Nutrition Final Exam - '10

Total Flash Cards » 53
 
1. 

Which nutrient contains the most calories per gram?

 

Lipids

 
2. 

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include all of the following except

 

don't drink alcohol

 
3. 

Three ounces of cooked meat could be represented as

 

deck of cards

 
4. 

A person’s choice to order a non-meat dish when dining with a group of vegetarian friends is an example of a

 

Social Fa

 
5. 

Compounds that help plants resist the attacks of bacteria and fungi, the ravages of free radicals, and increased levels of ultraviolet light from the sun are

 

phytochemicals

 
6. 

Which of the following is not a primary factor influencing decisions about what we eat?

 

appearance

 
7. 

A grain product with added thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron to replace those nutrients lost or diminished in food processing is

 

enriched

 
8. 

How many grams of carbohydrate are in a product that contains 160 calories from carbohydrates?

 

40

 
9. 

Using leavening agents, such as baking soda, to help baked goods rise during baking is an example of a

 

direct additive

 
10. 

Which influence on food choices is most closely related to religion, beliefs, and traditions?

 

Cultural

 
11. 

Lycopene is commonly found in

 

tomato sauce

 
12. 

Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are considered

 

macronutrients

 
13. 

Ingredients on food labels should be listed in order of

 

decending order by weight

 
14. 

Which are the fat-soluble vitamins?

 

Vitamin A, D, E, K

 
15. 

The main cause of diverticulosis is due to a diet

 

High in fats and low in fiber

 
16. 

What is the difference between the Food Guide Pyramid and the MyPyramid food guidance system?

 

guidelines re-enforce physical activity

 
17. 

The starches and sugars found in grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruits are

 

carbohydrates

 
18. 

The organization responsible for the food label is the

 

FDA

 
19. 

The passage of nutrients and other substances into the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, and then into the bloodstream is called

 

absorption

 
20. 

A substance continually produced in our cells that, over time, may cause damage to DNA and other important cell structures is known as a

 

Free Radical

 
21. 

How many kilocalories are in 21 grams of fat?

 

189

 
22. 

The MyPyramid tool

 

encourages personalization as well as variety, proportionality, and moderation

 
23. 

Which is not a “red flag” of inaccurate or exaggerated science?

 

recommended by a peer review journal

 
24. 

The breaking apart of foods into smaller and smaller units is called

 

digestion

 
25. 

A series of muscular contractions that divides and mixes chyme within the small intestine is called

 

segmentation

 
26. 

The sugar alcohols include

 

xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and lactitol

 
27. 

According to the text, GRAS means

 

generally recognized as safe

 
28. 

The __________________ states that food additives cannot be approved if they cause cancer in humans or animals.

 

Delaney Clause

 
29. 

Which of the following is a graphic representation of a food guidance system that supports the principles of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

 

MyPyramid

 
30. 

What are the characteristics of a good vitamin?

 

FIND ANSWER

 
31. 

Essential nutrients must be obtained through..

 

diet

 
32. 

_____________ take up stations in tissues and act as scavengers, devouring pathogens and worn-out cells.

 

Macrophages

 
33. 

Percent Daily Values (PDV) represent a _______ calorie/day diet.

 

2,000

 
34. 

Which nutrient is not required to be posted on the Nutrition Facts panel?

 

water

 
35. 

All of the following are considered cognitive influences on food choices except

 

religious rituals

 
36. 

Calcium-fortified orange juice, breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, and yogurt with live active cultures are all examples of

 

foods enhanced with functional ingredients

 
37. 

Which of the following is not a function of the GI tract?

 

exchange of oxygen within the blood vessels

 
38. 

The majority of digestion occurs in the

 

duodenum

 
39. 

Failure of the _______________ sphincter will cause food to slide from the stomach back into the esophagus.

 

esophageal

 
40. 

The preventive or therapeutic use of high-dose vitamins to treat disease is called:

 

orthomolecular medicine

 
41. 

Protein, fat, and ___________ are the macronutrients.

 

lipids

 
42. 

What are the parts of the small intestine?

 

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

 
43. 

Most fat-soluble nutrients are absorbed in the

 

lymphatic system

 
44. 

General functions of the six classes of nutrients include all of the following except

 

adding flavor to food

 
45. 

Which diet consists of whole-grain cereals and vegetables, a small amount of fish, and no other meats or fruits?

 

Macrobiotic

 
46. 

The taste, smell, and presentation of food have a _____________ influence on food digestion.

 

chemical

 
47. 

Dietary standards used to compare the amount of nutrients in a serving of food to the amount recommended for daily consumption are called

 

Daily Values

 
48. 

The primary function of the _______________ is to store and concentrate bile from the liver.

 

gallbladder

 
49. 

Define undernutrition and overnutrition.

 

Undernutrition is a condition in which some food is being consumed, but the intake is not nutritionally adequate. Today, undernutrition is most often associated with extreme poverty, alcoholism, illness, and some types of eating disorders. Overnutrition is the chronic consumption of more than is necessary for good health. Overnutrition is the regular consumption of excess calories, fats, saturated fats, or cholesterol.

 
50. 

The six classes of nutrients in foods are:

 

a. lipids d. vitamins
b. water e. protein
c. minerals f. carbohydrates

 
51. 

List the organs (in order, starting with the mouth) that make up the GI tract.

 

1. Mouth
2. Esophagus
3. Stomach
4. Small intestine
5. Large intestine
6. Rectum

 
52. 

Describe how the salivary glands assist in digestion.

 

Salivary glands moisten food, lubricating it for easy swallowing. Saliva also contains enzymes that start the process of chemical digestion.

 
53. 

What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?

 

Phytochemicals are substances in plants that may promote good health, even though they are not essential for life. Phytochemicals are complex chemicals, and include thousands of compounds, pigments, and natural antioxidants, many of which have been associated with protection from heart disease, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Plants contain phytochemicals in abundance because these substances are of benefit to the plant itself. For example, phytochemicals may resist attacks of bacteria and fungi on the plant.