Chapter 5 - The Cardiovascular System

Total Flash Cards » 75
 
1. 

angi/o

 

blood or lymph vessel

 
2. 

aort/o

 

aorta

 
3. 

arteri/o

 

artery

 
4. 

ather/o

 

plaque, fatty substance

 
5. 

brady-

 

slow

 
6. 

cardi/o

 

heart

 
7. 

-crasia

 

a mixture or blending

 
8. 

-emia

 

blood, blood condition

 
9. 

erythr/o

 

red

 
10. 

hem/o, hemat/o

 

blood, relating to the blood

 
11. 

leuk/o

 

white

 
12. 

phleb/o

 

vein

 
13. 

tachy-

 

fast, rapid

 
14. 

thromb/o

 

clot

 
15. 

ven/o

 

vein

 
16. 

ACE inhibitor (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme)

 

blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension

 
17. 

anemia

an- = without or less than; -emia = blood condition

 

a lower than normal number of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in the blood

 
18. 

aneurysm

 

a localized weak spot, or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery

 
19. 

angina (angina pectoris)

 

a condition of episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium; they are due to ischemia of the heart muscle

 
20. 

angioplasty (balloon angioplasty)

 

a procedure in which a small balloon on the end of a catheter is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit & stretching the lumen

 
21. 

anticoagulant

 

slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming;

coagulation is the process of clotting blood

 
22. 

aplastic anemia

a- = without; plast = growth; -ic = pertaining to

 

is characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

 
23. 

arrhythmia

 

an abnormality, or the loss of the normal rhythm, of the heartbeat

 
24. 

atherectomy

ather = plaque; -ectomy = surgical removal

 

the surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery

 
25. 

atheroma

ather = plaque; -oma = tumor

 

is a characteristic of atherosclerosis, is a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

 
26. 

atherosclerosis

ather/o = plaque or fatty substance; -sclerosis = abnormal hardening

 

hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries

 
27. 

atrial fibrillation (A fib)

fibrillation = fast, uncontrolled heart beat

 

occurs when normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall; causes an irregular & quivering action of the atria

 
28. 

automated external defibrillator (AED)

 

designed for use by nonprofessionals in emergency situations when defibrillation is required; samples electrical rhythms of heart & externally shocks to restore normal rhythm

 
29. 

beta-blocker

 

reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat; commonly prescribed to lower bp, relieve angina or to treat heart failure

 
30. 

blood dyscrasia

dys- = bad; -crasia = mixture or blending

 

any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood

 
31. 

bradycardia

brady- = slow; card = heart; -ia = abnormal condition

 

an abnormally slow resting heart rate; usually applied to rates less than 60 beats per minute; bradycardia is the opposite of tachycardia

 
32. 

cardiac arrest

 

the heart abruptly stops or develops a very abnormal arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood

 
33. 

cardiac catheterization

 

a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is passed into a vein or artery and then guided into the heart

 
34. 

cardiomyopathy

cardi/o = heart; my/o = muscle; -pathy = disease

 

the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle

 
35. 

carotid endarterectomy

 

the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain; procedure is performed to reduce risk of stroke

 
36. 

cholesterol

 

fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body; aids in production of cell membranes, vitamin D & some hormones

 
37. 

chronic venous insufficiency (venous insufficiency)

 

a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves; primarily affects feet & ankles

 
38. 

coronary thrombosis

coron = crown; -ary = pertaining to; thromb = clot; -osis = abnormal condition

 

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

 
39. 

defibrillation (cardioversion)

 

the use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm; this shock is provided by a device known as a defibrillator

 
40. 

diuretic

 

administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium & water; used to treat hypertension & heart failure

 
41. 

electrocardiogram

electr/o = electric; cardi/o = heart; -gram = picture or record

 

a record of the electrical activity of the myocardium

 
42. 

embolism

embol = something inserted; -ism = condition

 

the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

 
43. 

embolus

embol = something inserted; -us = singular noun ending

 

a foreign object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor that is circulating in the blood

 
44. 

endocarditis

endo- = within; card = heart; -itis = inflammation

 

an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

 
45. 

erythrocytes (red blood cells RBC)

erythr/o = red; -cytes = cells

 

mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow; primary role of these cells is to transport oxygen to the tissues

 
46. 

hemoglobin

 

the iron-containing pigment of the erythrocytes

 
47. 

hemolytic anemia

hem/o = relating to blood; -lytic = disorder

hemolytic = pertaining to breaking down RBC

 

a condition of inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen

 
48. 

hemostasis

hem/o = blood; -stasis = stopping or controlling

 

to stop or control bleeding; could be accomplished by formation of a blood clot or through external application of pressure

 
49. 

ischemic heart disease

ischemic = pertaining to the disruption of the blood supply

 

a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart; usually assoc. w/ coronary artery disease

 
50. 

leukemia

leuk = white; -emia = blood condition

 

a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes (white blood cells) found in blood forming tissues, other organs, & in the circulating blood

 
51. 

leukocytes (white blood cells WBC)

leuk/o = white; -cytes = cells

 

the blood cells involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances

 
52. 

leukopenia

leuk/o = white; -penia = deficiency

 

any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the criculating blood is less than normal

 
53. 

megaloblastic anemia

 

a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal; usually results from deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12

 
54. 

myelodysplastic syndrome (preleukemia)

 

group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types or blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow

 
55. 

myocardial infarction (heart attack)

 

the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup; occlusion here means total blockage

 
56. 

orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension)

 

is low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up; orthostatic = relating to an upright or standing position

 
57. 

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT)

paroxysmal = pertaining to sudden occurrence;

compare with ventricular tachycardia

 

an episode that begins & ends abruptly during which there are very rapid & regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium

 
58. 

pericardium (pericardial sac)

peri- = surrounding; cardi = heart; -um = singular noun ending

 

the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart

 
59. 

pernicious anemia

 

caused by the lack of the protein intrinsic factor (IF) that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract

 
60. 

phlebitis

phleb = vein; -itis = inflammation

 

the inflammation of a vein; usually occurs in a superficial vein

 
61. 

Raynaud's phenomenon

 

a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress

 
62. 

septicemia (blood poisoning)

 

a systemic condition caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins via the circulating blood

 
63. 

sickle cell anemia

 

a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape

 
64. 

tachycardia

tachy- = rapid; card = heart; -ia = abnormal condition

 

an abnormally rapid resting heart rate; usually applied to rates greater than 100 beats per minute; tachycardia is opposite bradycardia

 
65. 

thallium stress test

 

is performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise

 
66. 

thrombocytopenia

thromb/o = thrombus; cyt/o = cell; -penia = deficiency

 

a condition in which there is an abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood; condition is sometimes assoc. w/ abnormal bleeding

 
67. 

thrombolytic (clot-busting drug)

thromb/o = clot; -lytic = to destroy

 

dissolves or causes a thrombus to break up

 
68. 

thrombosis

thromb = clot; -osis = abnormal condition or disease

 

the abnormal condition of having a thrombus

 
69. 

thrombotic occlusion

thrombotic = caused by a thrombus

occlusion = blockage

 

the blocking of an artery by a thrombus

 
70. 

thrombus

thromb = clot; -us = singular noun ending

 

a blood clot attached to the interior wall or an artery or vein;

plural = thrombi

 
71. 

transfusion reaction

 

a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because of the patient's blood & the donated blood do not match

 
72. 

valvulitis

valvul = valve; -itis = inflammation

 

an inflammation of a heart valve

 
73. 

varicose veins

 

abnormally swollen veins, usually occurring in the superficial veins of the legs; occur when the valves in the veins malfunction & allow blood to pool in them, causing enlargement

 
74. 

ventricular fibrillation (V fib)

 

the rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles; the heart muscle quivers ineffectively; the cause of sudden cardiac deaths

 
75. 

ventricular tachycardia (V tach)

 

a very rapid heart beat that begins within the ventricles; condition is potentially fatal - heart is beating rapidly & is unable to adequately pump blood through the body