Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

  
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  • 1. 
    If photosynthesising green algae are provided with CO2 synthesised with heavy oxygen (18O), later analysis will show that all but one of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the 18O label. That one is
    • A. 

      RuBP

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      PGAL.

    • D. 

      PGA.

    • E. 

      O2.


  • 2. 
    Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilised in the Calvin cycle?
    • A. 

      ATP and NADPH

    • B. 

      Electrons and H+

    • C. 

      CO2 and glucose

    • D. 

      H2O and O2

    • E. 

      ADP, Pi, and NADP+


  • 3. 
    What are the products of the light reactions that are subsequently used by the Calvin cycle?
    • A. 

      Oxygen and carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      Water and carbon

    • C. 

      Carbon dioxide and RuBP

    • D. 

      Electrons and photons

    • E. 

      ATP and NADPH


  • 4. 
    Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
    • A. 

      Cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast

    • B. 

      Outer membrane of the chloroplast

    • C. 

      Chlorophyll molecule

    • D. 

      Thylakoid membrane

    • E. 

      Stroma of the chloroplast


  • 5. 
    In any ecosystem, terrestrial or aquatic, what group(s) is (are) always necessary?
    • A. 

      Photosynthesisers

    • B. 

      Autotrophs and heterotrophs

    • C. 

      Producers and primary consumers

    • D. 

      Green plants

    • E. 

      Autotrophs


  • 6. 
    In autotrophic bacteria, where are the enzymes located that can carry on organic synthesis?
    • A. 

      Free in the cytosol

    • B. 

      Chloroplast membranes

    • C. 

      Along the inner surface of the plasma membrane

    • D. 

      Nuclear membranes

    • E. 

      Along the outer edge of the nucleoid


  • 7. 
    When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the following?
    • A. 

      The electron transfer system of photosystem I

    • B. 

      Splitting the water molecules

    • C. 

      Reducing NADP+

    • D. 

      Chemiosmosis

    • E. 

      The electron transfer system of photosystem II


  • 8. 
    A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?
    • A. 

      Blue and violet

    • B. 

      Green, blue, and yellow

    • C. 

      Red and yellow

    • D. 

      Blue, green, and red

    • E. 

      Green and yellow


  • 9. 
     In the thylakoid membranes, what is the main role of the antenna pigment molecules?
    • A. 

      Harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll

    • B. 

      Concentrate photons within the stroma

    • C. 

      Synthesis ATP from ADP and Pi

    • D. 

      Transfer electrons and ferrodoxin and then NADPH

    • E. 

      Split water and release oxygen to the reaction-center chorophyll


  • 10. 
    The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because
    • A. 

      It absorbs 700 photons per microsecond.

    • B. 

      There are 700 photosystem I components to each chloroplast.

    • C. 

      This pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm.

    • D. 

      There are 700 chlorophyll molecules in the center.

    • E. 

      The plastoquinone reflects light with a wavelength of 700 nm.


  • 11. 
    Which of the events listed below occur in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
    • A. 

      NADPH is reduced to NADP+.

    • B. 

      NADP is produced.

    • C. 

      Light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll a.

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide is incorporated into PGA.

    • E. 

      ATP is phosphorylated to yield ADP.


  • 12. 
    Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?
    • A. 

      The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water.

    • B. 

      The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P700 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit.

    • C. 

      Light energy excites electrons in the electron transport chain in a photosynthetic unit.

    • D. 

      The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by-product.

    • E. 

      The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+.


  • 13. 
    Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?
    • A. 

      Receiving electrons from plastocyanin

    • B. 

      P680 reaction-center chlorophyll

    • C. 

      Extraction of hydrogen electrons from the splitting of water

    • D. 

      Harvesting of light energy by ATP

    • E. 

      Passing electrons to plastoquinone


  • 14. 
    Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be
    • A. 

      To do experiments to generate an action spectrum.

    • B. 

      To test for liberation of O2 in the light.

    • C. 

      To test for CO2 fixation in the dark.

    • D. 

      To test for production of either sucrose or starch.

    • E. 

      To determine if they have thylakoids in the chloroplasts.


  • 15. 
    What are the products of linear photophosphorylation?
    • A. 

      P700 and P680

    • B. 

      Heat and fluorescence

    • C. 

      ATP and NADPH

    • D. 

      ATP and P700

    • E. 

      ADP and NADP


  • 16. 
    As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra ATP molecules come from?
    • A. 

      Chlorophyll

    • B. 

      Photosystem II

    • C. 

      Linear electron flow

    • D. 

      Cyclic electron flow

    • E. 

      Photosystem I


  • 17. 
    Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?
    • A. 

      The splitting of water

    • B. 

      The flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I

    • C. 

      The reduction of NADP+

    • D. 

      The absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

    • E. 

      The synthesis of ATP


  • 18. 
    What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?
    • A. 

      Establishment of a proton gradient

    • B. 

      Reduction of water to produce ATP energy

    • C. 

      Diffusion of electrons through the thylakoid membrane

    • D. 

      Movement of water by osmosis into the thylakoid space from the stroma

    • E. 

      Formation of glucose, using carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP


  • 19. 
    Suppose the interior of the thylakoids of isolated chloroplasts were made acidic and then transferred in the dark to a pH-8 solution. What would be likely to happen?
    • A. 

      The isolated chloroplasts will make ATP.

    • B. 

      Cyclic photophosphorylation will occur.

    • C. 

      The Calvin cycle will be activated.

    • D. 

      Only A and B will occur.

    • E. 

      A, B and C will occur.


  • 20. 
    In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?
    • A. 

      Inner mitochondrial membrane

    • B. 

      Plasma membrane

    • C. 

      Thylakoid membrane

    • D. 

      A and C

    • E. 

      A, B and C


  • 21. 
    In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from
    • A. 

      The intermembrane space to the matrix.

    • B. 

      The stroma to the thylakoid space.

    • C. 

      The stroma to the photosystem II.

    • D. 

      The matrix to the stroma.

    • E. 

      ATP synthase to NADP+ reductase.


  • 22. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?
    • A. 

      Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.

    • B. 

      Respiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic.

    • C. 

      Respiration is the reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis.

    • D. 

      ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration.

    • E. 

      Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals.


  • 23. 
    Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?
    • A. 

      Inner membrane of mitochondria

    • B. 

      Stroma of chloroplast

    • C. 

      Matrix of mitochondria

    • D. 

      Thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

    • E. 

      Cytoplasm


  • 24. 
    Synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs during
    • A. 

      Both photosynthesis and respiration.

    • B. 

      Respiration.

    • C. 

      Photorespiration.

    • D. 

      Neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

    • E. 

      Photosynthesis.


  • 25. 
    Reduction of oxygen which forms water occurs during
    • A. 

      Photosynthesis

    • B. 

      Both photosynthesis and respiration.

    • C. 

      Neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

    • D. 

      Respiration.

    • E. 

      Photorespiration.


  • 26. 
    Reduction of NADP+ occurs during
    • A. 

      Neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

    • B. 

      Respiration.

    • C. 

      Photorespiration.

    • D. 

      Photosynthesis.

    • E. 

      Both photosynthesis and respiration.


  • 27. 
    The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds occurs during
    • A. 

      Respiration.

    • B. 

      Photorespiration.

    • C. 

      Neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

    • D. 

      Both photosynthesis and respiration.

    • E. 

      Photosynthesis


  • 28. 
    Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during
    • A. 

      Neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

    • B. 

      Respiration.

    • C. 

      Both photosynthesis and respiration.

    • D. 

      Photosynthesis.

    • E. 

      Photorespiration.


  • 29. 
    What is the relationship between wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon?
    • A. 

      They are logarithmically related.

    • B. 

      They are separate phenomena.

    • C. 

      They are only related in certain parts of the spectrum

    • D. 

      They have a direct, linear relationship.

    • E. 

      They are inversely related.


  • 30. 
    In a protein complex for the light reaction (a reaction center), energy is transferred from pigment molecule to pigment molecule, to a special chlorophyll a molecule, and eventually to the primary electron acceptor. Why does this occur?
    • A. 

      The potential energy of the electron has to go back to the ground state.

    • B. 

      The action spectrum of that molecule is such that it is different from other molecules of chlorophyll.

    • C. 

      The molecular environment lets it boost an electron to a higher energy level and also to transfer the electron to another molecule.

    • D. 

      These chlorophyll a molecules are associated with higher concentrations of ATP.

    • E. 

      Each pigment molecule has to be able to act independently to excite electrons.


  • 31. 
    P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidising agent. Why?
    • A. 

      This molecule is found far more frequently among bacteria as well as in plants and plantlike Protists.

    • B. 

      It is the receptor for the most excited electron in either photosystem.

    • C. 

      This molecule results from the transfer of an electron to the primary electron acceptor of photosystem II and strongly attracts another electron.

    • D. 

      It is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron transfer system.

    • E. 

      NADP reductase will then catalyse the shift of the electron from Fd to NADP+ to reduce it to NADPH.


  • 32. 
    Some photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., purple sulfur bacteria) have photosystem I but not II, while others (e.g. cyanobacteria) have both PSI and PSII. Which of the following might this observation imply?
    • A. 

      Photosystem II may have evolved to be more photoprotective.

    • B. 

      Cyclic flow must be the most necessary of the two processes.

    • C. 

      Cyclic flow must be more primitive than linear flow of electrons.

    • D. 

      Photosystem II must have been selected against in some species.

    • E. 

      Photosystem I must be more ancestral.


  • 33. 
    Cyclic electron flow may be photoprotective (protective to light-induced damage). Which of the following experiments could provide information on this phenomenon?
    • A. 

      Using mutated organisms that can grow but that cannot carry out cyclic flow of electrons and compare their abilities to photosynthesise in different light intensities

    • B. 

      Using bacteria with only cyclic flow and measuring the number and types of photosynthetic pigments they have in their membranes

    • C. 

      Using plants with only photosystem I operative and measure how much damage occurs at different wavelengths.

    • D. 

      Using plants that can carry out both linear and cyclic electron flow, or only one or another of the processes, and measuring their light absorbance

    • E. 

      Using plants that can carry out both linear and cyclic electron flow, or only one or another of thee processes, and measuring their light absorbance


  • 34. 
    Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in human nutrition. What related function do they have in plants?
    • A. 

      They serve as accessory pigments.

    • B. 

      They dissipate excessive light energy.

    • C. 

      They cover the sensitive chromosomes of the plant.

    • D. 

      They take up toxins from the water.

    • E. 

      They reflect orange light.


  • 35. 
    In thylakoids, protons travel through ATP synthase from the stroma to the thylakoid space. Therefore the catalytic "knobs" of ATP synthase would be located
    • A. 

      On the stroma side of the membrane.

    • B. 

      On the pigment molecules of PSI and PSII.

    • C. 

      On the side facing the thylakoid space.

    • D. 

      Built into the center of the thylkoid stack (granum).

    • E. 

      On the ATP molecules themselves.


  • 36. 
    Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?
    • A. 

      The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions.

    • B. 

      The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.

    • C. 

      The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.

    • D. 

      The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.

    • E. 

      There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.


  • 37. 
    Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?
    • A. 

      Thylakoid space

    • B. 

      Stroma of the chloroplast

    • C. 

      Thylakoid membranes

    • D. 

      Electron transport chain

    • E. 

      Outer membrane of the chloroplast


  • 38. 
    What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle? 
    • A. 

      Transport RuBP out of the chloroplast

    • B. 

      Split water and release oxygen

    • C. 

      Use NADPH to release carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Synthesise simple sugars from carbon dioxide

    • E. 

      Use ATP to release carbon dioxide


  • 39. 
    Produces molecular oxygen (O2)
    • A. 

      Light reactions alone

    • B. 

      The Calvin cycle alone

    • C. 

      Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

    • D. 

      Neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

    • E. 

      Occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


  • 40. 
    Requires ATP 
    • A. 

      Light reactions alone

    • B. 

      The Calvin cycle alone

    • C. 

      Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

    • D. 

      Neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

    • E. 

      Occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


  • 41. 
    Produces NADH
    • A. 

      Light reactions alone

    • B. 

      The Calvin cycle alone

    • C. 

      Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

    • D. 

      Neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

    • E. 

      Occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


  • 42. 
    Produces NADPH
    • A. 

      Light reactions alone

    • B. 

      The Calvin cycle alone

    • C. 

      Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

    • D. 

      Neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

    • E. 

      Occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


  • 43. 
    Produces three-carbon sugars
    • A. 

      Light reactions alone

    • B. 

      The Calvin cycle alone

    • C. 

      Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

    • D. 

      Neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

    • E. 

      Occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


  • 44. 
    Requires CO2
    • A. 

      Light reactions alone

    • B. 

      The Calvin cycle alone

    • C. 

      Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

    • D. 

      Neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

    • E. 

      Occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


  • 45. 
    Requires glucose
    • A. 

      Light reactions alone

    • B. 

      The Calvin cycle alone

    • C. 

      Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

    • D. 

      Neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

    • E. 

      Occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


  • 46. 
    The sugar that results from three "turns" of the Calvin cycle is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). Which of the following is a consequence of this?
    • A. 

      G3P is easier for a plant to store.

    • B. 

      Formation of a molecule of glucose would require 9 "turns."

    • C. 

      Some plants would not taste sweet to us.

    • D. 

      G3P more readily forms sucrose and other disaccharides than it does monosaccharides.

    • E. 

      The formation of starch in plants involves assembling many G3P molecules, with or without further rearrangements.


  • 47. 
    In an experiment studying photosynthesis performed during the day, you provide a plant with radioactive carbon (14C) dioxide as a metabolic tracer. The 14C is incorporated first into oxaloacetate. The plant is best characterised as a
    • A. 

      Chemoautotroph.

    • B. 

      C4 plant.

    • C. 

      CAM plant.

    • D. 

      Heterotroph

    • E. 

      C3 plant.


  • 48. 
    Why are C4 plants able to photosynthesise with no apparent photorespiration?
    • A. 

      They conserve water more efficiently.

    • B. 

      They do not participate in the Calvin cycle.

    • C. 

      They exclude oxygen from their tissues.

    • D. 

      They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2.

    • E. 

      They are adapted to cold, wet climates.


  • 49. 
    CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they
    • A. 

      Fix CO2 into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells.

    • B. 

      Fix CO2 into organic acids during the night.

    • C. 

      Use photosystems I and II at night.

    • D. 

      Use the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which outcompetes rubisco for CO2.

    • E. 

      Fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells.


  • 50. 
    Photorespiration lowers the efficiency of photosynthesis by preventing the formation of
    • A. 

      ATP molecules.

    • B. 

      Ribulose bisphosphate molecules.

    • C. 

      3-phosphoglycerate molecules

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide molecules.

    • E. 

      RuBP carboxylase molecules.


  • 51. 
    The alternative pathways of photosynthesis using the C4 or CAM systems are said to be compromises. Why?
    • A. 

      Each one minimises both water loss and rate of photosynthesis.

    • B. 

      Each one both minimises photorespiration and optimises the Calvin cycle.

    • C. 

      C4 compromises on water loss and CAM compromises on photorespiration.

    • D. 

      C4 plants allow less water loss but Cam plants but allow more water loss.

    • E. 

      CAM plants allow more water loss, while C4 plants allow less CO2 into the plant.


  • 52. 
    If plant gene alterations cause the plants to be deficient in photorespiration, what would most probably occur?
    • A. 

      Less ATP would be generated.

    • B. 

      There would be more light-induced damage to the cells.

    • C. 

      Cells would carry on more photosynthesis.

    • D. 

      More sugars would be produced.

    • E. 

      Cells would carry on the Calvin cycle at a much slower rate.


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