Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems

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cytoplasm A jelly-like substance within the plasma membrane
Cell theory
1. All living organisms are made up of one or more cells
2. The cell is a basic organizational unit of life
3, All cells come from pre-existing cells
-filaments/tubules that provide a framework for a cell
-network of protein fibres
-helps to maintain structure
-located in the nucleus
-makes ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum
-network of membrane-covered channels that transport materials (molecules) made in the cell
-connected to the nucleus
Golgi body/apparatus/complex
-sorts and packages proteins and other molecules for transport out of the cell
-puts proteins in a vesicle
-membrane-covered sacs that transport/store materials inside the cell
-helps materials cross the cell membrane to enter or exit the cell
-membrane bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes
-made of large and small subunit
-contains water and other materials
-used to store/transport small molecules
plant cells - one large vacuole
animal cells - several smaller vacuoles
-make proteins,which make up much of the cell's structure
-some float in the cytoplasm
-some are attached to the ER
(singular - mitochondrion)

-where energy is released from glucose to fuel cell activities
glucose + oxygen ---> CO2+H2O+energy
-trap energy from the sun (to make glucose)
-found only in plant cells
-controls all cell activities
-contains DNA
DNA screening
-the process of testing individuals to determine whether or not they have the gene/genes associated with certain genetic disorders
-can be observed by looking at chromosomes
ex. amniocentesis tests for Down Syndrome in utero
prophase - first phase of mitosis - preparation phase
-DNA recoils
-chromosomes condense
-nuclear membrane begins to disappear
-spindle fibres begin to form
metaphase - second phase of mitosis - organizational phase
-spindle fibres attach to the chromosomes at the centromere
-chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell (equator)
Types of nucleotide bases
1. adenine
2. thymine
Always pair together ^
3. guamine
4. cytosine
Always pair together ^
DNA is composed of two ____/____ backbones and _______ bases. DNA is composed of two sugar/phosphate backbones and nucleotide bases.
-deoxyribonucleic acid
-hereditary material passed down from parent to child, in the form of chromosomes
-found in the nucleus
plant cells vs. animal cells
plant cells animal cells
-chloroplasts - no chlorplasts
-1 large vacuole - many small vacuoles
-cell wall - no cell wall
-no centrioles - centrioles
or lysosomes - lysosomes
-usually rectangular - usually round
-cells can't move - cells can move
Magnification Formula
= size of cell in diagram
actual size of cell (F.O.V /# of cells that fit across)
transgenic organisms
- an organism whose genetic information has been altered with insertion of genes from another species
-can cause genetic disorders
- the process of creating identical genetic copies of an organism
-clones may be more likely to catch diseases
-could help to cure certain diseases
normal cell characteristics (opposed to cancer)
-large cytoplasm
-single nucleus
-single nucleolus
-fine chromatin
Cancer cell characteristics
-small cytoplasm
-multiple nuclei
-multiple + large nucleoli
-coarse chromatin
-a structure that organizes the motion of chromosomes
-found only in animal cells
plasma membrane (cell membrane) -a membrane that surrounds and protects the cell
nuclear membrane/envelope -a membrane that surrounds and protects the nucleus
What structures are present in an animal cell, but not in a plant cell? centrioles, lysosomes.
What structures are present in a plant cell, but not in an animal cell? cell wall, chloroplasts, plastids.
-store food/pigments
- found only in plant cells
tumour a mass of cells with no apparent function in the body.
cancer the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
- a type of tumour
- may be cancerous
- does not spread but may become malignant
- cancerous
- has potential to spread to other parts of the body
metastatic Cancer that moves from one part of the body to another.
Why are older people more prone to getting cancer? Cancer develops after multiple mutations have occured, which takes years to happen
Cancer arises from the accumulation of genetic changes or _______. mutations
Most cancers have a minimum of _ to _ genes mutated. 6-9
Cancer is not directly passes from parent to child, but people can be _______ to cancer based on their genetic makeup. susceptible
Many genes that are involved in cancer are involved in regulating the ___ ____. cell cycle
A tumor suppressor gene like p53 controls or slows the cell cycle and thus ___ ________. cell division
When tumor suppressor genes are mutated/absent, the cell will _____ _________. divide uncontrollably
An _______ is a gene that when mutated, causes cells to grow. oncogene
Malignant cells divide quickly and can leave the original site and enter the ____, ____ or ______. blood, lymph or tissues
Cancer cells can divide ________. indefinitely.
Radiation Uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. A large machine directs radiation at the body.
Chemotherapy Uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells
Chemotherapy drug "Taxol" Blocks a cell's ability to break down the mitotic spindle fibres during mitosis. The cell then can't divide and the cancer can't grow.
DNA replication (when DNA becomes double-stranded) occurs during: Synthesis phase of cell division (S)
During mitosis, the function of the centromere is to attach a double-stranded chromosome to the: spindle fibre
Levels of Organization of Life atom->molecule->macromolecule->organelle->cell->tissue->organ->organ system-organism
tissue A collection of cells working together for a common function. ex - blood.
organ A collection of tissues working together for a common function. ex - bronchia.
organ system A collection of organs working together for a common function. ex - respitory system.
4 major types of tissues
1. connective
2. epithelial
3. muscle
4. nervous
Epidermal tissue: protects and supports the body.
Epithelial cells line the surfaces of the body as well as line the ________ _____. internal organs
Epithelial tissue cells make strong connections between adjoining ___ ________, so they form a _______. cell membranes, barrier.
The lining of the trachea where the air passes is covered with: columnar epithelium
Cilia tiny finger-like projections covering some cells that sweep back and forth to move materials.
columnar epithelia
-made up of columns of cells
-line the stomach and glands
-may secrete mucus
-absorb materials (ex - take nutrients from intestine into the bloodstream)
connective tissue
-connects cells and tissues
-consists of cells that connect to other cells or connect organs to other organs
ex - bone tissue, fat (adipose) tissue, blood tissue
-function: supporting & transporting
muscle tissue
-designed to change their shape
-muscle cells are several inches long
-two states: contracted (short) or relaxed (long)
-skeletal muscle (voluntary muscle) attached to bone making it possible for the body to move
-function: contracting
smooth muscle (involuntary)
-no control over its movement
-does not have striations (little lines)
found in:
-iris of eye
-walls of blood vessels
cardiac muscle
-makes up the heart
-striations or branches go across the cell (they go along the length of skeletal muscles)
nervous tissue
-made of cells called neurons that transmit signals from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles or glands or detect information from the environment (ex - heat) to trigger a response like a reflex (ex - release of insulin from pancreas after meal)
function: communicating
epithelial tissue function: covering & lining
ingestion -the process of taking a material into the mouth/body
-the conversion of food into soluble and diffusible products
-breaking down food, chemically and mechanically
-when nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream
-moves from digestive system to circulatory system
-mostly occurs in small intestine
elimination -removal from the body; defecation
esophagus -carried food, liquids and saliva from the mouth to the stomach
stomach -mechanically breaks down food using muscle tissue and gastric juices
-first part of the small intestine
-contains small tubes that bring chemicals from liver, pancreas and gall bladder to chemically break down food
small intestine -continues to break down food and absorbs nutrients into the bloodstream (mainly fats)
large intestine (colon)
-main function is to absorb water, vitamins, various salts from digested food
-eliminates undigested material (fibre)
-contains bacteria to help break down food
rectum -stores feces for a short period of time
anus -removes feces from the body
-produces bile
-bile breaks up globs of fat into small droplets
pancreas -releases digestive enzymes
gall bladder -stores bile until needed and then it is released into the duodenum
functions of circulatory system:
1. picks up and transports nutrients/oxygen to cells
2. carries wastes to the organs responsible for eliminating them from the body
3. allows two seperate paths through which the blood circulates
4. carries the body's carbon dioxide waste from cellular respiration
Types of blood vessels:
1. Artery
2. Vein
3. Capillary
artery -carries blood from the heart to all body parts.
vein -carries blood from body parts back to the heart
capillary -brings blood into contact with the small intestine's villi and microvilli
superior vena cava (vein) -brings blood from the head and arms
inferior vena cava (vein) -brings blood from the trunk and legs
right atrium recieves blood from body
right AV (atrioventricular) valve -prevents blood from moving backwards into the right atrium
right ventricle -pumps blood to lungs
right semilunar valve -controls entrance to pulmonary artery
pulmonary artery -carries blood to the lungs
pulmonary veins -move blood from the lungs to the heart
left atrium -recieves blood from lungs
left AV (atrioventricular) valve -prevents blood from moving backward into left atrium
left ventricle -pumps blood out to the rest of the body
left semilunar valve -controls entrance to aorta
aorta -carries oxygenated blood to body
septum -wall of muscle between the chambers of the heart
How does the heart of a mammal (human) have an advantage over a fish and a frog?
-human hearts have 2 ventricles
-fish/amphibeans have only 1
-can be mixing of oxygnated and deoxygenated blood
-so some blood pumped back to body has not been through lungs
nasal cavity
-filters, warms and moistens incoming air
-the very back of the throat
-acts like a 'fork in the road'
-to proceed to esophagus or trachea
epiglottis -prevents food from entering the trachea
larynx -the vocal chords/voice box/Adam's apple
trachea -carries air into the bronchi
bronchus (plural - bronchi) -moves air from trachea to lungs
bronchioles -carries air to alveoli
alveoli -keeps most inhaled bacteria and viruses out of the bloodstream, but still allows gases to cross
-contracts and moves down when breathing in
-relaxes and moves up when breathing out