Chapter 5 - The Cardiovascular System

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1. angi/o blood or lymph vessel
2. aort/o aorta
3. arteri/o artery
4. ather/o plaque, fatty substance
5. brady- slow
6. cardi/o heart
7. -crasia a mixture or blending
8. -emia blood, blood condition
9. erythr/o red
10. hem/o, hemat/o blood, relating to the blood
11. leuk/o white
12. phleb/o vein
13. tachy- fast, rapid
14. thromb/o clot
15. ven/o vein
16. ACE inhibitor (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension
an- = without or less than; -emia = blood condition
a lower than normal number of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in the blood
18. aneurysm a localized weak spot, or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery
19. angina (angina pectoris) a condition of episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium; they are due to ischemia of the heart muscle
20. angioplasty (balloon angioplasty) a procedure in which a small balloon on the end of a catheter is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit & stretching the lumen
21. anticoagulant
slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming;
coagulation is the process of clotting blood
aplastic anemia
a- = without; plast = growth; -ic = pertaining to
is characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
23. arrhythmia an abnormality, or the loss of the normal rhythm, of the heartbeat
ather = plaque; -ectomy = surgical removal
the surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery
ather = plaque; -oma = tumor
is a characteristic of atherosclerosis, is a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall
ather/o = plaque or fatty substance; -sclerosis = abnormal hardening
hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries
atrial fibrillation (A fib)
fibrillation = fast, uncontrolled heart beat
occurs when normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall; causes an irregular & quivering action of the atria
28. automated external defibrillator (AED) designed for use by nonprofessionals in emergency situations when defibrillation is required; samples electrical rhythms of heart & externally shocks to restore normal rhythm
29. beta-blocker reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat; commonly prescribed to lower bp, relieve angina or to treat heart failure
blood dyscrasia
dys- = bad; -crasia = mixture or blending
any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood
brady- = slow; card = heart; -ia = abnormal condition

an abnormally slow resting heart rate; usually applied to rates less than 60 beats per minute; bradycardia is the opposite of tachycardia
32. cardiac arrest the heart abruptly stops or develops a very abnormal arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood
33. cardiac catheterization a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is passed into a vein or artery and then guided into the heart
cardi/o = heart; my/o = muscle; -pathy = disease
the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle
35. carotid endarterectomy the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain; procedure is performed to reduce risk of stroke
36. cholesterol fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body; aids in production of cell membranes, vitamin D & some hormones
37. chronic venous insufficiency (venous insufficiency)
a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves; primarily affects feet & ankles
coronary thrombosis
coron = crown; -ary = pertaining to; thromb = clot; -osis = abnormal condition
damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery
39. defibrillation (cardioversion) the use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm; this shock is provided by a device known as a defibrillator
40. diuretic administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium & water; used to treat hypertension & heart failure
electr/o = electric; cardi/o = heart; -gram = picture or record
a record of the electrical activity of the myocardium
embol = something inserted; -ism = condition
the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
embol = something inserted; -us = singular noun ending
a foreign object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor that is circulating in the blood
endo- = within; card = heart; -itis = inflammation
an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
erythrocytes (red blood cells RBC)
erythr/o = red; -cytes = cells
mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow; primary role of these cells is to transport oxygen to the tissues
46. hemoglobin the iron-containing pigment of the erythrocytes
hemolytic anemia
hem/o = relating to blood; -lytic = disorder
hemolytic = pertaining to breaking down RBC
a condition of inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen
hem/o = blood; -stasis = stopping or controlling
to stop or control bleeding; could be accomplished by formation of a blood clot or through external application of pressure
ischemic heart disease
ischemic = pertaining to the disruption of the blood supply
a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart; usually assoc. w/ coronary artery disease
leuk = white; -emia = blood condition
a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes (white blood cells) found in blood forming tissues, other organs, & in the circulating blood
leukocytes (white blood cells WBC)
leuk/o = white; -cytes = cells
the blood cells involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances
leuk/o = white; -penia = deficiency
any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the criculating blood is less than normal
53. megaloblastic anemia a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal; usually results from deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12
54. myelodysplastic syndrome (preleukemia) group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types or blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow
55. myocardial infarction (heart attack)
the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup; occlusion here means total blockage
56. orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension) is low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up; orthostatic = relating to an upright or standing position
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT)
paroxysmal = pertaining to sudden occurrence;
compare with ventricular tachycardia
an episode that begins & ends abruptly during which there are very rapid & regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium
pericardium (pericardial sac)
peri- = surrounding; cardi = heart; -um = singular noun ending
the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart
59. pernicious anemia caused by the lack of the protein intrinsic factor (IF) that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract
phleb = vein; -itis = inflammation
the inflammation of a vein; usually occurs in a superficial vein
61. Raynaud's phenomenon a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress
62. septicemia (blood poisoning) a systemic condition caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins via the circulating blood
63. sickle cell anemia a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
tachy- = rapid; card = heart; -ia = abnormal condition
an abnormally rapid resting heart rate; usually applied to rates greater than 100 beats per minute; tachycardia is opposite bradycardia
65. thallium stress test is performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise
thromb/o = thrombus; cyt/o = cell; -penia = deficiency
a condition in which there is an abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood; condition is sometimes assoc. w/ abnormal bleeding
thrombolytic (clot-busting drug)
thromb/o = clot; -lytic = to destroy
dissolves or causes a thrombus to break up
thromb = clot; -osis = abnormal condition or disease
the abnormal condition of having a thrombus
thrombotic occlusion
thrombotic = caused by a thrombus
occlusion = blockage
the blocking of an artery by a thrombus
thromb = clot; -us = singular noun ending

a blood clot attached to the interior wall or an artery or vein;
plural = thrombi
71. transfusion reaction a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because of the patient's blood & the donated blood do not match
valvul = valve; -itis = inflammation
an inflammation of a heart valve
73. varicose veins abnormally swollen veins, usually occurring in the superficial veins of the legs; occur when the valves in the veins malfunction & allow blood to pool in them, causing enlargement
74. ventricular fibrillation (V fib) the rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles; the heart muscle quivers ineffectively; the cause of sudden cardiac deaths
75. ventricular tachycardia (V tach) a very rapid heart beat that begins within the ventricles; condition is potentially fatal - heart is beating rapidly & is unable to adequately pump blood through the body