Nutrition Final Exam - '10

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1. 
Which nutrient contains the most calories per gram?
 
Lipids
 
2. 
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include all of the following except
 
don't drink alcohol
 
3. 
Three ounces of cooked meat could be represented as
 
deck of cards
 
4. 
A person’s choice to order a non-meat dish when dining with a group of vegetarian friends is an example of a
 
Social Fa
 
5. 
Compounds that help plants resist the attacks of bacteria and fungi, the ravages of free radicals, and increased levels of ultraviolet light from the sun are
 
phytochemicals
 
6. 
Which of the following is not a primary factor influencing decisions about what we eat?
 
appearance
 
7. 
A grain product with added thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron to replace those nutrients lost or diminished in food processing is
 
enriched
 
8. 
How many grams of carbohydrate are in a product that contains 160 calories from carbohydrates?
 
40
 
9. 
Using leavening agents, such as baking soda, to help baked goods rise during baking is an example of a
 
direct additive
 
10. 
Which influence on food choices is most closely related to religion, beliefs, and traditions?
 
Cultural
 
11. 
Lycopene is commonly found in
 
tomato sauce
 
12. 
Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are considered
 
macronutrients
 
13. 
Ingredients on food labels should be listed in order of
 
decending order by weight
 
14. 
Which are the fat-soluble vitamins?
 
Vitamin A, D, E, K
 
15. 
The main cause of diverticulosis is due to a diet
 
High in fats and low in fiber
 
16. 
What is the difference between the Food Guide Pyramid and the MyPyramid food guidance system?
 
guidelines re-enforce physical activity
 
17. 
The starches and sugars found in grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruits are
 
carbohydrates
 
18. 
The organization responsible for the food label is the
 
FDA
 
19. 
The passage of nutrients and other substances into the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, and then into the bloodstream is called
 
absorption
 
20. 
A substance continually produced in our cells that, over time, may cause damage to DNA and other important cell structures is known as a
 
Free Radical
 
21. 
How many kilocalories are in 21 grams of fat?
 
189
 
22. 
The MyPyramid tool
 
encourages personalization as well as variety, proportionality, and moderation
 
23. 
Which is not a “red flag” of inaccurate or exaggerated science?
 
recommended by a peer review journal
 
24. 
The breaking apart of foods into smaller and smaller units is called
 
digestion
 
25. 
A series of muscular contractions that divides and mixes chyme within the small intestine is called
 
segmentation
 
26. 
The sugar alcohols include
 
xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and lactitol
 
27. 
According to the text, GRAS means
 
generally recognized as safe
 
28. 
The __________________ states that food additives cannot be approved if they cause cancer in humans or animals.
 
Delaney Clause
 
29. 
Which of the following is a graphic representation of a food guidance system that supports the principles of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
 
MyPyramid
 
30. 
What are the characteristics of a good vitamin?
 
FIND ANSWER
 
31. 
Essential nutrients must be obtained through..
 
diet
 
32. 
_____________ take up stations in tissues and act as scavengers, devouring pathogens and worn-out cells.
 
Macrophages
 
33. 
Percent Daily Values (PDV) represent a _______ calorie/day diet.
 
2,000
 
34. 
Which nutrient is not required to be posted on the Nutrition Facts panel?
 
water
 
35. 
All of the following are considered cognitive influences on food choices except
 
religious rituals
 
36. 
Calcium-fortified orange juice, breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, and yogurt with live active cultures are all examples of
 
foods enhanced with functional ingredients
 
37. 
Which of the following is not a function of the GI tract?
 
exchange of oxygen within the blood vessels
 
38. 
The majority of digestion occurs in the
 
duodenum
 
39. 
Failure of the _______________ sphincter will cause food to slide from the stomach back into the esophagus.
 
esophageal
 
40. 
The preventive or therapeutic use of high-dose vitamins to treat disease is called:
 
orthomolecular medicine
 
41. 
Protein, fat, and ___________ are the macronutrients.
 
lipids
 
42. 
What are the parts of the small intestine?
 
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
 
43. 
Most fat-soluble nutrients are absorbed in the
 
lymphatic system
 
44. 
General functions of the six classes of nutrients include all of the following except
 
adding flavor to food
 
45. 
Which diet consists of whole-grain cereals and vegetables, a small amount of fish, and no other meats or fruits?
 
Macrobiotic
 
46. 
The taste, smell, and presentation of food have a _____________ influence on food digestion.
 
chemical
 
47. 
Dietary standards used to compare the amount of nutrients in a serving of food to the amount recommended for daily consumption are called
 
Daily Values
 
48. 
The primary function of the _______________ is to store and concentrate bile from the liver.
 
gallbladder
 
49. 
Define undernutrition and overnutrition.
 
Undernutrition is a condition in which some food is being consumed, but the intake is not nutritionally adequate. Today, undernutrition is most often associated with extreme poverty, alcoholism, illness, and some types of eating disorders. Overnutrition is the chronic consumption of more than is necessary for good health. Overnutrition is the regular consumption of excess calories, fats, saturated fats, or cholesterol.
 
50. 
The six classes of nutrients in foods are:
 
a. lipids d. vitamins
b. water e. protein
c. minerals f. carbohydrates
 
51. 
List the organs (in order, starting with the mouth) that make up the GI tract.
 
1. Mouth
2. Esophagus
3. Stomach
4. Small intestine
5. Large intestine
6. Rectum
 
52. 
Describe how the salivary glands assist in digestion.
 
Salivary glands moisten food, lubricating it for easy swallowing. Saliva also contains enzymes that start the process of chemical digestion.
 
53. 
What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?
 
Phytochemicals are substances in plants that may promote good health, even though they are not essential for life. Phytochemicals are complex chemicals, and include thousands of compounds, pigments, and natural antioxidants, many of which have been associated with protection from heart disease, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Plants contain phytochemicals in abundance because these substances are of benefit to the plant itself. For example, phytochemicals may resist attacks of bacteria and fungi on the plant.