Rich in sodium, potassium, and chloride
Rich in sodium and chloride
Rich in proteins and chloride
Rich in proteins and potassium
Rich in potassium and chloride
Large, polar molecule
Large, non polar molecule
Small, polar molecule
Small, non polar molecule
Large, amphipathic molecule
The strength of binding between ligand and receptor
The number of binding sites available for the ligand
The ability of the ligand to permeate the plasma membrane and reach its receptor
The response produced in the targe cell when the ligand binds to the receptor
The percent of receptors on a specific target cell with cell bound ligand.
Paracrine chemical messengers
Restrict movement of particular molecules across a membrane
Restrict only the movement of sodium across a membrane
Provide a barrier that restricts the movement of all molecules across a membrane
Restrict only the movement of potassium across
Either open or close
Alter the ion that travels through the channel
Cotransport of glucose with sodium
Transport of sodium and potassium across the membrane by the Na+/K+ pump
Movement of sodium through ion channels
Movement of sodium out of the cytosol
Movement of calcium out of the cytosol
Dissolved in the plasma : on the plasma membrane of the target cell
Dissolved in the plasma : inside the target cell
Bound to carrier proteins : on the plasma membrane of the target cell
Bound to the carrier proteins : inside the target cell
Inside red blood cells: inside the target cell
Opening of fast ligand-gated channels
Activation of enzyme-linked receptor
Activation of cAMP second messenger system
Opening or closing of fast ligand-gated channels
Altering transcription of mRNA
A cell synthesizes a product and packages it into vesicles. The product is released by phagocytosis
Cells engulf large particles, such as bacteria, by phagocytosis
A substance in the extracellular fluid binds to specific receptors for it on the cell membrane inducing the formation of a coated pit. the coated pit invaginates and enters the cell by phagocytosis.
Cells non-specifically engulf extracellular fluid
Carrier proteins in the cell membrane transport a specific substance into the cell.
Intracellular and extracellular fluids
Directly across the lipid bilayer
Only through specific protein channels
Only with the addition of energy
Indirectly by moving across a carrier protein
Through specific lipid channels
Another ion's electrochemical gradient
A carrier protein
Its electrochemical gradient
It catalyzes the formation of dopamine from L-dopa
It catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine
It catalyzes the phosphorylation of a protein inside the cell
It catalyzes the phosphorylation of a protein in the extracellular fluid
It sequesters calcium in the cytosol
The concentration gradient for oxygen decreases and oxygen movement into the cell decreases.
The concentration gradient for oxygen increases and oxygen movement into the cell decreases.
The concentration gradient for oxygen decreases and oxygen movement into the cell increases.
The concentration gradient for oxygen increases and oxygen movement into the cell increases.
The concentration gradient for oxygen and its rate of movement into the cell do not change
The transport mechanism is specific for a particular solute(s)
The transport mechanism requires a protein.
The transport mechanism has a limit to the total number of molecules that can be transported per unit of time.
The transport mechanism requires energy
Transport can be increased by increasing the number of transport molecules in the plasma membrane.
Number of receptors
Affinity of the receptor for the ligand
Lipid solubility of the ligand