Biological Membranes, Membrane Transport,and Cell Signaling Ch. 4 & 5

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Biological transport for zoo 235 cal poly pomona winter 2012. Voss instructor.

  
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  • 1. 
    Which of the following describes intracellular fluid?
    • A. 

      Rich in sodium, potassium, and chloride

    • B. 

      Rich in sodium and chloride

    • C. 

      Rich in proteins and chloride

    • D. 

      Rich in proteins and potassium

    • E. 

      Rich in potassium and chloride


  • 2. 
    Which of the following pairs of characteristics is more likely to make a substance diffuse through the cell membrane?
    • A. 

      Large, polar molecule

    • B. 

      Large, non polar molecule

    • C. 

      Small, polar molecule

    • D. 

      Small, non polar molecule

    • E. 

      Large, amphipathic molecule


  • 3. 
    The affinity of a receptor for its ligand is a measure of 
    • A. 

      The strength of binding between ligand and receptor

    • B. 

      The number of binding sites available for the ligand

    • C. 

      The ability of the ligand to permeate the plasma membrane and reach its receptor

    • D. 

      The response produced in the targe cell when the ligand binds to the receptor

    • E. 

      The percent of receptors on a specific target cell with cell bound ligand.


  • 4. 
    Direct communication between cells in contact with one another is accomplished through 
    • A. 

      Ligands

    • B. 

      Receptors

    • C. 

      Gap junctions

    • D. 

      Paracrine chemical messengers

    • E. 

      Endocrine hormones


  • 5. 
    Referring to a membrane as "selectively permeable" describes its ability to 
    • A. 

      Restrict movement of particular molecules across a membrane

    • B. 

      Restrict only the movement of sodium across a membrane

    • C. 

      Provide a barrier that restricts the movement of all molecules across a membrane

    • D. 

      Restrict only the movement of potassium across


  • 6. 
    Which type of chemical messenger is released from the axon terminal of a neuron and directly communicates with other cells?
    • A. 

      Paracrine

    • B. 

      Autocrine

    • C. 

      Hormone

    • D. 

      Cytokine

    • E. 

      Neurotransmitter


  • 7. 
    When alpha subunit of the G protein is activated, it can stimulate ion channels to
    • A. 

      Either open or close

    • B. 

      Open only

    • C. 

      Close only

    • D. 

      Alter the ion that travels through the channel

    • E. 

      Degrade


  • 8. 
    Which of the following transport mechanisms is passive?
    • A. 

      Cotransport of glucose with sodium

    • B. 

      Transport of sodium and potassium across the membrane by the Na+/K+ pump

    • C. 

      Movement of sodium through ion channels

    • D. 

      Movement of sodium out of the cytosol

    • E. 

      Movement of calcium out of the cytosol


  • 9. 
    Lipophilic hormones transported blood ___ and bind to receptors located _____ . 
    • A. 

      Dissolved in the plasma : on the plasma membrane of the target cell

    • B. 

      Dissolved in the plasma : inside the target cell

    • C. 

      Bound to carrier proteins : on the plasma membrane of the target cell

    • D. 

      Bound to the carrier proteins : inside the target cell

    • E. 

      Inside red blood cells: inside the target cell


  • 10. 
    Which of the following describes the signal transduction mechanism for estrogen, a steroid horomone? 
    • A. 

      Opening of fast ligand-gated channels

    • B. 

      Activation of enzyme-linked receptor

    • C. 

      Activation of cAMP second messenger system

    • D. 

      Opening or closing of fast ligand-gated channels

    • E. 

      Altering transcription of mRNA


  • 11. 
    Which of the following correctly describes phagocytosis? 
    • A. 

      A cell synthesizes a product and packages it into vesicles. The product is released by phagocytosis

    • B. 

      Cells engulf large particles, such as bacteria, by phagocytosis

    • C. 

      A substance in the extracellular fluid binds to specific receptors for it on the cell membrane inducing the formation of a coated pit. the coated pit invaginates and enters the cell by phagocytosis.

    • D. 

      Cells non-specifically engulf extracellular fluid

    • E. 

      Carrier proteins in the cell membrane transport a specific substance into the cell.


  • 12. 
    The fluid compartment with high sodium concentration contains only trace amounts of protein is called 
    • A. 

      Interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Plasma

    • C. 

      Intracellular fluid

    • D. 

      Extracellular fluid

    • E. 

      Intracellular and extracellular fluids


  • 13. 
    Molecules with a relatively high lipophilicity are capable of crossing membrane ___ 
    • A. 

      Directly across the lipid bilayer

    • B. 

      Only through specific protein channels

    • C. 

      Only with the addition of energy

    • D. 

      Indirectly by moving across a carrier protein

    • E. 

      Through specific lipid channels


  • 14. 
    Primary active transporters are unique in their ability to couple the movement of ions directly to ____ 
    • A. 

      Another ion's electrochemical gradient

    • B. 

      ATP

    • C. 

      A carrier protein

    • D. 

      Its electrochemical gradient

    • E. 

      A channel


  • 15. 
    Which type of chemcical messenger is released into the bloodstream by an endocrine gland where it can affect target cells throughout the body? 
    • A. 

      Paracrine

    • B. 

      Autocrine

    • C. 

      Hormone

    • D. 

      Cytokine

    • E. 

      Neurotransmitter


  • 16. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the function of a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase?
    • A. 

      It catalyzes the formation of dopamine from L-dopa

    • B. 

      It catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine

    • C. 

      It catalyzes the phosphorylation of a protein inside the cell

    • D. 

      It catalyzes the phosphorylation of a protein in the extracellular fluid

    • E. 

      It sequesters calcium in the cytosol


  • 17. 
    Which of the following molecules is least likely to cross the plasma membrane?
    • A. 

      Fatty acid

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Disaccharide

    • D. 

      Oxygen

    • E. 

      Steroids


  • 18. 
    Oxygen diffuses from the blood cells down its concentration gradient. As cells become more active and oxidative phosphorylation increases in the cell, which of the following occurs?
    • A. 

      The concentration gradient for oxygen decreases and oxygen movement into the cell decreases.

    • B. 

      The concentration gradient for oxygen increases and oxygen movement into the cell decreases.

    • C. 

      The concentration gradient for oxygen decreases and oxygen movement into the cell increases.

    • D. 

      The concentration gradient for oxygen increases and oxygen movement into the cell increases.

    • E. 

      The concentration gradient for oxygen and its rate of movement into the cell do not change


  • 19. 
    Which of the following is NOT true for all 3 transport mechanisms : facilitated diffusion, primary active transport, and secondary active transport?  
    • A. 

      The transport mechanism is specific for a particular solute(s)

    • B. 

      The transport mechanism requires a protein.

    • C. 

      The transport mechanism has a limit to the total number of molecules that can be transported per unit of time.

    • D. 

      The transport mechanism requires energy

    • E. 

      Transport can be increased by increasing the number of transport molecules in the plasma membrane.


  • 20. 
    Which of the following substances crosses a pure lipid bilayer most easily by passive diffusion?
    • A. 

      Water

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Ca+2

    • D. 

      Ethanol

    • E. 

      CO2


  • 21. 
    Which of the following will NOT affect the magnitude of a cell's response to a specific hydrophilic ligand? 
    • A. 

      Ligand concentration

    • B. 

      Number of receptors

    • C. 

      Receptor upregulation

    • D. 

      Affinity of the receptor for the ligand

    • E. 

      Lipid solubility of the ligand


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