AP English Language Rhetorical Devices And Fallacies

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Help for AP English Language. Mr Blanck. 2010-2011

  
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  • 1. 
    Expletive
    • A. 

      Is a single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to lend emphasis to the words immediately proximate to the _________. (We emphasize the words on each side of a pause or interruption in order to maintain continuity of the thought.)

    • B. 

      Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items, ______ gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account:

    • C. 

      Is the use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause, and is thus structurally the opposite of asyndeton. The rhetorical effect of ______, however, often shares with that of asyndeton a feeling of multiplicity, energetic enumeration, and building up.

    • D. 

      Repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next. it can be generated in series for the sake of beauty or to give a sense of logical progression

    • E. 

      Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.


  • 2. 
    Asyndeton
    • A. 

      Is another form of metaphor, very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some rhetoricians do not distinguish between the two), in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with which it is to be compared.

    • B. 

      Is a short, informal reference to a famous person or event

    • C. 

      Is the recurrence of initial consonant sounds. The repetition can be juxtaposed (and then it is usually limited to two words):

    • D. 

      Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items, _____ gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account:

    • E. 

      Consists of arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis. Parallelism usually forms a part of the arrangement, because it offers a sense of continuity, order, and movement-up the ladder of importance. But if you wish to vary the amount of discussion on each point, ______ is not essential.


  • 3. 
    Polysyndeton
    • A. 

      Sudden drop from the dignified or important in thought or expression to the commonplace or trivial, often for humorous effect

    • B. 

      Is the use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause, and is thus structurally the opposite of asyndeton. The rhetorical effect of ______, however, often shares with that of asyndeton a feeling of multiplicity, energetic enumeration, and building up.

    • C. 

      Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items, ______ gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account:

    • D. 

      Detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly:

    • E. 

      Finishing a sentence with a different grammatical structure from that with which it began


  • 4. 
    Understatement
    • A. 

      Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech. So, for example, you could have a verb stated in the first clause understood in the following clauses:

    • B. 

      Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure

    • C. 

      A literary work in which vices, abuses, absurdities. etc. are held up to ridicule and contempt; use of ridicule, sarcasm. irony, etc. to expose vices, abuses, etc.

    • D. 

      A form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them; a form of deductive reasoning.

    • E. 

      Deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is, either for ironic emphasis or for politeness and tact. When the writer's audience can be expected to know the true nature of a fact which might be rather difficult to describe adequately in a brief space, the writer may choose to understate the fact as a means of employing the reader's own powers of description.


  • 5. 
    Litotes
    • A. 

      A particular form of understatement, is generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used. Depending on the tone and context of the usage, _____ either retains the effect of understatement, or becomes an intensifying expression. Compare the difference between these statements

    • B. 

      Compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one.

    • C. 

      Compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, _____ asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Very frequently a _____ is invoked by the to be verb:

    • D. 

      Consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence:

    • E. 

      Is the recurrence of initial consonant sounds. The repetition can be juxtaposed (and then it is usually limited to two words):


  • 6. 
    Parallelism
    • A. 

      Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.

    • B. 

      By anticipating an objection and answering it, permits an argument to continue moving forward while taking into account points or reasons opposing either the train of thought or its final conclusions. Often the objections are standard ones:

    • C. 

      Is recurrent syntactical similarity. Several parts of a sentence or several sentences are expressed similarly to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in importance. _______ also adds balance and rhythm and, most importantly, clarity to the sentence.

    • D. 

      Is an explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.

    • E. 

      Involves repeating a word or expression while adding more detail to it, in order to emphasize what might otherwise be passed over. In other words, ____ allows you to call attention to, emphasize, and expand a word or idea to make sure the reader realizes its importance or centrality in the discussion.


  • 7. 
    Zeugma
    • A. 

      Words and phrases used in everyday speech but avoided in formal writing;

    • B. 

      (deductive reasoning): a form of reasoning that begins with a generalization, then applies the generalization to a specific case or cases; opposite to induction.

    • C. 

      Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech. So, for example, you could have a verb stated in the first clause understood in the following clauses:

    • D. 

      A temporary departure from the main subject in speaking or writing

    • E. 

      Citation of information from people recognized for their special knowledge of a subject for the purpose of strengthening a speaker or writer’s arguments


  • 8. 
    Antithesis
    • A. 

      A literary work in which vices, abuses, absurdities. etc. are held up to ridicule and contempt; use of ridicule, sarcasm. irony, etc. to expose vices, abuses, etc.

    • B. 

      Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.

    • C. 

      A form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them; a form of deductive reasoning.

    • D. 

      Reversing the normal word order of a sentence;

    • E. 

      A temporary departure from the main subject in speaking or writing


  • 9. 
    Anaphora
    • A. 

      A short entertaining account of some happening, frequently personal or biographical

    • B. 

      Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.

    • C. 

      Citation of information from people recognized for their special knowledge of a subject for the purpose of strengthening a speaker or writer’s arguments

    • D. 

      (inductive reasoning)--a form of reasoning which works from a body of fact to the formulation of a generalization: opposite to deduction; frequently used as the principal form of reasoning in science and history

    • E. 

      Is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly in conjunction with climax and with parallelism


  • 10. 
    Epistrophe(also called antistrophe)
    • A. 

      A method of humorous or sarcastic expression in which the intended meaning of the words is the opposite of their usual meaning;

    • B. 

      Forms the counterpart to anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences:

    • C. 

      Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.

    • D. 

      A form of reasoning that begins with a generalization, then applies the generalization to a specific case or cases; opposite to induction.

    • E. 

      Reversing the normal word order of a sentence;


  • 11. 
    Anadiplosis
    • A. 

      Consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it:

    • B. 

      Differs from hypophora in that it is not answered by the writer, because its answer is obvious or obviously desired, and usually just a yes or no. It is used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary statement from the facts at hand.

    • C. 

      Involves repeating a word or expression while adding more detail to it, in order to emphasize what might otherwise be passed over. In other words, ______ allows you to call attention to, emphasize, and expand a word or idea to make sure the reader realizes its importance or centrality in the discussion.

    • D. 

      Repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next. it can be generated in series for the sake of beauty or to give a sense of logical progression:

    • E. 

      Asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it. This device has both legitimate and illegitimate uses.


  • 12. 
    Conduplicatio
    • A. 

      Repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end. The beginning and the end are the two positions of strongest emphasis in a sentence, so by having the same word in both places, you call special attention to it:

    • B. 

      Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.

    • C. 

      Is a comparison between two different things that resemble each other in at least one way. When you compare a noun to a noun, the ______ is usually introduced by like:

    • D. 

      Asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it. This device has both legitimate and illegitimate uses. Legitimately, a writer uses it to call attention to sensitive or inflammatory facts or statements while he remains apparently detached from them:

    • E. 

      Is an explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.


  • 13. 
    Epanalepsis
    • A. 

      Is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).

    • B. 

      Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items, _______ gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account:

    • C. 

      Substitutes for a particular attribute the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute. By their nature eponyms often border on the cliche, but many times they can be useful without seeming too obviously trite. Finding new or infrequently used ones is best, though hard, because the name-and-attribute relationship needs to be well established.

    • D. 

      Repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end. The beginning and the end are the two positions of strongest emphasis in a sentence, so by having the same word in both places, you call special attention to it:

    • E. 

      Is a single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to lend emphasis to the words immediately proximate to the _______.


  • 14. 
    Hypophora
    • A. 

      By anticipating an objection and answering it, permits an argument to continue moving forward while taking into account points or reasons opposing either the train of thought or its final conclusions. Often the objections are standard ones:

    • B. 

      Is another form of metaphor, very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some rhetoricians do not distinguish between the two), in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with which it is to be compared.

    • C. 

      Consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it:

    • D. 

      Is a paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun ("eloquent silence") or adverbadjective ("inertly strong") relationship, and is used for effect, complexity, emphasis, or wit:

    • E. 

      Substitutes for a particular attribute the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute. By their nature eponyms often border on the cliche, but many times they can be useful without seeming too obviously trite. Finding new or infrequently used ones is best, though hard, because the name-and-attribute relationship needs to be well established.


  • 15. 
    Rhetorical question(erotesis)
    • A. 

      Consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it:

    • B. 

      Differs from hypophora in that it is not answered by the writer, because its answer is obvious or obviously desired, and usually just a yes or no. It is used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary statement from the facts at hand.

    • C. 

      By anticipating an objection and answering it, permits an argument to continue moving forward while taking into account points or reasons opposing either the train of thought or its final conclusions. Often the objections are standard ones:

    • D. 

      Is an explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.

    • E. 

      Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.


  • 16. 
    Procatalepsis
    • A. 

      Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech. So, for example, you could have a verb stated in the first clause understood in the following clauses:

    • B. 

      Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items, _______ gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account:

    • C. 

      A particular form of understatement, is generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used. Depending on the tone and context of the usage, litotes either retains the effect of understatement, or becomes an intensifying expression.

    • D. 

      Is recurrent syntactical similarity. Several parts of a sentence or several sentences are expressed similarly to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in importance. _______ also adds balance and rhythm and, most importantly, clarity to the sentence.

    • E. 

      By anticipating an objection and answering it, permits an argument to continue moving forward while taking into account points or reasons opposing either the train of thought or its final conclusions. Often the objections are standard ones:


  • 17. 
    Distinctio
    • A. 

      Repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end. The beginning and the end are the two positions of strongest emphasis in a sentence, so by having the same word in both places, you call special attention to it:

    • B. 

      Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.

    • C. 

      Is an explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.

    • D. 

      Compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one.

    • E. 

      Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In a list of items,____ gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account:


  • 18. 
    Amplification
    • A. 

      Is a comparison between two different things that resemble each other in at least one way. When you compare a noun to a noun, the ____ is usually introduced by like:

    • B. 

      Is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).

    • C. 

      Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech.

    • D. 

      Is a single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to lend emphasis to the words immediately proximate to the ______.

    • E. 

      Involves repeating a word or expression while adding more detail to it, in order to emphasize what might otherwise be passed over. In other words, _____ allows you to call attention to, emphasize, and expand a word or idea to make sure the reader realizes its importance or centrality in the discussion.


  • 19. 
    Apophasis
    • A. 

      Compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, ___ asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Very frequently a ___ is invoked by the to be verb:

    • B. 

      Asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it. This device has both legitimate and illegitimate uses. Legitimately, a writer uses it to call attention to sensitive or inflammatory facts or statements while he remains apparently detached from them:

    • C. 

      The counterpart of understatement, deliberately exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect. In formal writing the _____ must be clearly intended as an exaggeration, and should be carefully restricted. That is, do not exaggerate everything, but treat _____ like an exclamation point, to be used only once a year. Then it will be quite effective as a table-thumping attention getter, introductory to your essay or some section thereof:

    • D. 

      Is a paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun ("eloquent silence") or adverbadjective ("inertly strong") relationship, and is used for effect, complexity, emphasis, or wit:

    • E. 

      Consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence:


  • 20. 
    Simile
    • A. 

      Compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one.

    • B. 

      Compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a xxxxx or xxxxx, _____ asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Very frequently a ____ is invoked by the to be verb:

    • C. 

      Is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).

    • D. 

      Is a comparison between two different things that resemble each other in at least one way. When you compare a noun to a noun, the ______ is usually introduced by like:

    • E. 

      Metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes--attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified.


  • 21. 
    Analogy
    • A. 

      Compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a xxxxx or xxxxxx, _____ asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Very frequently a ____ is invoked by the to be verb:

    • B. 

      Compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one.

    • C. 

      Is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).

    • D. 

      Is a comparison between two different things that resemble each other in at least one way. When you compare a noun to a noun, the simile is usually introduced by like:

    • E. 

      Asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over, ignore, or deny it. This device has both legitimate and illegitimate uses. Legitimately, a writer uses it to call attention to sensitive or inflammatory facts or statements while he remains apparently detached from them:


  • 22. 
    Metaphor
    • A. 

      Compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, _____ asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Very frequently a _____ is invoked by the to be verb:

    • B. 

      Is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).

    • C. 

      Metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes--attribute of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified.

    • D. 

      Is a short, informal reference to a famous person or event:

    • E. 

      Consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence:


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