upset the equilibrium of a chemical system include changes in _______
    • A. 

      Kentic, potinial, and reactants

    • B. 

      Reactant, products, and balance

    • C. 

      Concentration, pressure, and temperature.

  • 25. 
    When you add a product to a reversible chemical reaction, the reaction is always pushed in the direction of ______________________ .
    • A. 

      Products

    • B. 

      Reactants

    • C. 

      Equilbrium

  • 26. 
    When you remove a product, the reaction is pulled in the direction of ______________________ .
    • A. 

      Products

    • B. 

      Reactanrs

    • C. 

      Equilbrium

  • 27. 
    ______________ the temperature of achemical reaction causes the equilibrium position of a reaction to shift in the direction that absorbs heat.
    • A. 

      Stabilizing

    • B. 

      Increasing

    • C. 

      Decreasing

  • 28. 
    How does increasing pressure affect a chemical system?
    • A. 

      An increase in pressure results in a shift in the equilibrium position that favors the formation of a smaller volume of gas.

    • B. 

      An increase in pressure results in a shift in the equilibrium position that favors the formation of a larger volume of gas.

    • C. 

      An increase in pressure results in a shift in the equilibrium position that favors the formation of a double the volume of gas.

  • 29. 
    The equilibrium constant (Keq) is the ratio of ____________________ concentrations to ____________________ concentrations at equilibrium, with each concentration raised to a power equal to the number of ____________________ of that substance in the balanced chemical equation.
    • A. 

      Heat, product, reactant

    • B. 

      Reactant, product,heat

    • C. 

      Product, reactant, moles

  • 30. 
    What are the exponents in the equilibrium-constant expression?
    • A. 

      The exponents are the coefficients from the balanced math equation.

    • B. 

      The exponents are the coefficients from the unbalanced chemical equation.

    • C. 

      The exponents are the coefficients from the balanced chemical equation.

  • 31. 
    What do the square brackets indicate in the equilibrium-constant expression?
    • A. 

      The square brackets indicate the concentrations of substances in pounds per liter (mol/L).

    • B. 

      The square brackets indicate the concentrations of substances in moles per liter (mol/L).

    • C. 

      The square brackets indicate the concentrations of substances insuare moles per liter. (mol/L).

  • 32. 
    The value of Keq for a reaction depend on the__________________.
    • A. 

      Mass

    • B. 

      Temperature

    • C. 

      Size

  • 33. 
    A value of Keq greater than 1 means that ______________________ are favored over ______________________ .
    • A. 

      Reactant, mass

    • B. 

      Products, reactants

    • C. 

      Mass, product

  • 34. 
    A value of Keq less than 1 means that ______________________ are favored over ______________________ .
    • A. 

      Reactant, product

    • B. 

      Products, reactants

    • C. 

      Reactant, mass

  • 35. 
    Free energy is energy that is available to do ______________________ .
    • A. 

      Games

    • B. 

      Rest

    • C. 

      Work

  • 36. 
    ________processes can be made 100% efficient.
    • A. 

      No

    • B. 

      All

    • C. 

      A special

  • 37. 
                Spontaneous reactions are reactions that occur naturally and that favor the formation of ______________________ at the specified conditions.
    • A. 

      Bases

    • B. 

      Acids

    • C. 

      Products

  • 38. 
    Some reactions that are nonspontaneous at one set of conditions may be spontaneous at other conditions.
    • A. 

      Acids

    • B. 

      Reactions

    • C. 

      Products

  • 39. 
    Some factor other than ______________________ change must help determine whether a physical or chemical process is spontaneous.
    • A. 

      Moisture

    • B. 

      Cold

    • C. 

      Heat

  • 40. 
    What is entropy?
    • A. 

      Entropy is the measure of ability of a system.

    • B. 

      Entropy is the measure of order of a system.

    • C. 

      Entropy is the measure of disorder of a system.

  • 41. 
    The law of disorder states that processes move in the direction of ______________________ disorder or randomness.
    • A. 

      Median

    • B. 

      Minumum

    • C. 

      Maximum

  • 42. 
    Does entropy tend to increase or decrease in chemical reactions in which the total number of product molecules is greater than the total number of reactant molecules? ______________________
    • A. 

      Entropy decreases

    • B. 

      Entropy increases

    • C. 

      Entropy stays the same

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