Constitutional amendments and Landmark Supreme Court Cases

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1. 
1st amendment =
 
freedom of religon, press, assembly, petition, and speech.
 
2. 
2nd amendment =
 
the right to bear arms(guns).
 
3. 
3rd amendment =
 
no quartering of soldiers, in peace or war, exept with the owners approval.
 
4. 
4th amendment =
 

searches and seizures shall not be allowed exept with probable cause and/or a warrent.

 
5. 
5th amendment =
 

a grand jury must be present for a trial.

you can't be commited for a crime twice.

 
6. 
6th amendment =
 

you may have a lawyer at your disposal at a trial.

an impartial jury must be there and they must know what you have done.

 
7. 
7th amendment =
 
if you file for a lawsuit that is more than twenty dollars, a jury may be preserved.
 
8. 
8th amendment =
 
the judge can't impose exessive bail or fines or have you tourtured.
 
9. 
9th amendment =
 
the constitution has several civil rights but, so do the people.
 
10. 
10th amendment =
 
if the constitution doesn't have the power the states do.
 
11. 
11th amendment =
 
the courts can't be run by foreign "people".
 
12. 
12th amendment =
 
when running for office, the President and Vice President etc: the people have to vote them into office.
 
13. 
13th amendment =
 

sec. 1 = NO SLAVERY!!!!!!!!

sec. 2 = Congress is able to enforce said sec. 1.

 
14. 
14th amendment =
 

sec. 1 = People that were born in the U.S. are U.S. citizens. sec. 2 = a # of representitives will go to congress for each state according to its pop. sec. 3 = if you have declared war on the U.S., you can't be a part of its gov..

 
15. 
15th amendment =
 

sec. 1 = you can't be denied the right to vote no matter who or what you are.

sec. 2 = congress is able to enforce said sec. 1.

 
16. 
16th amendment =
 
congress has the power to make people pay income tax.
 
17. 
17th amendment =
 
two senators from each state will be elected into office.
 
18. 
18th amendment =
 
all intoxicating liquors are banned from the U.S.
 
19. 
19th amendment =
 
you can't be denied the right to vote no matter who or what you are.
 
20. 
20th amendment =
 
we will change presidents, vice presidents etc. on jan. 20; after their term is up.
 
21. 
21st amendment =
 
it repeals all of the 18th amendment.
 
22. 
22nd amendment =
 
the presitdent can't have more than 2 terms.
 
23. 
23rd amendment =
 
the Disrict of Columbia will and does have three electors.
 
24. 
24th amendment =
 
you can't be denied the right to vote no matter who or what you are.
 
25. 
25th amendment =
 
the vice president shall asume the role of President if the president is dead, etc.
 
26. 
26th amendment =
 
if you are 18 or older you may vote.
 
27. 
27th amendment =
 
congress has a limit to how much it can raise/lower a persons salary.
 
28. 
Marbury v. Madison =
 
Marbury's argument is that in the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress granted the Supreme Court original jurisdiction over petitions for writs of mandamus. This raises several issues that the Supreme Court had to address.
 
29. 
McCulloch v. Maryland =
 
The court determined that Congress had the power to charter the bank.
 
30. 
Gibbons v. Ogden =
 
The sole argued source of Congress's power to promulgate the law at issue was the Commerce Clause. Accordingly, the Court had to answer whether the law regulated "commerce" that was "among the several states." With respect to "commerce," the Court held that commerce is more than mere traffic—that it is the trade of commodities—it is also intercourse. This broader definition includes navigation. The Court interpreted "among" as "intermingled with."
 
31. 
Plessy v. Furguson =
 
In a 7 to 1 decision (Justice David Josiah Brewer did not participate) the Court rejected Plessy's arguments based on the Fourteenth Amendment, seeing no way in which the Louisiana statute violated it. In addition, the majority of the Court rejected the view that the Louisiana law implied any inferiority of blacks, in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Instead, it contended that the law separated the two races as a matter of public policy.
 
32. 
Brown v. Board of Education =
 
The Topeka middle schools had been integrated since 1941. Topeka High School was integrated from its inception in 1871 and its sports teams from 1949 on. The Kansas law permitting segregated schools allowed them only "below the high school level."
 
33. 
Roe v. Wade =
 
The court issued its decision on January 22, 1973, with a 7 to 2 majority vote in favor of McCorvey.
 
34. 
Mapp v. Ohio =
 
The Fourth Amendment protects individuals from unreasonable searches and seizures but contains no instructions on how to treat an unreasonable search.
 
35. 
Miranda v. Arizona =
 
The Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination requires law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of his rights to remain silent and to obtain an attorney. Arizona Supreme Court reversed and remanded
 
36. 
Gideon v. Wainwright =
 

The sixth amendment right to counsel is a fundamental right applied to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause, and requires that indigent criminal defendants be provided counsel at trial. Supreme Court of Florida reversed

 
37. 
Tinker v. Des Moines =
 
The court's 7 to 2 decision held that the First Amendment applied to public schools, and that administrators would have to demonstrate constitutionally valid reasons for any specific regulation of speech in the classroom.
 
38. 
Engel v. Vitale =
 
Government-directed prayer in public schools violates the establishment clause of the first amendment even if the prayer is denominationally neutral and students may remain silent or be excused from the classroom during its recitation.
 
39. 
Texas v. Johnson =
 
A statute that criminalizes the desecration of the American flag violates the First Amendment. Texas Court of Criminal Appeals affirmed.
 
40. 
Furman v. Georgia =
 
The arbitrary and inconsistent imposition of the death penalty violates the eighth and fourteenth Amendments, and constitutes cruel and unusual punishment.
 
41. 
Korematsu v. United states, 1944 =
 
The exclusion order leading to japanise american internment camps was constitutional.
 
42. 
New Jersey v. TLO, 1985 =
 
(1) Fourth Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures applies to searches conducted by public school officials, and (2) search of student's purse was reasonable.