1. 
At Joe's Restaurant, onefourth of the patrons are male and
onefifth of the patrons are from out of town. What proportion would you expect
to be male and out of town? 

1/20 1/4 and 1/5 = 1/20 
 
2. 
There are 112 male and 78 females working at a hospital.
What percentage of the hospitals workforce is female? 

41% Add the number of men and women to get the total number: 190. The number of
women, 78, so divide 78 into 190 to get .4105. 
 
3. 
What is the estimated product when 620 and 374 are rounded
to the nearest hundred and multiplied? 

240,000 600*400=240,000 
 
4. 
If a patient doesn't receive treatment for a certain injury
within 2 hours after injury, the patient's chance of survival starts decreasing
by 15% each hour. If no treatment has been given within 4 hours after injury,
roughly, what chance of survival will the patient have? 

72% the end of two hours, the patient still has a 100% chance of survival. After
three hours, he has an 85% of survival, or 0.85. After four hours, he has an 85%
of the 85% he had at the end of three hours: 0.85 * 0.85 = 72.25% chance of
survival. 
 
5. 
William is from England and is visiting the United States.
On his trip he visits Texas and notices that it is very hot. He looks at a
thermometer and it reads 95 degrees fahrenheit. William wants to know what this
converts to in Celcius?
Assume C = (F 32) /
1.8 

32 Substituting 95 for F in the equation yields C = (95  32) = 63 / 1.8 = 35
degrees C 
 
6. 
A student scores 74, 87, 68, 63, 76 on his last five exams.
His teacher will drop the lowest grade to compute the student's average. What is
the students average in the class? 

76.3 These are 74, 87, 68, and 76 . To find the average, add the 4 numbers and divide
the sum by 4. 
 
7. 
2^{1}/_{4} + 6^{3}/_{8} 

Convert the ^{1}/_{4} to ^{2}/_{8} and then add
^{2}/_{8} to ^{3}/_{8} to get
^{5}/_{8}.
Finally add 6 + 2 and you have
8^{5}/_{8} 
 
8. 
A world map has a scale of ^{1}/_{4} of an
inch equals 250 miles. You measure the distance between New York, NY and Los
Angeles, California and it equals 3 inches. What is the real distance between
New York and LA? 

3,000 miles 
 
9. 
Of 1,000 dogs, 72% are male. Among the males, 3 out of 5
were over the age 5. How many of the dogs were males age 5 or older? 

432 First multiply 1000 * .72 to find out how many dogs are male. This results in
720 male dogs of which 3/5 are over the age of 5. Therefore, multiply 720 * 3/5
(or .6) which results in 432. 
 
10. 
There are 78 female and 54 male patrons at a local diner.
What percentage of the diner's patrons are female? 

Add 78 to 54 to get 132 total patrons, then divide the number of females into
the total number of patrons. Therefore, 78/132 = .5909 = 59% 
 
11. 
A new cancer treatment provides a 50% success rate for
patients with lung tumors. Lung tumors make up 10% of all cancer patients. What
percentage of all cancer patients will this new drug work on? 

5% A simple way to solve this is to multiply the two percentages. Therefore,
multiply .50 * .10 and you get .05 or 5%. 
 
12. 
A person who has a heart attack can be saved 90% of the
time if a defibrillator is used within 5 minutes of the heart attack. Of the
people that have heart attacks, defibrillators are within the vicinity 40% of
the time; however, they are only used 60% of the time even when they are in the
surrounding area. How many people who suffer a heart attack are saved because of
the use of a defibrillator? 

22% If a defibrillator is used, we know that the patient will have a 90% success
rate; however, only 40% of the people have this option available. Therefore we
take .9 *.4 and know that only 36% of the people have this opportunity.
However, we also know that of the 36% of suffers, only 60% of the time
is a defibrillator used. Therefore we must take .6 * .36 to find out how many
patients are saved by the use of a defibrillator. This results in .216 or 22% of
patients are saved by the use of a defibrillator. 
 
13. 
A paint company mixes it's paint with water
to create more paint per gallon. They currently have ten gallon jugs which
contain 10% water. How much water must they add to create a 80/20 mix of paint
to water? 

1.25 gallons Currently the mixture is 90% paint, 10% water or 9 gallons of paint for every 1
gallon of water.
For the company to create an 80% / 20% mix, the company
must add 1.25 gallons to their current 10 gallon mixtures. This will create 2.25
gallons of water for every 11.25 total gallons. This results in a
^{2.25}/_{11.25} or 20% water mix. 
 
14. 
a mail carrier can deliver mail to 1,400 different homes in one day. In the city
of Utopia, their are 52,800 residents. How many mail carriers must be hired to
deliver mail to all of the residents of Utopia each day? 

38 To find the number of required mail carriers, simply divide 52,800 by 1,400 to
get 37.714. Therefore you must round up and you have 38 mail carriers. 
 