Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems

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1. 
cytoplasm
 
A jelly-like substance within the plasma membrane
 
2. 
Cell theory
 

1. All living organisms are made up of one or more cells

2. The cell is a basic organizational unit of life

3, All cells come from pre-existing cells

 
3. 
cytoskeleton
 

-filaments/tubules that provide a framework for a cell

-network of protein fibres

-helps to maintain structure

 
4. 
nucleolus
 

-located in the nucleus

-makes ribosomes

 
5. 
endoplasmic reticulum
 

-network of membrane-covered channels that transport materials (molecules) made in the cell

-connected to the nucleus

 
6. 
Golgi body/apparatus/complex
 

-sorts and packages proteins and other molecules for transport out of the cell

-puts proteins in a vesicle

 
7. 
vesicle
 

-membrane-covered sacs that transport/store materials inside the cell

-helps materials cross the cell membrane to enter or exit the cell

 
8. 
lysosome
 

-membrane bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes

-made of large and small subunit

 
9. 
vacuole
 

-contains water and other materials

-used to store/transport small molecules

plant cells - one large vacuole

animal cells - several smaller vacuoles

 
10. 
ribosome
 

-make proteins,which make up much of the cell's structure

-some float in the cytoplasm

-some are attached to the ER

 
11. 
mitochondria
(singular - mitochondrion)
 

-where energy is released from glucose to fuel cell activities

glucose + oxygen ---> CO2+H2O+energy

 
12. 
chloroplast
 

-trap energy from the sun (to make glucose)

-found only in plant cells

 
13. 
nucleus
 

-controls all cell activities

-contains DNA

 
14. 
DNA screening
 

-the process of testing individuals to determine whether or not they have the gene/genes associated with certain genetic disorders

-can be observed by looking at chromosomes

-controversial

ex. amniocentesis tests for Down Syndrome in utero

 
15. 
prophase - first phase of mitosis - preparation phase
 

-DNA recoils

-chromosomes condense

-nuclear membrane begins to disappear

-spindle fibres begin to form

 
16. 
metaphase - second phase of mitosis - organizational phase
 

-spindle fibres attach to the chromosomes at the centromere

-chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell (equator)

 
17. 
Types of nucleotide bases
 

1. adenine

2. thymine

Always pair together ^

3. guamine

4. cytosine

Always pair together ^

 
18. 
DNA is composed of two ____/____ backbones and _______ bases.
 
DNA is composed of two sugar/phosphate backbones and nucleotide bases.
 
19. 
DNA
 

-deoxyribonucleic acid

-hereditary material passed down from parent to child, in the form of chromosomes

-found in the nucleus

 
20. 
plant cells vs. animal cells
 

plant cells animal cells

-chloroplasts - no chlorplasts

-1 large vacuole - many small vacuoles

-cell wall - no cell wall

-no centrioles - centrioles
or lysosomes - lysosomes

-usually rectangular - usually round

-cells can't move - cells can move

 
21. 
Magnification Formula
 

= size of cell in diagram

actual size of cell (F.O.V /# of cells that fit across)

 
22. 
transgenic organisms
 

- an organism whose genetic information has been altered with insertion of genes from another species

-can cause genetic disorders

-controversial

 
23. 
cloning
 

- the process of creating identical genetic copies of an organism

-clones may be more likely to catch diseases

-could help to cure certain diseases

 
24. 
normal cell characteristics (opposed to cancer)
 

-large cytoplasm

-single nucleus

-single nucleolus

-fine chromatin

 
25. 
Cancer cell characteristics
 

-small cytoplasm

-multiple nuclei

-multiple + large nucleoli

-coarse chromatin

 
26. 
centriole
 

-a structure that organizes the motion of chromosomes

-found only in animal cells

 
27. 
plasma membrane (cell membrane)
 
-a membrane that surrounds and protects the cell
 
28. 
nuclear membrane/envelope
 
-a membrane that surrounds and protects the nucleus
 
29. 
What structures are present in an animal cell, but not in a plant cell?
 
centrioles, lysosomes.
 
30. 
What structures are present in a plant cell, but not in an animal cell?
 
cell wall, chloroplasts, plastids.
 
31. 
plastids
 

-store food/pigments

- found only in plant cells

 
32. 
tumour
 
a mass of cells with no apparent function in the body.
 
33. 
cancer
 
the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
 
34. 
benign
 

- a type of tumour

- may be cancerous

- does not spread but may become malignant

 
35. 
malignant
 

- cancerous

- has potential to spread to other parts of the body

 
36. 
metastatic
 
Cancer that moves from one part of the body to another.
 
37. 
Why are older people more prone to getting cancer?
 
Cancer develops after multiple mutations have occured, which takes years to happen
 
38. 
Cancer arises from the accumulation of genetic changes or _______.
 
mutations
 
39. 
Most cancers have a minimum of _ to _ genes mutated.
 
6-9
 
40. 
Cancer is not directly passes from parent to child, but people can be _______ to cancer based on their genetic makeup.
 
susceptible
 
41. 
Many genes that are involved in cancer are involved in regulating the ___ ____.
 
cell cycle
 
42. 
A tumor suppressor gene like p53 controls or slows the cell cycle and thus ___ ________.
 
cell division
 
43. 
When tumor suppressor genes are mutated/absent, the cell will _____ _________.
 
divide uncontrollably
 
44. 
An _______ is a gene that when mutated, causes cells to grow.
 
oncogene
 
45. 
Malignant cells divide quickly and can leave the original site and enter the ____, ____ or ______.
 
blood, lymph or tissues
 
46. 
Cancer cells can divide ________.
 
indefinitely.
 
47. 
Radiation
 
Uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. A large machine directs radiation at the body.
 
48. 
Chemotherapy
 
Uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells
 
49. 
Chemotherapy drug "Taxol"
 
Blocks a cell's ability to break down the mitotic spindle fibres during mitosis. The cell then can't divide and the cancer can't grow.
 
50. 
DNA replication (when DNA becomes double-stranded) occurs during:
 
Synthesis phase of cell division (S)
 
51. 
During mitosis, the function of the centromere is to attach a double-stranded chromosome to the:
 
spindle fibre
 
52. 
Levels of Organization of Life
 
atom->molecule->macromolecule->organelle->cell->tissue->organ->organ system-organism
 
53. 
tissue
 
A collection of cells working together for a common function. ex - blood.
 
54. 
organ
 
A collection of tissues working together for a common function. ex - bronchia.
 
55. 
organ system
 
A collection of organs working together for a common function. ex - respitory system.
 
56. 
4 major types of tissues
 

1. connective

2. epithelial

3. muscle

4. nervous

 
57. 
Epidermal tissue:
 
protects and supports the body.
 
58. 
Epithelial cells line the surfaces of the body as well as line the ________ _____.
 
internal organs
 
59. 
Epithelial tissue cells make strong connections between adjoining ___ ________, so they form a _______.
 
cell membranes, barrier.
 
60. 
The lining of the trachea where the air passes is covered with:
 
columnar epithelium
 
61. 
Cilia
 
tiny finger-like projections covering some cells that sweep back and forth to move materials.
 
62. 
columnar epithelia
 

-made up of columns of cells

-line the stomach and glands

-may secrete mucus

-absorb materials (ex - take nutrients from intestine into the bloodstream)

 
63. 
connective tissue
 

-connects cells and tissues

-consists of cells that connect to other cells or connect organs to other organs

ex - bone tissue, fat (adipose) tissue, blood tissue

-function: supporting & transporting

 
64. 
muscle tissue
 

-designed to change their shape

-muscle cells are several inches long

-two states: contracted (short) or relaxed (long)

-skeletal muscle (voluntary muscle) attached to bone making it possible for the body to move

-function: contracting

 
65. 
smooth muscle (involuntary)
 

-no control over its movement

-does not have striations (little lines)

found in:

-intestines

-stomach

-iris of eye

-walls of blood vessels

-esophagus

 
66. 
cardiac muscle
 

-makes up the heart

-striations or branches go across the cell (they go along the length of skeletal muscles)

 
67. 
nervous tissue
 

-made of cells called neurons that transmit signals from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles or glands or detect information from the environment (ex - heat) to trigger a response like a reflex (ex - release of insulin from pancreas after meal)

function: communicating

 
68. 
epithelial tissue
 
function: covering & lining
 
69. 
ingestion
 
-the process of taking a material into the mouth/body
 
70. 
digestion
 

-the conversion of food into soluble and diffusible products

-breaking down food, chemically and mechanically

 
71. 
absorption
 

-when nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream

-moves from digestive system to circulatory system

-mostly occurs in small intestine

 
72. 
elimination
 
-removal from the body; defecation
 
73. 
esophagus
 
-carried food, liquids and saliva from the mouth to the stomach
 
74. 
stomach
 
-mechanically breaks down food using muscle tissue and gastric juices
 
75. 
duodenum
 

-first part of the small intestine

-contains small tubes that bring chemicals from liver, pancreas and gall bladder to chemically break down food

 
76. 
small intestine
 
-continues to break down food and absorbs nutrients into the bloodstream (mainly fats)
 
77. 
large intestine (colon)
 

-main function is to absorb water, vitamins, various salts from digested food

-eliminates undigested material (fibre)

-contains bacteria to help break down food

 
78. 
rectum
 
-stores feces for a short period of time
 
79. 
anus
 
-removes feces from the body
 
80. 
liver
 

-produces bile

-bile breaks up globs of fat into small droplets

 
81. 
pancreas
 
-releases digestive enzymes
 
82. 
gall bladder
 
-stores bile until needed and then it is released into the duodenum
 
83. 
functions of circulatory system:
 

1. picks up and transports nutrients/oxygen to cells

2. carries wastes to the organs responsible for eliminating them from the body

3. allows two seperate paths through which the blood circulates

4. carries the body's carbon dioxide waste from cellular respiration

 
84. 
Types of blood vessels:
 

1. Artery

2. Vein

3. Capillary

 
85. 
artery
 
-carries blood from the heart to all body parts.
 
86. 
vein
 
-carries blood from body parts back to the heart
 
87. 
capillary
 
-brings blood into contact with the small intestine's villi and microvilli
 
88. 
superior vena cava (vein)
 
-brings blood from the head and arms
 
89. 
inferior vena cava (vein)
 
-brings blood from the trunk and legs
 
90. 
right atrium
 
recieves blood from body
 
91. 
right AV (atrioventricular) valve
 
-prevents blood from moving backwards into the right atrium
 
92. 
right ventricle
 
-pumps blood to lungs
 
93. 
right semilunar valve
 
-controls entrance to pulmonary artery
 
94. 
pulmonary artery
 
-carries blood to the lungs
 
95. 
pulmonary veins
 
-move blood from the lungs to the heart
 
96. 
left atrium
 
-recieves blood from lungs
 
97. 
left AV (atrioventricular) valve
 
-prevents blood from moving backward into left atrium
 
98. 
left ventricle
 
-pumps blood out to the rest of the body
 
99. 
left semilunar valve
 
-controls entrance to aorta
 
100. 
aorta
 
-carries oxygenated blood to body
 
101. 
septum
 
-wall of muscle between the chambers of the heart
 
102. 
How does the heart of a mammal (human) have an advantage over a fish and a frog?
 

-human hearts have 2 ventricles

-fish/amphibeans have only 1

-can be mixing of oxygnated and deoxygenated blood

-so some blood pumped back to body has not been through lungs

 
103. 
nasal cavity
 

-filters, warms and moistens incoming air

 
104. 
pharynx
 

-the very back of the throat

-acts like a 'fork in the road'

-to proceed to esophagus or trachea

 
105. 
epiglottis
 
-prevents food from entering the trachea
 
106. 
larynx
 
-the vocal chords/voice box/Adam's apple
 
107. 
trachea
 
-carries air into the bronchi
 
108. 
bronchus (plural - bronchi)
 
-moves air from trachea to lungs
 
109. 
bronchioles
 
-carries air to alveoli
 
110. 
alveoli
 
-keeps most inhaled bacteria and viruses out of the bloodstream, but still allows gases to cross
 
111. 
diaphragm
 

-contracts and moves down when breathing in

-relaxes and moves up when breathing out