Cosmetology Exam Review Chapter 7: Skin Structure & Growth

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1. medical branch of science that deals with the study of skin - its nature, structure, functions, diseases, and treatments
dermatology
2. a physician engaged in the science of treating the skin, its structures, functions, and diseases
dermatologist
3. a specialist in the cleansing, preservation of health, and beautification of the skin and body
esthetician
4. outermost layer of the skin, thinnest layer, contains no blood vessels, but has many nerve endings
epidermis
5. deepest layer of the epidermis, produces new epidermal skin cells
basal cell layer or stratum germinativium
6. cells that produce melanin, a dark skin pigment, that protects the sensitive cells in the dermis below from UV rays
melanocytes
7. the spiny layer just above the basal cell layer
stratum spinosum
8. granular layer, almost dead cells that are pushed to the surface
stratum granulosum
9. clear, transparent layer of epidermis just under the skin surface
stratum lucidum
10. the horny layer, outer layer of the epidermis, waterproof
stratum corneum
11. the underlying or inner layer of the skin, is about 25 times thicker than the epidermis, contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles
dermis
12. the outer layer of the dermis, directly beneath the epidermis
papillary layer
13. small structures with nerve endings that are sensitive to touch and pressure
tactile corpuscles
14. the deepest layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients. contains fat cells, sweat glands, blood vessels, hair follicles, lymph vessels, arrector pili muscles and oil glands
reticular layer
15. a fatty layer found below the dermis. gives smoothness and contour to the body, contains fats for use as energy, protective cushion
subcutaneous tissue or adipose or subcutis
16. supplies nutrients and oxygen to the skin
blood
17. nerve fibers that are distributed to the arrector pili muscles attached to the hair follicles
motor nerve fibers
18. nerve fibers that react to heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain. send messages to the brain
sensory nerve fibers
19. nerve fibers that are distributed to the sweat and oil glands of the skin. part of the autonomic nervous system, regulate the excretion of perspiration from the sweat glands and control the flow of sebum to the surface of the skin
secretory nerve fibers
20. tiny grains of pigment deposited into cells in the basal cell layer of the epidermis and the papillary layers of the dermis
melanin
21. a fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength
collagen
22. a protein base similar to collagen that forms elastic tissue, helps skin regain its shape
elastin
23. sweat glands
sudoriferous glands
24. oil glands
sebaceous glands
25. the coil base of sudoriferous glands
secretory coil
26. caused when sebum hardens and the duct becomes clogged, may lead to an acne papule or pustule
comedome
27. functions of the skin
protection, sensation, heat regulation, excretion, secretion, and absorption
28. supports the overall health of the skin, aids in the health, function, and repair of skin cells, can help prevent certain types of cancers improves skin elasticity and thickness
vitamin a
29. also known as ascorbic acid, needed for proper repair of the skin and various tissues, aids in and even speeds up the healing processes of the body. important in fighting the aging process and promotes the production of collagen
vitamin c
30. helps fight against, and protect the skin from, the harmful effects of the sun's rays. helps to heal damage to the skins tissues when used both internally and externally.
vitamin e