BIO 201 Exam

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1. 
The _____ nervous system is composed ofthe brain and spinal cord.
 
central
 
2. 
The ______ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles.
 
somatic
 
3. 
The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated
 
afferent
 
4. 
_____ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal
 
Ependymal cells
 
5. 
Ion channels that are always open are called ___channels.
 
leak
 
6. 
Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic ______.
 
vesicles
 
7. 
The all-or-none principle states that
 
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
 
8. 
Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system?
 
chemical
 
9. 
The ion that triggers the release ofacetylcholine into the synaptic cleft of aneuromUSClilar junction is
 
calcium
 
10. 
The site in the neuron where EPSPs and IPSPs are integrated is the
 
axon hillock
 
11. 
Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses and multiple places on the neuron is designated
 
spacial summation
 
12. 
When a second EPSP arrives at a singlesynapse before the effects of the first havedisappeared, what occurs?
 
temporal summation
 
13. 
IPSPs(inhibitory post synaptic potentials)
 
are hyperpolarizations
 
14. 
The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system innervates:
 
Smooth, skeletal, heart muscle cells & glandular cells
-all the above
 
15. 
______channels open ordose in response to physical distortion of the membrane surface.
 
Mechanically gated
 
16. 
EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) occur when
 
extra sodium ions enter a cell
 
17. 
Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons?
 
The axon would be unable to generate action potentials.
 
18. 
Which area of the graph occurs when there is asudden inrush of of sodium ions?
 
2
 
19. 
What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain?
 
pia mater
 
20. 
The visual cortex is located in the
 
occipital lobe
 
21. 
The cranial nerve that controls a vast majority of the neural activity is the
 
vagus
 
22. 
The auditory cortexis located in the
 
temporal lobe
 
23. 
Absorption at the arachnoid granulations returns CSF to the
 
venous circulation
 
24. 
What contains a spiderweblike network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?
 
subarachnoid space
 
25. 
The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliverblood to the brain are the
 
internal carotid & vertebral arteries
 
26. 
The ____ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest."
 
parasympathetic
 
27. 
The statement "it controls the diameter of the pupil" is
 
true for the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
 
28. 
The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as
 
ataxia
 
29. 
The auditory ossides connect the
 
tympanic membrane to the oval window
 
30. 
You suspect your friend has damage to cranialnerve 1 when he is unable to
 
smell his food
 
31. 
An area of the retina that contains only conesand is the site of sharpest vision is the
 
fovea
 
32. 
There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated
 
red, green, blue
 
33. 
The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
 
changing shape
 
34. 
The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic isthe
 
cornea
 
35. 
Alter suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ______ lobe.
 
left frontal
 
36. 
There are ___pairs of cranial nerves.
 
12
 
37. 
A(n) is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time.
 
electroencephalogram
 
38. 
______is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read.
 
Aphasia
 
39. 
The _____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
 
conjunctiva
 
40. 
Autonomic efferents
 
conduct impulses to smooth muscles and glands
 
41. 
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is
 
coma
 
42. 
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is
 
sleep
 
43. 
A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order ?
 
cornea > aqueous humor > conjunctiva > lens > vitreous body > retina > choroid
 
44. 
Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on
 
the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae
 
45. 
Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
 
signals rotational movements
 
46. 
Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the
 
macculae of the saccule and utricle
 
47. 
Receptors for hearing are located in the
 
cochlea
 
48. 
What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye ?
 
iris
 
49. 
The gelatinous material that give the eyeball its basic shape is the
 
vitreous humor
 
50. 
Which of the follow descriptions applies to the term myopia?
 
corrected with diverging lensnearsightednessimage focused in front of retina
 
51. 
All of the following are true about the lacrimal glands, except that they
 
A) produce most of the volume of tearsB) are located in the recesses in the frontal bonesC) produce a hypertonic fluidD) produce lysosomesE) produce watery, slightly alkaline secretions
 
52. 
What is the main functions of the rods in the eye?
 
vision to light
 
53. 
Motion sickness seems to
 
result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
 
54. 
Which of the following could not be seen as one that looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?
 
optic chiasm
 
55. 
The blind spot of the eye is
 
where the optic nerve leaves the eye
 
56. 
Preparing the body for "fight or flight" response in the role of the
 
sympathetic
 
57. 
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
 
skeletal muscle
 
58. 
REM sleep is associated with
 
temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles
 
59. 
Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the
 
saccule & utricle
 
60. 
The frequency of a perceived sound depends on
 
which part of the cochlear duct is simulated
 
61. 
Which of these anatomical situations is correct?
 
tympanum > malleus > incus > stapes > oval window > round window