Psych Section 2 Exam 2

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1. 

Learning (def, how many kinds, types)

 

learning involes ome experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner

-over 40 kinds

-conscious and deliberate, or unconscious

 
2. 

habituation

 

general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding

 
3. 

learning and behaviorism

 

it can be observed and demonstrated, goes along with behaviorist psychology

 
4. 

classical conditioning definition

 

occurs when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired witht a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.

 
5. 

4 basic elements of classical conditioning

 

Unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned response

conditioned stimulus

conditioned response

 
6. 

US (Pavlov dog part)

 

unconditioned stimulus: something that will reliably produce a naturally occuring reaction (food in front of a dog)

 
7. 

UR (Pavlov part)

 

unconditioned response: reflexive action that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (dog's drooling because of food)

 
8. 

CS (Pavlov part)

 

conditioned stimulus: stimulus that is initially neutral, and produces no reliable response but is paired with US (bell, tone presented with food)

 
9. 

CR

 

conditioned response: reaction that resembles the UR but is produced by only a CS (dogs drooling when they hear the bell only)

 
10. 

acquisition

 

phase when US and CS are paired together

 
11. 

second order conditioning

 

conditioning when the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure (black sqaure paired with tone caused dogs to salivate even though it was never directly associated with food)

 
12. 

extinction (CC)

 

gradual elimination of learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present

 
13. 

spontaneous recovery (CC)

 

tendency of extinct behavior to recover from extinction after rest period

 
14. 

how is relearning CS after spontaneous recovery?

 

conditioning to CS is much more rapid than the first time

 
15. 

generalization (CC)

 

CR is observed even when CS is slightly different than original CS used during acquisition (cats and opening of drawers, different tone.....)

 
16. 

discrimination (CC)

 

the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli (cat no longer runs in when ever drawer is opened) when it doesnt lead to the US that is paired normally with real CS

 
17. 

Little Albert

 

-Watson and Rayners experiment on 7 month old baby to condition emotional responses to stimuli

-shows that complex emotions can be conditioned

-environment more important than genetics

 
18. 

what brain structure is involved in CC?

 

amyglada

 
19. 

what suggests cognitive elements of CC? (study of...)

 

-dogs didn't salivate at sight of pavlov because they knew he was not a reliable indicator

-Rescorla and Wagner: CC only occurs when animal learns to set up expectations

 
20. 

Rescorla and Wagner's study suggests

 

cognition in CC

CC only occurs when animal learns to set up expectations

 
21. 

is CC easier if the CS is...

 

unfamiliar

*Resclora and Wagner

 
22. 

higher order conditioning (CC)

 

original CS is spoon

then the spoon drawer triggers response....

 
23. 

US ->

 

UR

 
24. 

US+CS->

 

UR

 
25. 

CS->

 

CR

 
26. 

explanations of how classical conditioning works

 

-stimulus substitution

-information theory

 
27. 

stimulus substituion (CC) +example

 

-instead of hearing bell we see food

-wrong

-if this is taking place, we should always have the exact same response (Henriques example of flinching when shocked with bell but freezing when just bell is heard.)

 
28. 

information theory (CC)

 

CS is providing information abuot the US

 
29. 

biological mechanisms (CC)

 

cerebellum

 
30. 

if cerebellum is damaged (CC).....

 

CR will be destroyed but not UR

 
31. 

order from best to worst of timing of CC

 

1. delayed conditioning

2. traced conditioning

3&4: backward conditioning, and simultaneous conditioning

 
32. 

delayed conditioning

 

CS is presented up until the US is shown

 
33. 

traced conditioning

 

CS is presented, pause, then US is shown

 
34. 

simultaneous conditioning

 

CS and US are shown together

 
35. 

backwards conditioning

 

US is shown before the CS

 
36. 

food aversions (CC)

 

adaptive processcan occur with hours in betweenextinction is highly unlikelyGarciaException to CC rules

 
37. 

evolutionary elements of CC

 

-food aversions-preferred foods-biological preparedness

 
38. 

operant conditioning

 

a type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine if it will be repeated in the future.

 
39. 

The law of effect (OC +who....)

 

Thorndike: puzzle box with catslaw of effect: behaviors that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and vice versa.

 
40. 

Who is associated with reinforcement

 

B.F. skinner

 
41. 

reinforcer

 

any stimulus that increases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it

 
42. 

punisher

 

any stimulus that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it

 
43. 

positive reinforcement

 

something desirable is presented (something is added.... and its a reinforcer)

 
44. 

negative reinforcement:

 

something undesirable is taken away (something is taken away, and the taking away of it is reinforcing)

 
45. 

positive punishment

 

something undesirable is presented

 
46. 

negative punishment

 

something desirable is taken away

 
47. 

types of reinforcers

 

primary reinforcerssecondary reinforcers

 
48. 

seconday reinforcers

 

conditioned/learned reinforcers that can be used to get primary reinforcers (through association classical conditioning) (money)

 
49. 

primary reinforcers

 

food, comfort, shelter, biological needs...

 
50. 

premack principle

 

neutrality of reinforcers-discerning which of two activities someone would rather engage in means that the preferred activity can be used to reinforce a non-preferred one.-meaning that the activities can be reinforcing or punishing depending on many factors, not the basic nature.

 
51. 

why punishment doesn't work

 

may lead to behavior only being temporarily inhibited or hiddendoesn't teach a more acceptable alternativepunishment can be reinforcing (the kid that gets in trouble to get attention).

 
52. 

if punishment is going to be effective...

 

it must be consistentevery time that the behavior isn't punished, it is essentially reinforced.

 
53. 

over-justification effect (+study)

 

when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior(Lepper's study children who were given rewards to draw...)

 
54. 

shaping

 

reinforce successive approximations of desired behavior

 
55. 

chaining

 

reinforce last behavior in chain, add things until you get to the beginning of the desired sequence (always looking forward to the end)jimmy the sea lion

 
56. 

schedules of reinforcement

 

fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-interval, variable-ratiocrucial!

 
57. 

fixed interval (FI)

 

reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that appropriate responses are madeeffect: little responding after reinforcement, then burst of responses right before interval is over (like students and studying)

 
58. 

variable-interval (VI)

 

a behavior is reinforced based on an average time since last reinforcementproduces steadier responding because time of next reinforcement is unpredictable (pop-quizzes...)

 
59. 

fixed ratio (FR)

 

reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made

 
60. 

variable-ratio (VR)

 

delivery of reinforceent is based on a particular average number of responsesreal estate agents (they don't get rewarded every house they show, but they get rewarded for every house they sell)casino

 
61. 

VI and FI produce what kind of responding

 

slow, methodical responding because it doesn't matter how many times they press it, just how often

 
62. 

FR and VR produce what kind of responding

 

high consistent rates of responding because the number of responses is directly related to the number of rewards.VR produce slightly higher rates of responding than FRthe higher the ratio, the higher number of responses

 
63. 

intermittent reinforcement

 

when only some of responses are followed by reinforcement

 
64. 

continuous reinforcement

 

reinforcement after every response

 
65. 

intermittent-reinforcement effect (partial-reinforcement)

 

the fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement.

 
66. 

superstitious behavior (OC)

 

reenacting behaviors that had accidentally been reinforced.

 
67. 

neural elements of operant conditioning

 

James Olds and electrodes in rats brain and allowed rats to control electric stimulation to different parts of the brainlimbic system=intensely pleasurablemedial forebrain bundle: pathway through midbrain, to hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens

 
68. 

Tolman

 

suggests cognitionmeans to end relationship (stimulus does not directly evoke a response, but establishes an internal cognitive state, which then produces the behavior.rats and maze: their pace through the maze depended on how they thought they would be rewarded at the end.

 
69. 

latent learning

 

Tolman: something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the futurecognitive map

 
70. 

cognitive map

 

mental representation of the physical features of the environmentwhen maze was made more complex for rats, they still followed the right directioncognition

 
71. 

cognitive elements of OC

 

tolman, means-end relationship, latent learning, cognitive map

 
72. 

evolutionary elements of OC

 

rat going the wrong way the second time through the maze--knew that the food wouldn't be there the second time around.

 
73. 

Observational learning

 

Banduralearning takes place by watching others

 
74. 

Bandura's study

 

children and bobo dolls and adult model and how their behavior was alike

 
75. 

neural component of observational learning

 

mirror neurons

 
76. 

mirror neurons

 

fire when the animal is doing actionfire when the animal is watching the actions

 
77. 

components of observattional behavior

 

attentionretentionreproductionmotivation

 
78. 

3 functions of memory

 

encodingstorageretrieval

 
79. 

encoding

 

the process by which we transform what we perceive think or feel into an enduring memory

 
80. 

storage

 

the process of maintaing information in memory over time

 
81. 

retrieval

 

the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.

 
82. 

3 types of encoding processes

 

elaborative encodingvisual imagery encodingorganizational encoding

 
83. 

elaborative encoding

 

actively relating new information to knowledge already in memoryfinding meaning of something

 
84. 

brain in elaborative encoding

 

left temporal lobe and lower left front labe

 
85. 

visual imagery encoding

 

stores new information by converting it to a mental pictureSimonides and recalling all the people by going around to each table and remembering

 
86. 

brain in visual imagery encoding

 

occipital lobe

 
87. 

organizational encoding

 

noticing the relationship among a series of items(waitress and how she groups things together into hot foods, cold food....)

 
88. 

brain in organizational encoding

 

upper surface of left frontal lobe

 
89. 

memory storage

 

process of maintaing information in memory over time

 
90. 

memory store's three main divisions

 

sensoryshort-termlong-term

 
91. 

senosry memory store and two kinds

 

place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or lessiconic and echoic

 
92. 

iconic memory

 

fast decaying store if visual information

 
93. 

echoic memory

 

fast decaying store of auditory information

 
94. 

short term memory store

 

place where nonsensory inofrmation is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute

 
95. 

how to get around limitation of time of short term memory store

 

rehearsing

 
96. 

rehearsing

 

process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it

 
97. 

getting around limitation of quantity in short term memory

 

chunking

 
98. 

chunking

 

combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks

 
99. 

limitations of short term memory

 

how much informationhow long it can hold information

 
100. 

working memory

 

active maintenance of information in short term storage. contemplating next move in a chess game

 
101. 

long term memory store

 

place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or yearsno known capacity

 
102. 

brain in long term memory store

 

hippocampus

 
103. 

hippocampus damage can cause 2 diseases

 

anterograde amnesiaretrograde amnesia

 
104. 

anterograde amnesia

 

the inability to transfer information from short term to long term

 
105. 

retrograde amnesia

 

the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a certain date

 
106. 

best place to look for memories in the brain is

 

between synpases

 
107. 

LTP and long term memory storage

 

-many LTP pathways in hippocampus-induced rapidly-last for a long time

 
108. 

long term potentiation (LTP)

 

enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections

 
109. 

NMDA

 

influences the flow of information from one neuron to another across the synapse by controlling the initiation of LTP in most hippocampal pathways.

 
110. 

how NMDA works

 

hippocampus has abundance of NMBA'd f NMDA receptors to become activated

 
111. 

how NMDA receptors become activated

 

1. presynaptic neuron releases glutamate which attached to NMDA receptor on postsynaptic neuron2. excitation takes place in post-synaptic neuron

 
112. 

retrieval cues

 

"hints"external information tha tis associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind

 
113. 

encoding specificity principle

 

retrieval cues can serve as reminder when it helps recreate the specific way it was encoded

 
114. 

state-dependent retrieval

 

tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval-mood-under the influence-why its hard to look on the bright side when upset

 
115. 

transfer-appropriate processing

 

memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when we process it in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later-semantic judgements of word study-recall performance is best when the encoding and retrieval are both in same context/mood

 
116. 

When people retrieve information that was presented earlier (trying to recall) = what brain structure

 

right frontal lobe

 
117. 

successfully remembering a past experience =what part of the brain

 

hippocampal regionsensory areas that are part of an experience

 
118. 

explicit memory

 

declarativeepisodic: memory of experiences

 
119. 

implicit

 

nondeclarativememory of how to do thingsprocedural memory and priming

 
120. 

procedural memory

 

gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practicepart of implicit memory

 
121. 

priming

 

enhanced ability to think of a stiumlus suh as a word or object as a result of reent exposure to the stimulus(talk about a bike and then later are given this : b_ _ eguess the word is bike)part of implicit memory

 
122. 

brain structures in implicit and explicit memory

 

explicit: hippocampusimplicit:not the hippocampus... cortex?

 
123. 

brain structures in implicit

 

priming: less activity in the cortext (makes it easier for the brain)

 
124. 

semantic memory +structure

 

network of associated facts that make up our general knowledge of the worldnot the hippocampus

 
125. 

episodic memory +structure

 

collection of past personal experiences occurring at a certain time of placehippocampus

 
126. 

7 sins of memory

 

misattribution, suggestibility, bias, absentmindedness, blocking, transience, persistence

 
127. 

memory transience

 

forgetting what occurs with the passage of tmie-ebbinghaus and list of nonsense syllables: most forgetting occurs right after event.... with increasingly less forgetting as time goes onforgetting does not happen at constant rateproactive and retoractive interference

 
128. 

proactive interference

 

old learning affects memory acquired later using hebrew while trying to learn spanish

 
129. 

retroactive interference

 

when new learning affects the old memories-learning of psych makes you forget philosophy

 
130. 

absentmindedness

 

lapse in attention (memory does not encode)lower activity in frontal region

 
131. 

prospective memory

 

remembering to do things in the future

 
132. 

blocking

 

the inability to retrieve information despite the fact you are trying to left temporal lobemight not have the right retrieval cues

 
133. 

memory misattribution

 

assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source-source monitoring-eye-witness problemsfalse recognition

 
134. 

George Sperling

 

flash letters and ask people to remember themtone indicating which linesuggests that it is encoded it just doesn't stay there very long

 
135. 

George Miller

 

7 +/- 2 bits in short term memory

 
136. 

Baddely

 

working memory model

 
137. 

working memory model (what phases)

 

sensory>long term>working memory (central exec, articulatory/phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer)>long term

 
138. 

levels of processing theory of memory

 

encoding poolsurface vs deep = how much we think about itCraik and Lockhart

 
139. 

Craik and Lockhart

 

levels of processing theory of memorylist of words for people to memorize with different efforts elaboration: more people remembered

 
140. 

Parallel Distributed Processing Model

 

when we learn a piece of information, it does not exist by itself, it is somehow related/connected to everything else we knowWe strengthen connections to help us retrieve information

 
141. 

explicit memories

 

(declarative)episodicsemanticflashbulb

 
142. 

Suggestibility

 

tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollectionssimilar to memory misattribution but misattribution is distortions without specific suggestionsloftus studiesconcerns about psycho therapy

 
143. 

bias

 

distortiing influences of present knowledge, beliefs and feelings on recollection of previous experiencescurrent mood can bias.

 
144. 

3 kinds of memory bias

 

egocentricconsistencychange

 
145. 

consistency bias

 

current knowledge and beliefs have biasing effects, recontruct the past to fit into the belief.

 
146. 

change bias

 

exaggeration of past and present

 
147. 

egocentric bias

 

exaggerate change between past and present to make ourselves look goodremember how we want to remember it

 
148. 

persistence

 

intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget, usually happens after disturbing or traumatic eventsmore vivid and enduring recollectionsflashbulb memoriesheightened emotion which watching events =better memory recall later

 
149. 

hormones and structure for memory persistence

 

amygladaadrenaline and cortisol enhance memory

 
150. 

damage to the amyglada and memory

 

damage to the amyglada will not impair normal memory function, but it will cause the mundane events to be remembered just as well as emotional ones.

 
151. 

recall vs recognition

 

recall: name the 7 dwarfsrecognition: give list of names and pick out the 7 dwarfs

 
152. 

context dependent memory (who)

 

Godden and Baddeleyplace/location serve as retrieval cues

 
153. 

gordon bower

 

mood-dependent memory

 
154. 

cue-dependent theory

 

dont have necessary cues for retrieval

 
155. 

schemas

 

mental framework representing our knowledge and assumptions about the worldremember things that are consistent with schema and ignore others

 
156. 

Ceci study

 

preschoolers and fake/real memoriescan't tell what is real and what is made up. -repression isn't possible?

 
157. 

Williams study

 

police records of child abuseinterviewed about it and someone deniedevidence of repressed memories

 
158. 

hippocampus

 

slow to mature (childhood amnesia)alcohol induced blackouts slow activity of hippocampus

 
159. 

frontal cortex

 

connecting fact with context (personal experiences)

 
160. 

basal ganglia:

 

procedural memory

 
161. 

cerebellum

 

classical conditioning

 
162. 

out-group homogeneity (problem of what...)

 

belief that people in another group besides your own are all the samecross-race identification

 
163. 

instances of dissociation of implicit and explicit memory

 

false fame: familiarity prompts fameillusion of truth: prior exposure to a statement makes it true, even if it is falseeyewitness transferenceunintentional plagiarism (cryptomnesia)

 
164. 

distortions of memory in eyewitness testimony

 

eyewitness transference (source monitoring)cross-race identification (outgroup homoegeneity)presence of a weapon

 
165. 

how can I help my memory? (4 ways)

 

spaced versus mass practicerecitation vs rereadingorganizationrelearning

 
166. 

category specific deficit

 

inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside of that category undisturbed

 
167. 

what does the fact that category specific deficit can occur right after birth suggest?

 

that our brain is prewired to organize sensory and perceptual inputs into broad based categories

 
168. 

Damage to ___ causes...left hemisphere of cerebral cortextleft temporal lobelower left temporal lobetemporal lobe meets occipital and parietal

 

category specific deficitrecognizing humans""animals""tools

 
169. 

Eleanor Rosch

 

family resemblance theory

 
170. 

family resemblance theory

 

features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every memberno defining feature

 
171. 

prototype 

 

"best" or most typical memober of the categorypossesses most / all of characteristic featurescan change depending on context

 
172. 

typicality and family resemblance scores are...

 

correlated

 
173. 

brain structures &prototypes

 

visual cortexleft hemisphere

 
174. 

exemplar theory

 

we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the categorypersonal experiences

 
175. 

brain structure & exemplar, +what brain activities

 

basal ganglia and prefrontal cortexanalysis and decision making

 
176. 

rational choice theory

 

we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two

 
177. 

humans excel at estimating ____ but not ___

 

frequency, probability

 
178. 

availability bias

 

items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently

 
179. 

heuristics

 

rule of thumb

 
180. 

algorithm

 

well defined sequence of procedures that guarantee a solutioncomputer, geometric proofs

 
181. 

conjunction fallacy

 

people think that two events are more likely to occur together than by themselves.

 
182. 

representative heuristic

 

decision making based on prototype

 
183. 

prospect theory

 

people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains

 
184. 

frequency format hypothesis

 

our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they ar eto occurpresenting information in frequency format capitalizes our evolutionary strengths

 
185. 

ill-defined problem

 

no clear goal and no clear solution path

 
186. 

well-defined problem

 

one with clear goals and a clear way to solve it

 
187. 

means-end analysis (+who)

 

Karl Dunckerprocess of searching for means/steps to reduce the differences between the current situation and described goal

 
188. 

steps of means-end analysis

 

1. analyze goal2. analyze current state3. list differences4. reduce differences by:a. direct means  (not intermediate steps)b. generating a subgoalc. finding a similar problem with a known solution

 
189. 

artificial concepts

 

formal concepts that can be clearly defined by a set of rules (fruit)

 
190. 

natural concepts

 

casual or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise set of properties (automobiles)tend to be man made

 
191. 

how do we judge concepts?

 

positive/negative instancessystematic/formal approachesprototypesexemplars

 
192. 

inductive reasons vs deductive reasons

 

specific to generalgeneral to specific

 
193. 

functional fixedness

 

the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problem

 
194. 

mental set

 

we get into a mental rut in our approach to problem solving and continue the old and ineffective method

 
195. 

confirmation bias

 

tendency to only look for what we believe in 

 
196. 

belief perseverance

 

the tendency to hang on to a discredited belief

 
197. 

the problem with representative heuristic

 

the tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category.

 
198. 

availability heuristic

 

make judgments on frequencies based on available information

 
199. 

anchoring effects

 

tendency to use one stimulus as an anchor or reference point in judging a second stimulus

 
200. 

escalation of commitment (definition + phases) +when we are not likely to escalate commitment

 

definition: the tendency to become increasinly committed to a bad decision even if losses increasephases:initial phase: decision based on rational factors, just try againearly losses: reluctant to admit a mistake, desire to self-justificationcontinuing losses: external factors: social/political pressureswhen we are not likely: limited resources and when we can diffuse responsibility

 
201. 

overconfidene

 

we don't like to think about being wronggambler's fallacy

 
202. 

gambler's fallacy

 

the belief that you have lost so many times, you must win the next. just because it happens a certain amount of times in a row doesn't mean it will not happen again.

 
203. 

entity theory of intelligence

 

intelligence is fixed

 
204. 

incremental theory of intelligence

 

intelligence can cahnge

 
205. 

Francis Galton

 

Intelligence composed of two things:capacity for labor (strength)sensitivity to physical stimuli (ability to distinguish)

 
206. 

lumpers vs splitters

 

people who lump intelligence into one capacity vs people who split intelligence into many parts

 
207. 

Charles Spearman

 

two factor theory

 
208. 

two factor theory

 

General intelligence, underlies all mental abilitiesused factor analysisspecific intelligence

 
209. 

factor analysis

 

correlation among a number of different variables and who different things relate to one another

 
210. 

Raymond Cattell

 

2 types of general intelligence:fluid intelligencecrystallized intellgience

 
211. 

fluid intelligence

 

problem solving, reasoning, declines over timecattell

 
212. 

crystallized

 

specific knowledge, increases over timecattell

 
213. 

Louis Thurstone

 

multiple factor theory 

 
214. 

Thurstone found _ factors of human intelligence (+names)

 

7:verbal comprehensionnumber abilityword fluencyspatial visualizationassociative memoryreasoningperceptual speed

 
215. 

Why Thurstone revised the intelligence theory

 

there were more similarities between certain groups of skills, even though all the scores were about the same 

 
216. 

Howard Gardner

 

intelligence measured on standardized tests does not encompass the genius found in musicians, dancers, athletes....8 types of intelligence

 
217. 

Gardner's 8 types of intelligence and an example of each

 

linguistic: preachers/politicianslogical/mathematical: engineersspatial: pilotsmusical: musicians, mozartbodily-kinestheticinterpersonal: knowing what motivates people, therapistsintrapersonal: knowing own feelings/motivationsnaturalistic: appreciate patterns in nature

 
218. 

Sternberg

 

Triarchic Theory

 
219. 

Triarchic theory: 

 

3 kinds of intelligence: componential/analyticexperiential/creativecontextual/practical

 
220. 

Binet

 

Mental age

 
221. 

problems with mental age as measure of intelligence

 

if a 4 yr old and a 6 yr old and an 8 yr old all have the mental age of 8, are they all equally intelligent? no

 
222. 

intelligence quotient ratio (+who)

 

William Stern/Louis Termanmental age divided by chronological age multipled by 100

 
223. 

IQ ratio solved_____ but problems with _____

 

solved: the differentiation between mental ages and different chronological agesbut doesn't allow distinctions/comparison amongst adults because their intellectual abilities will level off

 
224. 

normal curve properties

 

-one mode/median/mean

 
225. 

1 standard deviation on normal curve

 

15 points

 
226. 

_____% of population is 1 SD from average (points) and _______ % of population is 2 SD (points)

 

2/3 (60 percent ish) between 85-11595% between 70-130

 
227. 

David Weschler

 

Weschler Intelligence Scales

 
228. 

Wechsler's test yield 3 scores:

 

verbal(comprehension, vocab...)performance (object assembly...)overall score

 
229. 

validity

 

the  extent to which a given tests assesses what is supposed to measure

 
230. 

construct validity

 

that the components in test are assessing what they are supposed to be 

 
231. 

predictive validity

 

the extent to which a given tests predicts the outcome.....?

 
232. 

reliability

 

dependability or consistency of a measure to give consistent results

 
233. 

internal reliability

 

all items/questions are refelcting the same thing

 
234. 

test/re-test reliability

 

same scores now and later

 
235. 

interrater reliability

 

consistent regardless of experimenter

 
236. 

standardization definition and aims

 

ensures that the conditions for taking the same are the same for all test takersreflect the differences in individuals, not in conditions.

 
237. 

the heredity environment controversy

 

to what extent is intelligence influenced by nature or by the environment (nurture)

 
238. 

Flynn Effect

 

IQ scores world wide have increased over generations

 
239. 

Flynn effect explanations

 

better nutritionmore complex tasks

 
240. 

Claude Steel 

 

Stereotype Threat

 
241. 

stereotype threat

 

bringing cultural sterotypes to one's awareness can affect performance

 
242. 

syllogistic reasonsing

 

assessing whether a conclusion follows two statements we believe to be true

 
243. 

Binet:

 

first to test children intelligencenatural intelligencetest would measure aptitude, not prior academic acheivement

 
244. 

measurement of IQ for childrens vs adults

 

ratio IQ vs deviation IQ

 
245. 

deviation IQ

 

divide test scores by average test score of people in same age group then multiply by 100

 
246. 

tests and 3 properties and how they are related

 

responses, consequential actions, hypothetical propertymeasure of responses that are correlated with consequential behavior that are though to be correlated with hypothetical property

 
247. 

intelligence scores are good predictors for...

 

number of years of schooling someone will receive

 
248. 

why do intelligence scores predict outcomes? (two kinds)

 

1. because they influence it (professional school requires testing)2. they have no influence over it (crime)

 
249. 

primary mental abilities (+who)

 

Thurstoneperceptual ability, verbal ability, numerical abilityseparate/independent but stable

 
250. 

mathematical technique confirmatory factor analysis

 

both spearman and thurstone were right3 level hierarchy:1. general factor (Spearman's g)2. group factors (Thurstone's primary mental abilities)3. Specific factor (Spearman's s)people have general ability of intelligence, made up of small set of independent sub-abilities which are made up of large set of specific abilities unique to certain tasks

 
251. 

how to determine middle level abilities

 

top down approach bottom up approach

 
252. 

top down approach 

 

start with broad survey of human abilities then looking to see which abilities intelligence tests measureSternberg3 kinds of intelligence creative, analytical, practicalHoward Gardner

 
253. 

bottom up approach

 

start with responses on intelligence tests to see what independent clusters formJohn Carroll and 8 kinds of middle level abilities

 
254. 

Termans beliefs on intelligence and genetics

 

1. intelligence is product of his/her genes2 some racial groups score better than others on intelligence tests3. the groups that score best are genetically superior

 
255. 

heritability coefficient

 

statistic that describes the proportion of the difference b between peoples scores that can be explained by their genetic makeup

 
256. 

what is the correlation between environment and the heritability coefficient and what does it mean?

 

the more similar the environments the higher the coefficient because the differences in intelligence must be due to genes

 
257. 

shared environment vs nonshared environment

 

environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a house hold (diet..) vs. those environmental factors that are not experienced by all members of a household (teachers)

 
258. 

the average difference between groups is ______ than differences within groups

 

considerably less

 
259. 

does SES or ethnicity predict intelligence better

 

SES

 
260. 

relative intelligence

 

comparison in a groupstays stable over time

 
261. 

absolute intelligence

 

varies over time

 
262. 

catecholamines

 

biochemicals indicating the activation of emotional systems

 
263. 

Walter Cannon

 

fight or flight

 
264. 

HPA axis

 

hypothalamus> pituitary gland>adrenal gland

 
265. 

brain activation in response to threat

 

hypothalamus triggers the pituitary which releases adrenocorticoptropic (ACTH) which travels through the blood stream activating the adrenal glands which release cortisol and acetocholamines  (epinephrine and norepinepherine) which active the sympathetic nervous system which initiates an attack of escape

 
266. 

Hans Selye

 

General Adaption Syndromenoticed that many different stressors produced same response

 
267. 

General Adaption Syndrome

 

1. alarm phase : body rapidly mobilizes resources to response to threat/fight or flight. Resistance is low2. Resistance: body adapts o high state of arousal, shuts down unnecesarry processes3 .exhaustion: resistence collapses and costs of stress finally calculate

 
268. 

Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman

 

studies of Type A type B personalities

 
269. 

Bathrop

 

first study to demonstrate decreased immune funcion in response to grief

 
270. 

Stone

 

college students study to find the relation  between daily life events and antibody levels

 
271. 

Visintainer

 

stress increases the rate of cancer spread

 
272. 

type a personality

 

competitive, time aware, hostile, angryprone to cardiac health problems

 
273. 

type b

 

laid  backnot prone to cardiac health problems

 
274. 

phony type-b

 

type a with an exterior type b MOST prone to cardiac health problems

 
275. 

cognitive appraisal 

 

primary: determining whether stress is something that is meaningfulsecondary: determining if it is a challenge or a threat, how will i deal with it to maximize the positive outcomes and minimize the negative

 
276. 

hippocampus and PTSD

 

hippocampus volume determines sensitivity to PTSDsmaller volume in PTSD

 
277. 

Gilbertson 

 

PTSD studies that suggest that reduced hippocampus (sensitivity to PTSD) is a preexisting condition

 
278. 

Burnout

 

state of emotion, physical, and mental exhaustion created by long term involvement in emotionally demanding situations and accompanied by lowered performance and motivationmost common in helping professions and when people define themselves in their careers

 
279. 

repressive coping

 

avoiding the stressorno or very few physical symptoms of stress

 
280. 

rational coping

 

thinking about the stressor3 stepsacceptanceexposureunstanding

 
281. 

reframing

 

finding new or creative ways to think about the stressor to reduce its threat

 
282. 

body  management

 

relaxation, biofeedback, aerobic exercise

 
283. 

Hardiness

 

3 c'scontrolchallengecommitment

 
284. 

Joseph Brady

 

control experiments and stressmonkey experimentsbeing in charge carries a big burdenbut he didn't use random selection

 
285. 

Weiss

 

lack of control causes stressrats and shocks

 
286. 

Langer and Rodin

 

nursing home studies and how control affects life length

 
287. 

coping strategy

 

problem focused copingemotion focused coping

 
288. 

emotion focused coping

 

focus on relaxing our feelingsgood when we have no control over the situation

 
289. 

problem focused coping

 

solving the problems, ways to be successfulgood when we have control over the situation

 
290. 

psychosomatic illness

 

interaction between mind and body that can produce illness

 
291. 

hypochondriasis

 

psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that they signify a life-threatening illness

 
292. 

somatization disorder

 

combinations of multiple physical complaints that have no medical explanation

 
293. 

conversion disorder

 

apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary but the person experiences as involuntary

 
294. 

malingering

 

fake medical/psychological behavior to get what they want

 
295. 

optimism

 

stable over timerelatively hereditary 

 
296. 

when focus is on potential gains.. risk ______

 

aversa

 
297. 

when focux on potential losses...risk _______

 

prone