Psychology Chapter 1

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1. 
In a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable is called the _______ group.
 
Experimental
 
2. 
Which school of psychology assumes that human activity cannot be broken down into separate units for analyses but must be evaluated as wholes?
 
Gestalt
 
3. 

Which of the following is a true statement?

1)a psychiatrist is a medical doctor specializing in the treatment of emotional disturbances.

2)clinical psychologists treat severe psychological disturbances andpsychiatrists treat mild disorders

 
a psychiatrist is a medical doctor specializing in the treatment of emotional disturbances
 
4. 
Research in which a carefully selected group of people is asked a set of predetermind questions in interviews or through questionnaries is known as ________.
 
Survey Research
 
5. 
Dr. Welsh is doing experiments using drugs. He is concerned that his subjects will respond to demand characteristics. He may want to control this by using what?
 
A Placebo
 
6. 
Cognitive psychology is contributing to the development of _____, which attempts to make computers learn and solve problems the way people do.
 
Artificial Intellegence
 
7. 
In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one variable to see how it affects a second variable. The manipulated variable is called the____.
 
Independent Variable
 
8. 
The purpose of an experiment is to discover whether there is a relationship between the ____ and the ____.
 
Independent and dependent variable
 
9. 
The psychological school that asks, "What are mental processes for?" rather than "What are mental processes?" is which one?
 
Functionalism
 
10. 
Political polls taken before major elections are examples of _____ research.
 
Survey
 
11. 
Each day in class, Dr. Helms explains to his students that they are wonderful whether they are academic successes or failures. He also points out that each individual consciouly chooses to attend class and study and that theses choices dramatically affect whether one is academically succesful. Dr. Helms is most likely a ____ psychologist.
 
humanistic
 
12. 
F. Skinner is associated with ______.
 
Behaviorism
 
13. 
Experimenter bias can best be controlled using____.
 
Double-blind control
 
14. 
A group of psychologists study how adults change and grow, both psychologically and physiologically, as they age. These psychologists are most like_____.
 
development psychologists
 
15. 
A group of students were asked to write an essay in support of the legalization of weed. They were paid $.50. Another group of students received $2 for the same taks. It was subsequently found that those students who received only $.50 developed amore positive attitude towards the legalization of weed. The experiment in this study was using (the) ________.
 
Experimental method
 
16. 
The greatest disaddvantage of correlation is:
 
It doesn't enable cause-and-effect conclusions
 
17. 
Naturalistic observation is ____.
 
studying behavior in its natural context
 
18. 
Cognitive psychologist are concerned with the scientific study of ______.
 
Mental processes
 
19. 
In an experiment, the group of subjects to which the experimental group is compared is called the ____.
 
Control group
 
20. 
A detailed, well-researched biography of a famous historical person is technically an example of the _____ method of research.
 
case study
 
21. 
The survey method of research is ______ in nature.
 
correlation
 
22. 
Structutalism emphasizes _______.
 
the basic units of experience and their combination
 
23. 
Psychologists use techniques based on ____.
 
The scientific method
 
24. 
Like Watson, Skinner believed that psychology should study only _____.
 
Observable behavior
 
25. 
Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or their interpretation are called _____.
 
Experimenter Bias
 
26. 
John Watson was the founder of the school of thought that became known as ______.
 
behaviroism
 
27. 
The process of establishing causal relationship is associated most with:
 
experiments
 
28. 
The degree of relationship between two or more variables is ______.
 
Correlation
 
29. 
A correlation of .00 means ______.
 
The two variables are unrelated
 
30. 
A psychologist uses the correlation method to _____.
 
identify relationships between variables
 
31. 
As children grow older, their discretionary income usually increases. The best conclusion to draw about the cariables age and income are that they are ____.
 
positively correlated
 
32. 
Which of the following is the correct order which psychologists use in studying a particular behavior?
 
describe, explain, predict, control
 
33. 
Anything that follows a response, making that response more likely to recur, is ______.
 
reinforcement
 
34. 
Freud was the founder of _____.
 
psychoanalysis
 
35. 
In an experiment to test the effects of anziety on performance, the dependent vaiable is the ______.
 
person's performance
 
36. 
Positve correlation shows _____.
 
that as one variable changes, another changes in the same direction
 
37. 
A sample that doesn't truly represent the population in question is known as a _____ sample.
 
biased
 
38. 
Psychologists use research techniques based on _____.
 
The scientific method
 
39. 
Steve, a college sophomore, is seeeing a psychologist because of his intense fear of people. His counselor feels that Steve's fear is a product of unresovled conflicts about his parents, and his childhood experiences with them. Steve's therapist is most characteristic to which school of psychology?
 
psychoanalytic
 
40. 
A large group of people whom ou want to know about is called a _____.
 
population