Cosmetology Exam Review Chapter 7: Skin Structure & Growth

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1. 
medical branch of science that deals with the study of skin - its nature, structure, functions, diseases, and treatments
 
dermatology
 
2. 
a physician engaged in the science of treating the skin, its structures, functions, and diseases
 
dermatologist
 
3. 
a specialist in the cleansing, preservation of health, and beautification of the skin and body
 
esthetician
 
4. 
outermost layer of the skin, thinnest layer, contains no blood vessels, but has many nerve endings
 
epidermis
 
5. 
deepest layer of the epidermis, produces new epidermal skin cells
 
basal cell layer or stratum germinativium
 
6. 
cells that produce melanin, a dark skin pigment, that protects the sensitive cells in the dermis below from UV rays
 
melanocytes
 
7. 
the spiny layer just above the basal cell layer
 
stratum spinosum
 
8. 
granular layer, almost dead cells that are pushed to the surface
 
stratum granulosum
 
9. 
clear, transparent layer of epidermis just under the skin surface
 
stratum lucidum
 
10. 
the horny layer, outer layer of the epidermis, waterproof
 
stratum corneum
 
11. 
the underlying or inner layer of the skin, is about 25 times thicker than the epidermis, contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles
 
dermis
 
12. 
the outer layer of the dermis, directly beneath the epidermis
 
papillary layer
 
13. 
small structures with nerve endings that are sensitive to touch and pressure
 
tactile corpuscles
 
14. 
the deepest layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients. contains fat cells, sweat glands, blood vessels, hair follicles, lymph vessels, arrector pili muscles and oil glands
 
reticular layer
 
15. 
a fatty layer found below the dermis. gives smoothness and contour to the body, contains fats for use as energy, protective cushion
 
subcutaneous tissue or adipose or subcutis
 
16. 
supplies nutrients and oxygen to the skin
 
blood
 
17. 
nerve fibers that are distributed to the arrector pili muscles attached to the hair follicles
 
motor nerve fibers
 
18. 
nerve fibers that react to heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain. send messages to the brain
 
sensory nerve fibers
 
19. 
nerve fibers that are distributed to the sweat and oil glands of the skin. part of the autonomic nervous system, regulate the excretion of perspiration from the sweat glands and control the flow of sebum to the surface of the skin
 
secretory nerve fibers
 
20. 
tiny grains of pigment deposited into cells in the basal cell layer of the epidermis and the papillary layers of the dermis
 
melanin
 
21. 
a fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength
 
collagen
 
22. 
a protein base similar to collagen that forms elastic tissue, helps skin regain its shape
 
elastin
 
23. 
sweat glands
 
sudoriferous glands
 
24. 
oil glands
 
sebaceous glands
 
25. 
the coil base of sudoriferous glands
 
secretory coil
 
26. 
caused when sebum hardens and the duct becomes clogged, may lead to an acne papule or pustule
 
comedome
 
27. 
functions of the skin
 
protection, sensation, heat regulation, excretion, secretion, and absorption
 
28. 
supports the overall health of the skin, aids in the health, function, and repair of skin cells, can help prevent certain types of cancers improves skin elasticity and thickness
 
vitamin a
 
29. 
also known as ascorbic acid, needed for proper repair of the skin and various tissues, aids in and even speeds up the healing processes of the body. important in fighting the aging process and promotes the production of collagen
 
vitamin c
 
30. 
helps fight against, and protect the skin from, the harmful effects of the sun's rays. helps to heal damage to the skins tissues when used both internally and externally.
 
vitamin e