Psych - Modules 4-12

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1. 

Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of

 

specific brain regions.

 
2. 

For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay incoming pain messages from your ankle to your spinal cord.

 

sensory neurons

 
3. 

Dendrites are branching extensions of

 

neurons.

 
4. 

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.

 

dendrites to the cell body to the axon

 
5. 

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

 

action potential.

 
6. 

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which

 

positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.

 
7. 

A synapse is a(n)

 

junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.

 
8. 

Endorphins are

 

neurotransmitters

 
9. 

Alzheimer’s disease is most closely linked to the deterioration of neurons that produce

 

acetylcholine

 
10. 

The central nervous system consists of

 

the brain and the spinal cord.

 
11. 

Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?

 

the sympathetic nervous system.

 
12. 

Neural networks refer to

 

interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.

 
13. 

The hypothalamus influences the ________ to send messages to the ________.

 

pituitary; endocrine glands

 
14. 

Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)

 

lesion

 
15. 

To identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n)

 

PET scan.

 
16. 

The reticular formation is located in the

 

brainstem

 
17. 

To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's

 

amygdala

 
18. 

Addictive disorders are likely to be associated with reward centers in the

 

limbic system.

 
19. 

The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the

 

cerebrum

 
20. 

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of

 

visual perception.

 
21. 

By simply thinking about a move, which activates their brain cells, people may be able to move a robotic arm. This best illustrates

 

neural prosthetics.

 
22. 

The process of anticipating that you will be punished for misbehaving takes place in the

 

association areas.

 
23. 

Brain plasticity may contribute to the effectiveness of

 

constraint-induced therapy.

 
24. 

Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to

 

solve arithmetic problems.

 
25. 

The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that

 

transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres.

 
26. 

A picture of a dog is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient. At the same time a picture of a boy is flashed in the right visual field. In identifying what she saw, the patient would be most likely to

 

verbally report that she saw a boy.

 
27. 

In Roger Sperry’s view, the brain creates and controls the mind, which in turn influences the brain. Sperry understands the mind and brain as a

 

holistic system.

 
28. 

At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own.

 

fear; similar

 
29. 

A human sperm cell contains

 

23 chromosomes.

 
30. 

DNA is a complex

 

molecule

 
31. 

Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing.

 

less; less

 
32. 

The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ________ than on their ________.

 

religious beliefs; personality traits

 
33. 

The heritability of a specific trait will be greatest among

 

genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.

 
34. 

Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphasize that human adaptiveness to a variety of different environments has contributed to human

 

reproductive success.

 
35. 

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that

 

children are more likely to be valued by their biological fathers than by their stepfathers.

 
36. 

Those who defend evolutionary psychology against criticism are most likely to suggest that evolutionary principles

 

generate testable predictions.

 
37. 

Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it underestimates the

 

impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior.

 
38. 

Compared with environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their

 

synapses

 
39. 

An awareness that children's temperaments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to

 

blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics.

 
40. 

Cultural diversity best illustrates our

 

adaptive capacities.

 
41. 

Personal space refers to

 

the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people.

 
42. 

A willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the consequences of

 

individualism.

 
43. 

Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by

 

individualism

 
44. 

The gender gap in aggression is LEAST likely to involve hurting others by means of

 

verbal insults.

 
45. 

Compared with females, males use conversation to

 

communicate solutions.

 
46. 

Gender differences in spatial perception skills are consistent with evidence that part of the

 

parietal cortex is thicker in men than in women.

 
47. 

Children tend to organize their worlds into male and female categories. This best illustrates their use of

 

gender schemas.

 
48. 

Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of

 

human responsibility.

 
49. 

When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not supposed to cry. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of

 

gender roles.

 
50. 

Studies indicate that

 

North Americans prefer more personal space than do Latin Americans.