Psych Section 2 Exam 2

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1. 
Learning (def, how many kinds, types)
 

learning involes ome experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner

-over 40 kinds

-conscious and deliberate, or unconscious

 
2. 
habituation
 
general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding
 
3. 
learning and behaviorism
 
it can be observed and demonstrated, goes along with behaviorist psychology
 
4. 
classical conditioning definition
 
occurs when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired witht a stimulus that naturally evokes a response.
 
5. 
4 basic elements of classical conditioning
 

Unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned response

conditioned stimulus

conditioned response

 
6. 
US (Pavlov dog part)
 
unconditioned stimulus: something that will reliably produce a naturally occuring reaction (food in front of a dog)
 
7. 
UR (Pavlov part)
 
unconditioned response: reflexive action that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (dog's drooling because of food)
 
8. 
CS (Pavlov part)
 
conditioned stimulus: stimulus that is initially neutral, and produces no reliable response but is paired with US (bell, tone presented with food)
 
9. 
CR
 
conditioned response: reaction that resembles the UR but is produced by only a CS (dogs drooling when they hear the bell only)
 
10. 
acquisition
 
phase when US and CS are paired together
 
11. 
second order conditioning
 
conditioning when the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure (black sqaure paired with tone caused dogs to salivate even though it was never directly associated with food)
 
12. 
extinction (CC)
 
gradual elimination of learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present
 
13. 
spontaneous recovery (CC)
 
tendency of extinct behavior to recover from extinction after rest period
 
14. 
how is relearning CS after spontaneous recovery?
 
conditioning to CS is much more rapid than the first time
 
15. 
generalization (CC)
 
CR is observed even when CS is slightly different than original CS used during acquisition (cats and opening of drawers, different tone.....)
 
16. 
discrimination (CC)
 
the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli (cat no longer runs in when ever drawer is opened) when it doesnt lead to the US that is paired normally with real CS
 
17. 
Little Albert
 

-Watson and Rayners experiment on 7 month old baby to condition emotional responses to stimuli

-shows that complex emotions can be conditioned

-environment more important than genetics

 
18. 
what brain structure is involved in CC?
 
amyglada
 
19. 
what suggests cognitive elements of CC? (study of...)
 

-dogs didn't salivate at sight of pavlov because they knew he was not a reliable indicator

-Rescorla and Wagner: CC only occurs when animal learns to set up expectations

 
20. 
Rescorla and Wagner's study suggests
 

cognition in CC

CC only occurs when animal learns to set up expectations

 
21. 
is CC easier if the CS is...
 

unfamiliar

*Resclora and Wagner

 
22. 
higher order conditioning (CC)
 

original CS is spoon

then the spoon drawer triggers response....

 
23. 
US ->
 
UR
 
24. 
US+CS->
 
UR
 
25. 
CS->
 
CR
 
26. 
explanations of how classical conditioning works
 

-stimulus substitution

-information theory

 
27. 
stimulus substituion (CC) +example
 

-instead of hearing bell we see food

-wrong

-if this is taking place, we should always have the exact same response (Henriques example of flinching when shocked with bell but freezing when just bell is heard.)

 
28. 
information theory (CC)
 
CS is providing information abuot the US
 
29. 
biological mechanisms (CC)
 

cerebellum

 
30. 
if cerebellum is damaged (CC).....
 
CR will be destroyed but not UR
 
31. 
order from best to worst of timing of CC
 

1. delayed conditioning

2. traced conditioning

3&4: backward conditioning, and simultaneous conditioning

 
32. 
delayed conditioning
 
CS is presented up until the US is shown
 
33. 
traced conditioning
 
CS is presented, pause, then US is shown
 
34. 
simultaneous conditioning
 
CS and US are shown together
 
35. 
backwards conditioning
 
US is shown before the CS
 
36. 
food aversions (CC)
 
adaptive processcan occur with hours in betweenextinction is highly unlikelyGarciaException to CC rules
 
37. 
evolutionary elements of CC
 
-food aversions-preferred foods-biological preparedness
 
38. 
operant conditioning
 
a type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine if it will be repeated in the future.
 
39. 
The law of effect (OC +who....)
 
Thorndike: puzzle box with catslaw of effect: behaviors that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and vice versa.
 
40. 
Who is associated with reinforcement
 
B.F. skinner
 
41. 
reinforcer
 
any stimulus that increases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
 
42. 
punisher
 
any stimulus that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
 
43. 
positive reinforcement
 
something desirable is presented (something is added.... and its a reinforcer)
 
44. 
negative reinforcement:
 
something undesirable is taken away (something is taken away, and the taking away of it is reinforcing)
 
45. 
positive punishment
 
something undesirable is presented
 
46. 
negative punishment
 
something desirable is taken away
 
47. 
types of reinforcers
 
primary reinforcerssecondary reinforcers
 
48. 
seconday reinforcers
 
conditioned/learned reinforcers that can be used to get primary reinforcers (through association classical conditioning) (money)
 
49. 
primary reinforcers
 
food, comfort, shelter, biological needs...
 
50. 
premack principle
 
neutrality of reinforcers-discerning which of two activities someone would rather engage in means that the preferred activity can be used to reinforce a non-preferred one.-meaning that the activities can be reinforcing or punishing depending on many factors, not the basic nature.
 
51. 
why punishment doesn't work
 
may lead to behavior only being temporarily inhibited or hiddendoesn't teach a more acceptable alternativepunishment can be reinforcing (the kid that gets in trouble to get attention).
 
52. 
if punishment is going to be effective...
 
it must be consistentevery time that the behavior isn't punished, it is essentially reinforced.
 
53. 
over-justification effect (+study)
 
when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior(Lepper's study children who were given rewards to draw...)
 
54. 
shaping
 
reinforce successive approximations of desired behavior
 
55. 
chaining
 
reinforce last behavior in chain, add things until you get to the beginning of the desired sequence (always looking forward to the end)jimmy the sea lion
 
56. 
schedules of reinforcement
 
fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-interval, variable-ratiocrucial!
 
57. 
fixed interval (FI)
 
reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that appropriate responses are madeeffect: little responding after reinforcement, then burst of responses right before interval is over (like students and studying)
 
58. 
variable-interval (VI)
 
a behavior is reinforced based on an average time since last reinforcementproduces steadier responding because time of next reinforcement is unpredictable (pop-quizzes...)
 
59. 
fixed ratio (FR)
 
reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made
 
60. 
variable-ratio (VR)
 
delivery of reinforceent is based on a particular average number of responsesreal estate agents (they don't get rewarded every house they show, but they get rewarded for every house they sell)casino
 
61. 
VI and FI produce what kind of responding
 
slow, methodical responding because it doesn't matter how many times they press it, just how often
 
62. 
FR and VR produce what kind of responding
 
high consistent rates of responding because the number of responses is directly related to the number of rewards.VR produce slightly higher rates of responding than FRthe higher the ratio, the higher number of responses
 
63. 
intermittent reinforcement
 
when only some of responses are followed by reinforcement
 
64. 
continuous reinforcement
 
reinforcement after every response
 
65. 
intermittent-reinforcement effect (partial-reinforcement)
 
the fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement.
 
66. 
superstitious behavior (OC)
 
reenacting behaviors that had accidentally been reinforced.
 
67. 
neural elements of operant conditioning
 
James Olds and electrodes in rats brain and allowed rats to control electric stimulation to different parts of the brainlimbic system=intensely pleasurablemedial forebrain bundle: pathway through midbrain, to hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens
 
68. 
Tolman
 
suggests cognitionmeans to end relationship (stimulus does not directly evoke a response, but establishes an internal cognitive state, which then produces the behavior.rats and maze: their pace through the maze depended on how they thought they would be rewarded at the end.
 
69. 
latent learning
 
Tolman: something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the futurecognitive map
 
70. 
cognitive map
 
mental representation of the physical features of the environmentwhen maze was made more complex for rats, they still followed the right directioncognition
 
71. 
cognitive elements of OC
 
tolman, means-end relationship, latent learning, cognitive map
 
72. 
evolutionary elements of OC
 
rat going the wrong way the second time through the maze--knew that the food wouldn't be there the second time around.
 
73. 
Observational learning
 
Banduralearning takes place by watching others
 
74. 
Bandura's study
 
children and bobo dolls and adult model and how their behavior was alike
 
75. 
neural component of observational learning
 
mirror neurons
 
76. 
mirror neurons
 
fire when the animal is doing actionfire when the animal is watching the actions
 
77. 
components of observattional behavior
 
attentionretentionreproductionmotivation
 
78. 
3 functions of memory
 
encodingstorageretrieval
 
79. 
encoding
 
the process by which we transform what we perceive think or feel into an enduring memory
 
80. 
storage
 
the process of maintaing information in memory over time
 
81. 
retrieval
 
the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.
 
82. 
3 types of encoding processes
 
elaborative encodingvisual imagery encodingorganizational encoding
 
83. 
elaborative encoding
 
actively relating new information to knowledge already in memoryfinding meaning of something
 
84. 
brain in elaborative encoding
 
left temporal lobe and lower left front labe
 
85. 
visual imagery encoding
 
stores new information by converting it to a mental pictureSimonides and recalling all the people by going around to each table and remembering
 
86. 
brain in visual imagery encoding
 
occipital lobe
 
87. 
organizational encoding
 
noticing the relationship among a series of items(waitress and how she groups things together into hot foods, cold food....)
 
88. 
brain in organizational encoding
 
upper surface of left frontal lobe
 
89. 
memory storage
 
process of maintaing information in memory over time
 
90. 
memory store's three main divisions
 
sensoryshort-termlong-term
 
91. 
senosry memory store and two kinds
 
place in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or lessiconic and echoic
 
92. 
iconic memory
 
fast decaying store if visual information
 
93. 
echoic memory
 
fast decaying store of auditory information
 
94. 
short term memory store
 
place where nonsensory inofrmation is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
 
95. 
how to get around limitation of time of short term memory store
 
rehearsing
 
96. 
rehearsing
 
process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
 
97. 
getting around limitation of quantity in short term memory
 
chunking
 
98. 
chunking
 
combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks
 
99. 
limitations of short term memory
 
how much informationhow long it can hold information
 
100. 
working memory
 
active maintenance of information in short term storage. contemplating next move in a chess game
 
101. 
long term memory store
 
place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or yearsno known capacity
 
102. 
brain in long term memory store
 
hippocampus
 
103. 
hippocampus damage can cause 2 diseases
 
anterograde amnesiaretrograde amnesia
 
104. 
anterograde amnesia
 
the inability to transfer information from short term to long term
 
105. 
retrograde amnesia
 
the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a certain date
 
106. 
best place to look for memories in the brain is
 
between synpases
 
107. 
LTP and long term memory storage
 
-many LTP pathways in hippocampus-induced rapidly-last for a long time
 
108. 
long term potentiation (LTP)
 
enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections
 
109. 
NMDA
 
influences the flow of information from one neuron to another across the synapse by controlling the initiation of LTP in most hippocampal pathways.
 
110. 
how NMDA works
 
hippocampus has abundance of NMBA'd f NMDA receptors to become activated
 
111. 
how NMDA receptors become activated
 
1. presynaptic neuron releases glutamate which attached to NMDA receptor on postsynaptic neuron2. excitation takes place in post-synaptic neuron
 
112. 
retrieval cues
 
"hints"external information tha tis associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind
 
113. 
encoding specificity principle
 
retrieval cues can serve as reminder when it helps recreate the specific way it was encoded
 
114. 
state-dependent retrieval
 
tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval-mood-under the influence-why its hard to look on the bright side when upset
 
115. 
transfer-appropriate processing
 
memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when we process it in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later-semantic judgements of word study-recall performance is best when the encoding and retrieval are both in same context/mood
 
116. 
When people retrieve information that was presented earlier (trying to recall) = what brain structure
 
right frontal lobe
 
117. 
successfully remembering a past experience =what part of the brain
 
hippocampal regionsensory areas that are part of an experience
 
118. 
explicit memory
 
declarativeepisodic: memory of experiences
 
119. 
implicit
 
nondeclarativememory of how to do thingsprocedural memory and priming
 
120. 
procedural memory
 
gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practicepart of implicit memory
 
121. 
priming
 
enhanced ability to think of a stiumlus suh as a word or object as a result of reent exposure to the stimulus(talk about a bike and then later are given this : b_ _ eguess the word is bike)part of implicit memory
 
122. 
brain structures in implicit and explicit memory
 
explicit: hippocampusimplicit:not the hippocampus... cortex?
 
123. 
brain structures in implicit
 
priming: less activity in the cortext (makes it easier for the brain)
 
124. 
semantic memory +structure
 
network of associated facts that make up our general knowledge of the worldnot the hippocampus
 
125. 
episodic memory +structure
 
collection of past personal experiences occurring at a certain time of placehippocampus
 
126. 
7 sins of memory
 
misattribution, suggestibility, bias, absentmindedness, blocking, transience, persistence
 
127. 
memory transience
 
forgetting what occurs with the passage of tmie-ebbinghaus and list of nonsense syllables: most forgetting occurs right after event.... with increasingly less forgetting as time goes onforgetting does not happen at constant rateproactive and retoractive interference
 
128. 
proactive interference
 
old learning affects memory acquired later using hebrew while trying to learn spanish
 
129. 
retroactive interference
 
when new learning affects the old memories-learning of psych makes you forget philosophy
 
130. 
absentmindedness
 
lapse in attention (memory does not encode)lower activity in frontal region
 
131. 
prospective memory
 
remembering to do things in the future
 
132. 
blocking
 
the inability to retrieve information despite the fact you are trying to left temporal lobemight not have the right retrieval cues
 
133. 
memory misattribution
 
assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source-source monitoring-eye-witness problemsfalse recognition
 
134. 
George Sperling
 
flash letters and ask people to remember themtone indicating which linesuggests that it is encoded it just doesn't stay there very long
 
135. 
George Miller
 
7 +/- 2 bits in short term memory
 
136. 
Baddely
 
working memory model
 
137. 
working memory model (what phases)
 
sensory>long term>working memory (central exec, articulatory/phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer)>long term
 
138. 
levels of processing theory of memory
 
encoding poolsurface vs deep = how much we think about itCraik and Lockhart
 
139. 
Craik and Lockhart
 
levels of processing theory of memorylist of words for people to memorize with different efforts elaboration: more people remembered
 
140. 
Parallel Distributed Processing Model
 
when we learn a piece of information, it does not exist by itself, it is somehow related/connected to everything else we knowWe strengthen connections to help us retrieve information
 
141. 
explicit memories
 
(declarative)episodicsemanticflashbulb
 
142. 
Suggestibility
 
tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollectionssimilar to memory misattribution but misattribution is distortions without specific suggestionsloftus studiesconcerns about psycho therapy
 
143. 
bias
 
distortiing influences of present knowledge, beliefs and feelings on recollection of previous experiencescurrent mood can bias.
 
144. 
3 kinds of memory bias
 
egocentricconsistencychange
 
145. 
consistency bias
 
current knowledge and beliefs have biasing effects, recontruct the past to fit into the belief.
 
146. 
change bias
 
exaggeration of past and present
 
147. 
egocentric bias
 
exaggerate change between past and present to make ourselves look goodremember how we want to remember it
 
148. 
persistence
 
intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget, usually happens after disturbing or traumatic eventsmore vivid and enduring recollectionsflashbulb memoriesheightened emotion which watching events =better memory recall later
 
149. 
hormones and structure for memory persistence
 
amygladaadrenaline and cortisol enhance memory
 
150. 
damage to the amyglada and memory
 
damage to the amyglada will not impair normal memory function, but it will cause the mundane events to be remembered just as well as emotional ones.
 
151. 
recall vs recognition
 
recall: name the 7 dwarfsrecognition: give list of names and pick out the 7 dwarfs
 
152. 
context dependent memory (who)
 
Godden and Baddeleyplace/location serve as retrieval cues
 
153. 
gordon bower
 
mood-dependent memory
 
154. 
cue-dependent theory
 
dont have necessary cues for retrieval
 
155. 
schemas
 
mental framework representing our knowledge and assumptions about the worldremember things that are consistent with schema and ignore others
 
156. 
Ceci study
 
preschoolers and fake/real memoriescan't tell what is real and what is made up. -repression isn't possible?
 
157. 
Williams study
 
police records of child abuseinterviewed about it and someone deniedevidence of repressed memories
 
158. 
hippocampus
 
slow to mature (childhood amnesia)alcohol induced blackouts slow activity of hippocampus
 
159. 
frontal cortex
 
connecting fact with context (personal experiences)
 
160. 
basal ganglia:
 
procedural memory
 
161. 
cerebellum
 
classical conditioning
 
162. 
out-group homogeneity (problem of what...)
 
belief that people in another group besides your own are all the samecross-race identification
 
163. 
instances of dissociation of implicit and explicit memory
 
false fame: familiarity prompts fameillusion of truth: prior exposure to a statement makes it true, even if it is falseeyewitness transferenceunintentional plagiarism (cryptomnesia)
 
164. 
distortions of memory in eyewitness testimony
 
eyewitness transference (source monitoring)cross-race identification (outgroup homoegeneity)presence of a weapon
 
165. 
how can I help my memory? (4 ways)
 
spaced versus mass practicerecitation vs rereadingorganizationrelearning
 
166. 
category specific deficit
 
inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside of that category undisturbed
 
167. 
what does the fact that category specific deficit can occur right after birth suggest?
 
that our brain is prewired to organize sensory and perceptual inputs into broad based categories
 
168. 
Damage to ___ causes...left hemisphere of cerebral cortextleft temporal lobelower left temporal lobetemporal lobe meets occipital and parietal
 
category specific deficitrecognizing humans""animals""tools
 
169. 
Eleanor Rosch
 
family resemblance theory
 
170. 
family resemblance theory
 
features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every memberno defining feature
 
171. 
prototype 
 
"best" or most typical memober of the categorypossesses most / all of characteristic featurescan change depending on context
 
172. 
typicality and family resemblance scores are...
 
correlated
 
173. 
brain structures &prototypes
 
visual cortexleft hemisphere
 
174. 
exemplar theory
 
we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the categorypersonal experiences
 
175. 
brain structure & exemplar, +what brain activities
 
basal ganglia and prefrontal cortexanalysis and decision making
 
176. 
rational choice theory
 
we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two
 
177. 
humans excel at estimating ____ but not ___
 
frequency, probability
 
178. 
availability bias
 
items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently
 
179. 
heuristics
 
rule of thumb
 
180. 
algorithm
 
well defined sequence of procedures that guarantee a solutioncomputer, geometric proofs
 
181. 
conjunction fallacy
 
people think that two events are more likely to occur together than by themselves.
 
182. 
representative heuristic
 
decision making based on prototype
 
183. 
prospect theory
 
people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains
 
184. 
frequency format hypothesis
 
our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they ar eto occurpresenting information in frequency format capitalizes our evolutionary strengths
 
185. 
ill-defined problem
 
no clear goal and no clear solution path
 
186. 
well-defined problem
 
one with clear goals and a clear way to solve it
 
187. 
means-end analysis (+who)
 
Karl Dunckerprocess of searching for means/steps to reduce the differences between the current situation and described goal
 
188. 
steps of means-end analysis
 
1. analyze goal2. analyze current state3. list differences4. reduce differences by:a. direct means  (not intermediate steps)b. generating a subgoalc. finding a similar problem with a known solution
 
189. 
artificial concepts
 
formal concepts that can be clearly defined by a set of rules (fruit)
 
190. 
natural concepts
 
casual or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise set of properties (automobiles)tend to be man made
 
191. 
how do we judge concepts?
 
positive/negative instancessystematic/formal approachesprototypesexemplars
 
192. 
inductive reasons vs deductive reasons
 
specific to generalgeneral to specific
 
193. 
functional fixedness
 
the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problem
 
194. 
mental set
 
we get into a mental rut in our approach to problem solving and continue the old and ineffective method
 
195. 
confirmation bias
 
tendency to only look for what we believe in 
 
196. 
belief perseverance
 
the tendency to hang on to a discredited belief
 
197. 
the problem with representative heuristic
 
the tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category.
 
198. 
availability heuristic
 
make judgments on frequencies based on available information
 
199. 
anchoring effects
 
tendency to use one stimulus as an anchor or reference point in judging a second stimulus
 
200. 
escalation of commitment (definition + phases) +when we are not likely to escalate commitment
 
definition: the tendency to become increasinly committed to a bad decision even if losses increasephases:initial phase: decision based on rational factors, just try againearly losses: reluctant to admit a mistake, desire to self-justificationcontinuing losses: external factors: social/political pressureswhen we are not likely: limited resources and when we can diffuse responsibility
 
201. 
overconfidene
 
we don't like to think about being wronggambler's fallacy
 
202. 
gambler's fallacy
 
the belief that you have lost so many times, you must win the next. just because it happens a certain amount of times in a row doesn't mean it will not happen again.
 
203. 
entity theory of intelligence
 
intelligence is fixed
 
204. 
incremental theory of intelligence
 
intelligence can cahnge
 
205. 
Francis Galton
 
Intelligence composed of two things:capacity for labor (strength)sensitivity to physical stimuli (ability to distinguish)
 
206. 
lumpers vs splitters
 
people who lump intelligence into one capacity vs people who split intelligence into many parts
 
207. 
Charles Spearman
 
two factor theory
 
208. 
two factor theory
 
General intelligence, underlies all mental abilitiesused factor analysisspecific intelligence
 
209. 
factor analysis
 
correlation among a number of different variables and who different things relate to one another
 
210. 
Raymond Cattell
 
2 types of general intelligence:fluid intelligencecrystallized intellgience
 
211. 
fluid intelligence
 
problem solving, reasoning, declines over timecattell
 
212. 
crystallized
 
specific knowledge, increases over timecattell
 
213. 
Louis Thurstone
 
multiple factor theory 
 
214. 
Thurstone found _ factors of human intelligence (+names)
 
7:verbal comprehensionnumber abilityword fluencyspatial visualizationassociative memoryreasoningperceptual speed
 
215. 
Why Thurstone revised the intelligence theory
 
there were more similarities between certain groups of skills, even though all the scores were about the same 
 
216. 
Howard Gardner
 
intelligence measured on standardized tests does not encompass the genius found in musicians, dancers, athletes....8 types of intelligence
 
217. 
Gardner's 8 types of intelligence and an example of each
 
linguistic: preachers/politicianslogical/mathematical: engineersspatial: pilotsmusical: musicians, mozartbodily-kinestheticinterpersonal: knowing what motivates people, therapistsintrapersonal: knowing own feelings/motivationsnaturalistic: appreciate patterns in nature
 
218. 
Sternberg
 
Triarchic Theory
 
219. 
Triarchic theory: 
 
3 kinds of intelligence: componential/analyticexperiential/creativecontextual/practical
 
220. 
Binet
 
Mental age
 
221. 
problems with mental age as measure of intelligence
 
if a 4 yr old and a 6 yr old and an 8 yr old all have the mental age of 8, are they all equally intelligent? no
 
222. 
intelligence quotient ratio (+who)
 
William Stern/Louis Termanmental age divided by chronological age multipled by 100
 
223. 
IQ ratio solved_____ but problems with _____
 
solved: the differentiation between mental ages and different chronological agesbut doesn't allow distinctions/comparison amongst adults because their intellectual abilities will level off
 
224. 
normal curve properties
 
-one mode/median/mean
 
225. 
1 standard deviation on normal curve
 
15 points
 
226. 
_____% of population is 1 SD from average (points) and _______ % of population is 2 SD (points)
 
2/3 (60 percent ish) between 85-11595% between 70-130
 
227. 
David Weschler
 
Weschler Intelligence Scales
 
228. 
Wechsler's test yield 3 scores:
 
verbal(comprehension, vocab...)performance (object assembly...)overall score
 
229. 
validity
 
the  extent to which a given tests assesses what is supposed to measure
 
230. 
construct validity
 
that the components in test are assessing what they are supposed to be 
 
231. 
predictive validity
 
the extent to which a given tests predicts the outcome.....?
 
232. 
reliability
 
dependability or consistency of a measure to give consistent results
 
233. 
internal reliability
 
all items/questions are refelcting the same thing
 
234. 
test/re-test reliability
 
same scores now and later
 
235. 
interrater reliability
 
consistent regardless of experimenter
 
236. 
standardization definition and aims
 
ensures that the conditions for taking the same are the same for all test takersreflect the differences in individuals, not in conditions.
 
237. 
the heredity environment controversy
 
to what extent is intelligence influenced by nature or by the environment (nurture)
 
238. 
Flynn Effect
 
IQ scores world wide have increased over generations
 
239. 
Flynn effect explanations
 
better nutritionmore complex tasks
 
240. 
Claude Steel 
 
Stereotype Threat
 
241. 
stereotype threat
 
bringing cultural sterotypes to one's awareness can affect performance
 
242. 
syllogistic reasonsing
 
assessing whether a conclusion follows two statements we believe to be true
 
243. 
Binet:
 
first to test children intelligencenatural intelligencetest would measure aptitude, not prior academic acheivement
 
244. 
measurement of IQ for childrens vs adults
 
ratio IQ vs deviation IQ
 
245. 
deviation IQ
 
divide test scores by average test score of people in same age group then multiply by 100
 
246. 
tests and 3 properties and how they are related
 
responses, consequential actions, hypothetical propertymeasure of responses that are correlated with consequential behavior that are though to be correlated with hypothetical property
 
247. 
intelligence scores are good predictors for...
 
number of years of schooling someone will receive
 
248. 
why do intelligence scores predict outcomes? (two kinds)
 
1. because they influence it (professional school requires testing)2. they have no influence over it (crime)
 
249. 
primary mental abilities (+who)
 
Thurstoneperceptual ability, verbal ability, numerical abilityseparate/independent but stable
 
250. 
mathematical technique confirmatory factor analysis
 
both spearman and thurstone were right3 level hierarchy:1. general factor (Spearman's g)2. group factors (Thurstone's primary mental abilities)3. Specific factor (Spearman's s)people have general ability of intelligence, made up of small set of independent sub-abilities which are made up of large set of specific abilities unique to certain tasks
 
251. 
how to determine middle level abilities
 
top down approach bottom up approach
 
252. 
top down approach 
 
start with broad survey of human abilities then looking to see which abilities intelligence tests measureSternberg3 kinds of intelligence creative, analytical, practicalHoward Gardner
 
253. 
bottom up approach
 
start with responses on intelligence tests to see what independent clusters formJohn Carroll and 8 kinds of middle level abilities
 
254. 
Termans beliefs on intelligence and genetics
 
1. intelligence is product of his/her genes2 some racial groups score better than others on intelligence tests3. the groups that score best are genetically superior
 
255. 
heritability coefficient
 
statistic that describes the proportion of the difference b between peoples scores that can be explained by their genetic makeup
 
256. 
what is the correlation between environment and the heritability coefficient and what does it mean?
 
the more similar the environments the higher the coefficient because the differences in intelligence must be due to genes
 
257. 
shared environment vs nonshared environment
 
environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a house hold (diet..) vs. those environmental factors that are not experienced by all members of a household (teachers)
 
258. 
the average difference between groups is ______ than differences within groups
 
considerably less
 
259. 
does SES or ethnicity predict intelligence better
 
SES
 
260. 
relative intelligence
 
comparison in a groupstays stable over time
 
261. 
absolute intelligence
 
varies over time
 
262. 
catecholamines
 
biochemicals indicating the activation of emotional systems
 
263. 
Walter Cannon
 
fight or flight
 
264. 
HPA axis
 
hypothalamus> pituitary gland>adrenal gland
 
265. 
brain activation in response to threat
 
hypothalamus triggers the pituitary which releases adrenocorticoptropic (ACTH) which travels through the blood stream activating the adrenal glands which release cortisol and acetocholamines  (epinephrine and norepinepherine) which active the sympathetic nervous system which initiates an attack of escape
 
266. 
Hans Selye
 
General Adaption Syndromenoticed that many different stressors produced same response
 
267. 
General Adaption Syndrome
 
1. alarm phase : body rapidly mobilizes resources to response to threat/fight or flight. Resistance is low2. Resistance: body adapts o high state of arousal, shuts down unnecesarry processes3 .exhaustion: resistence collapses and costs of stress finally calculate
 
268. 
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman
 
studies of Type A type B personalities
 
269. 
Bathrop
 
first study to demonstrate decreased immune funcion in response to grief
 
270. 
Stone
 
college students study to find the relation  between daily life events and antibody levels
 
271. 
Visintainer
 
stress increases the rate of cancer spread
 
272. 
type a personality
 
competitive, time aware, hostile, angryprone to cardiac health problems
 
273. 
type b
 
laid  backnot prone to cardiac health problems
 
274. 
phony type-b
 
type a with an exterior type b MOST prone to cardiac health problems
 
275. 
cognitive appraisal 
 
primary: determining whether stress is something that is meaningfulsecondary: determining if it is a challenge or a threat, how will i deal with it to maximize the positive outcomes and minimize the negative
 
276. 
hippocampus and PTSD
 
hippocampus volume determines sensitivity to PTSDsmaller volume in PTSD
 
277. 
Gilbertson 
 
PTSD studies that suggest that reduced hippocampus (sensitivity to PTSD) is a preexisting condition
 
278. 
Burnout
 
state of emotion, physical, and mental exhaustion created by long term involvement in emotionally demanding situations and accompanied by lowered performance and motivationmost common in helping professions and when people define themselves in their careers
 
279. 
repressive coping
 
avoiding the stressorno or very few physical symptoms of stress
 
280. 
rational coping
 
thinking about the stressor3 stepsacceptanceexposureunstanding
 
281. 
reframing
 
finding new or creative ways to think about the stressor to reduce its threat
 
282. 
body  management
 
relaxation, biofeedback, aerobic exercise
 
283. 
Hardiness
 
3 c'scontrolchallengecommitment
 
284. 
Joseph Brady
 
control experiments and stressmonkey experimentsbeing in charge carries a big burdenbut he didn't use random selection
 
285. 
Weiss
 
lack of control causes stressrats and shocks
 
286. 
Langer and Rodin
 
nursing home studies and how control affects life length
 
287. 
coping strategy
 
problem focused copingemotion focused coping
 
288. 
emotion focused coping
 
focus on relaxing our feelingsgood when we have no control over the situation
 
289. 
problem focused coping
 
solving the problems, ways to be successfulgood when we have control over the situation
 
290. 
psychosomatic illness
 
interaction between mind and body that can produce illness
 
291. 
hypochondriasis
 
psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that they signify a life-threatening illness
 
292. 
somatization disorder
 
combinations of multiple physical complaints that have no medical explanation
 
293. 
conversion disorder
 
apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary but the person experiences as involuntary
 
294. 
malingering
 
fake medical/psychological behavior to get what they want
 
295. 
optimism
 
stable over timerelatively hereditary 
 
296. 
when focus is on potential gains.. risk ______
 
aversa
 
297. 
when focux on potential losses...risk _______
 
prone