BIO 201 Exam

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1. The _____ nervous system is composed ofthe brain and spinal cord. central
2. The ______ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles. somatic
3. The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated afferent
4. _____ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal Ependymal cells
5. Ion channels that are always open are called ___channels. leak
6. Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic ______. vesicles
7. The all-or-none principle states that all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
8. Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system? chemical
9. The ion that triggers the release ofacetylcholine into the synaptic cleft of aneuromUSClilar junction is calcium
10. The site in the neuron where EPSPs and IPSPs are integrated is the axon hillock
11. Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses and multiple places on the neuron is designated spacial summation
12. When a second EPSP arrives at a singlesynapse before the effects of the first havedisappeared, what occurs? temporal summation
13. IPSPs(inhibitory post synaptic potentials) are hyperpolarizations
14. The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system innervates: Smooth, skeletal, heart muscle cells & glandular cells
-all the above
15. ______channels open ordose in response to physical distortion of the membrane surface. Mechanically gated
16. EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) occur when extra sodium ions enter a cell
17. Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons? The axon would be unable to generate action potentials.
18. Which area of the graph occurs when there is asudden inrush of of sodium ions? 2
19. What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain? pia mater
20. The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe
21. The cranial nerve that controls a vast majority of the neural activity is the vagus
22. The auditory cortexis located in the temporal lobe
23. Absorption at the arachnoid granulations returns CSF to the venous circulation
24. What contains a spiderweblike network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows? subarachnoid space
25. The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliverblood to the brain are the internal carotid & vertebral arteries
26. The ____ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest." parasympathetic
27. The statement "it controls the diameter of the pupil" is true for the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
28. The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as ataxia
29. The auditory ossides connect the tympanic membrane to the oval window
30. You suspect your friend has damage to cranialnerve 1 when he is unable to smell his food
31. An area of the retina that contains only conesand is the site of sharpest vision is the fovea
32. There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated red, green, blue
33. The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by changing shape
34. The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic isthe cornea
35. Alter suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ______ lobe. left frontal
36. There are ___pairs of cranial nerves. 12
37. A(n) is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time. electroencephalogram
38. ______is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read. Aphasia
39. The _____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye. conjunctiva
40. Autonomic efferents conduct impulses to smooth muscles and glands
41. A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is coma
42. A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is sleep
43. A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order ? cornea > aqueous humor > conjunctiva > lens > vitreous body > retina > choroid
44. Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae
45. Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals signals rotational movements
46. Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the macculae of the saccule and utricle
47. Receptors for hearing are located in the cochlea
48. What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye ? iris
49. The gelatinous material that give the eyeball its basic shape is the vitreous humor
50. Which of the follow descriptions applies to the term myopia? corrected with diverging lensnearsightednessimage focused in front of retina
51. All of the following are true about the lacrimal glands, except that they A) produce most of the volume of tearsB) are located in the recesses in the frontal bonesC) produce a hypertonic fluidD) produce lysosomesE) produce watery, slightly alkaline secretions
52. What is the main functions of the rods in the eye? vision to light
53. Motion sickness seems to result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
54. Which of the following could not be seen as one that looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope? optic chiasm
55. The blind spot of the eye is where the optic nerve leaves the eye
56. Preparing the body for "fight or flight" response in the role of the sympathetic
57. Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system? skeletal muscle
58. REM sleep is associated with temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles
59. Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the saccule & utricle
60. The frequency of a perceived sound depends on which part of the cochlear duct is simulated
61. Which of these anatomical situations is correct? tympanum > malleus > incus > stapes > oval window > round window