Cosmetology Exam Review Chapter 7: Skin Structure & Growth

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medical branch of science that deals with the study of skin - its nature, structure, functions, diseases, and treatments
a physician engaged in the science of treating the skin, its structures, functions, and diseases
a specialist in the cleansing, preservation of health, and beautification of the skin and body
outermost layer of the skin, thinnest layer, contains no blood vessels, but has many nerve endings
deepest layer of the epidermis, produces new epidermal skin cells
basal cell layer or stratum germinativium
cells that produce melanin, a dark skin pigment, that protects the sensitive cells in the dermis below from UV rays
the spiny layer just above the basal cell layer
stratum spinosum
granular layer, almost dead cells that are pushed to the surface
stratum granulosum
clear, transparent layer of epidermis just under the skin surface
stratum lucidum
the horny layer, outer layer of the epidermis, waterproof
stratum corneum
the underlying or inner layer of the skin, is about 25 times thicker than the epidermis, contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles
the outer layer of the dermis, directly beneath the epidermis
papillary layer
small structures with nerve endings that are sensitive to touch and pressure
tactile corpuscles
the deepest layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients. contains fat cells, sweat glands, blood vessels, hair follicles, lymph vessels, arrector pili muscles and oil glands
reticular layer
a fatty layer found below the dermis. gives smoothness and contour to the body, contains fats for use as energy, protective cushion
subcutaneous tissue or adipose or subcutis
supplies nutrients and oxygen to the skin
nerve fibers that are distributed to the arrector pili muscles attached to the hair follicles
motor nerve fibers
nerve fibers that react to heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain. send messages to the brain
sensory nerve fibers
nerve fibers that are distributed to the sweat and oil glands of the skin. part of the autonomic nervous system, regulate the excretion of perspiration from the sweat glands and control the flow of sebum to the surface of the skin
secretory nerve fibers
tiny grains of pigment deposited into cells in the basal cell layer of the epidermis and the papillary layers of the dermis
a fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength
a protein base similar to collagen that forms elastic tissue, helps skin regain its shape
sweat glands
sudoriferous glands
oil glands
sebaceous glands
the coil base of sudoriferous glands
secretory coil
caused when sebum hardens and the duct becomes clogged, may lead to an acne papule or pustule
functions of the skin
protection, sensation, heat regulation, excretion, secretion, and absorption
supports the overall health of the skin, aids in the health, function, and repair of skin cells, can help prevent certain types of cancers improves skin elasticity and thickness
vitamin a
also known as ascorbic acid, needed for proper repair of the skin and various tissues, aids in and even speeds up the healing processes of the body. important in fighting the aging process and promotes the production of collagen
vitamin c
helps fight against, and protect the skin from, the harmful effects of the sun's rays. helps to heal damage to the skins tissues when used both internally and externally.
vitamin e