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Chapter 18 Solutions

45 Questions
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Chapter 18 SOLUTIONS

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What does the picture of the sugar cube suspended in water tell you about where on a solid sample the solution process takes place? 
    • A. 

      The solution process takes place at the bottom of a solid.

    • B. 

      The solution process takes place at the surface of a solid.

    • C. 

      The solution process takes place at the side of a solid.

  • 2. 
    The conditions that causes sugar to dissolve faster in water are  
    • A. 

      Solute is molecular,solvent in kilograms, middle temperature.

    • B. 

      The freezing point ,boiling-point elevation, and lower temperature.

    • C. 

      In granulated form, when stirred, and at a higher temperature.

  • 3. 
    Finely ground particles dissolve more rapidly than larger particles because finer particles expose a greater surface area to the colliding solvent molecules. 
    • A. 

      Quantity of solvent

    • B. 

      Sodium chloride.

    • C. 

      Solvent molecules.

  • 4. 
    Three factors that influence the rate at which a solute dissolves in a solvent are
    • A. 

      Agitation (stirring or shaking), temperature, particle size.

    • B. 

      Solute is molecular,solvent in kilograms, middle temperature.

    • C. 

      In granulated form, when stirred, and at a higher temperature.

  • 5. 
    Finely ground particles dissolve more rapidly than larger particles because finer particles expose a greater surface area to the ___________________.
    • A. 

      Non colliding solvent molecules.

    • B. 

      colliding solvent molecules.

    • C. 

      Semi- colliding solvent molecules.

  • 6. 
      The amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a constant temperature is called the substance’s ______________________ . 
    • A. 

      Solubility

    • B. 

      Dissolved

    • C. 

      Saturated

  • 7. 
    If a solution contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent at a constant temperature, it is called a(n) ______________________ solution. 
    • A. 

      Solubility

    • B. 

      Dissolved

    • C. 

      Saturated

  • 8. 
    The total amount of dissolved solute remains constant.  The total mass of undissolved crystals remains constant.  When the rate of solvation equals the rate of crystallization, a state of dynamic equilibrium exists. 
    • A. 

      Those sentences are true about a vapor pressure equilibrium

    • B. 

      Those sentences are true about a given quantity of solvent .

    • C. 

      Those sentences are true about a saturated solution.

  • 9. 
    If two liquids dissolve each other, they are said to be ______________________ . 
    • A. 

      Miscible

    • B. 

      Immiscible

    • C. 

      Decreased

  • 10. 
    Vinegar is water-based, and oil and water are ________________. The less dense oil floats on the water-based solution. 
    • A. 

      Immiscible

    • B. 

      Miscible

    • C. 

      Decreased

  • 11. 
    The solubility of sodium chloride in water _________________ to 39.2 g per 100 g of water at 100 °C from 36.2 g per 100 g of water at 25 °C. 
    • A. 

      Stays the same

    • B. 

      Decreases

    • C. 

      Increases

  • 12. 
    How does the solubility of solid substances change as the temperature of the solvent increases? 
    • A. 

      The solubility increases for all solids.

    • B. 

      The solubility increases for most solids.

    • C. 

      The solubility remains constant.

  • 13. 
    _________ is the solid substance that is nearly insoluble at any temperature? 
    • A. 

      Barium sulfate

    • B. 

      Sodium sulfate

    • C. 

      Lithium sulfate

  • 14. 
    How does the solubility of a gas change with an increase in temperature? 
    • A. 

      As the temperature increases, the solubility of a gas remains the same.

    • B. 

      As the temperature increases, the solubility of a gas increases.

    • C. 

      As the temperature increases, the solubility of a gas decreases.

  • 15. 
    The directly proportional relationship between the solubility of a gas in a liquid and the pressure of the gas above the liquid is known as  ___________________________.
    • A. 

      Howard's Law

    • B. 

      Henry's Law

    • C. 

      Harvard's Law

  • 16. 
    In the closed bottle, the pressure is high and lots of CO2 is dissolved in the carbonated beverage. Once the cap is removed, the___________________, allowing more CO2 in the carbonated beverage to escape.  
    • A. 

      Vapor pressure stays the same

    • B. 

      Vapor pressure decreases

    • C. 

      Vapor pressure increases

  • 17. 
    The greater the pressure and _____________and the lesser the pressure and ______________.
    • A. 

      Less solubility, greater solubility

    • B. 

      greater solubility , less solubility

    • C. 

      Stable solubility , unstable solubility

  • 18. 
    How does a solution become supersaturated? 
    • A. 

      When the temperature of a solution with a small excess of solid solute is raised, the solute does not dissolve. If the solution is then allowed to slowly cool, the excess solute may stay dissolved at a temperature above the temperature at which it would ordinarily crystallize.

    • B. 

      When the temperature of a solution with a small excess of solid solute is raised, the solute does not dissolve. If the solution is then allowed to slowly cool, the excess solute may stay dissolved at a temperature below the temperature at which it would ordinarily crystallize.

    • C. 

      When the temperature of a solution with a small excess of solid solute is raised, the solute dissolves. If the solution is then allowed to slowly cool, the excess solute may stay dissolved at a temperature below the temperature at which it would ordinarily crystallize.

  • 19. 
    A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent is the ______________________ of a solution. 
    • A. 

      Miscible

    • B. 

      Supersaturated

    • C. 

      Concentration

  • 20. 
    The most important unit of concentration in chemistry is ______________________ . 
    • A. 

      Solubility

    • B. 

      Molarity

    • C. 

      Solidify

  • 21. 
     Molarity is the number of ________ of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. 
    • A. 

      Meters

    • B. 

      Ounces

    • C. 

      Moles

  • 22. 
    The best procedure for making a 0.50-molar (0.50M) solution in a 1.0-L volumetric flask is  
    • A. 

      Add distilled water exactly to the 1.0-L mark, add 0.50 mol of solute, and then agitate to dissolve the solute.

    • B. 

      Place 0.50 mol of solute in the flask, add distilled water to the 1.0-L mark, and then agitate to dissolve the solute.

    • C. 

      Fill the flask with distilled water until it is about half full, add 0.50 mol of solute, agitate to dissolve the solute, and then carefully fill the flask with distilled water to the 1.0-L mark.

  • 23. 
    List the information needed to find the molarity of a 2.0-L solution containing 0.50 mol of sodium chloride.     Known __________ of solution __________of sodium chloride  ___________________________ molarity (M) ___________________                      liters of solution     
    • A. 

      (known)1.0 liters, 0.20 mol, ( molarity) moles of solvent

    • B. 

      (known)2.0 liters, 0.50 mol, ( molarity) moles of solute

    • C. 

      (known)4.0 liters, 1.00 mol, ( molarity) moles of solultion

  • 24. 
    How do you make a solution less concentrated? 
    • A. 

      Dilute it with ice.

    • B. 

      Dilute it with gas.

    • C. 

      Dilute it with solvent.

  • 25. 
    What happens to the number of moles of solute present in the solution when the volume doubles? 
    • A. 

      The number of moles of solute remains decreases .

    • B. 

      The number of moles of solute increases.

    • C. 

      The number of moles of solute remains constant.

  • 26. 
    The correct description of the change in molarity of a solution when the volume doubles is
    • A. 

      The molarity of the solution is cut in half.

    • B. 

      The molarity of the solution doubles.

    • C. 

      The molarity of the solution remains constant.

  • 27. 
    List the information you need to find how many milliliters of a stock solution of 2.00M MgSO4 you would need to prepare 100.0 mL of 1.00M MgSO4. Known Unknown M1 ___________________________ V1 ? mL of 2.00M MgSO4 M2 ___________________________ V2 ___________________________ M1  ____________ ____________  
    • A. 

      . Known Unknown M1  __________2.00M_________________ V1  ? mL of 2.00M MgSO4 M2  __________1.00M_________________ V2  ______100.0 mL_____________________ M1  __V1__________  _____M2 x V2_______

    • B. 

      Known Unknown M1  ______3.00M_____________________ V1  ? mL of 2.00M MgSO4 M2  ______1.00M_____________________ V2  _____100.0mL______________________ M1  ____V2________  ____M4 x V4________

    • C. 

      Known Unknown M1  ______3.00M_____________________ V1  ? mL of 3.00M MgSO4 M2  ______3.00M_____________________ V2  __________3.00mL_________________ M1  ____V2________  ___M5 x V5_________

  • 28. 
    List the information needed to find the percent by volume of ethanol in a solution when 50 mL of pure ethanol is diluted with water to a volume of 250 mL. Known Unknown Volume of ethanol __________ % ethanol by volume ? % Volume of solution __________ % (v/v) _____________________________
    • A. 

      Known Unknown Volume of ethanol  _70mL_________ % ethanol by volume  ? % Volume of solution  __750mL ___volume of solute  volume of solution x__100%___% (v/v) 

    • B. 

      Known Unknown Volume of ethanol  _60mL_________ % ethanol by volume  ? % Volume of solution  __250mL ___volume of solute  volume of solution x__500%___% (v/v) 

    • C. 

      Known Unknown Volume of ethanol  _50mL_________ % ethanol by volume  ? % Volume of solution  __250mL ___volume of solute  volume of solution x__100%___% (v/v) 

  • 29. 
    Properties of a solution that depend only on the number of particles dissolved, but not the identity of solute particles in the solution are called 
    • A. 

      Kinetic energy

    • B. 

      Vapor pressure

    • C. 

      Colligative properties

  • 30. 
    A ____________ substance is one that does not vaporize easily. 
    • A. 

      nonvolatile

    • B. 

      volatile

    • C. 

      Stable

  • 31. 
    The _______________is disturbed as solvent particles form shells around solute particles.
    • A. 

      Colligative

    • B. 

      equilibrium

    • C. 

      Solutes

  • 32. 
    Equilibrium is eventually re-established at a ____________________. 
    • A. 

      Lower vapor pressure.

    • B. 

      Higher vapor pressure

    • C. 

      Same vapor pressure

  • 33. 
    The decrease in vapor pressure is proportional to the number of particles the solute makes in_____________.  
    • A. 

      Solution

    • B. 

      Solvent

    • C. 

      Gas

  • 34. 
    Solutes with more particles per formula unit produce a larger __________ in vapor pressure. 
    • A. 

      Increase

    • B. 

      Decrease

    • C. 

      Stay the same

  • 35. 
    a.The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. b. Adding a nonvolatile solute decreases the vapor pressure. c. Because of the decrease in vapor pressure, additional kinetic energy must be added to raise the vapor pressure of the liquid phase to atmospheric pressure. d. The boiling point of the solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent. 
    • A. 

      The boiling point of a solution formed by a liquid solvent and a nonvolatile solute.

    • B. 

      The boiling point of a solution formed by a solid solvent and a nonvolatile solute.

    • C. 

      The boiling point of a solution formed by a gas solvent and a nonvolatile solute.

  • 36. 
    The difference between the boiling point of a solution and that of the pure solvent is called the _________________________________________________________ . 
    • A. 

      Boiling-point elevation

    • B. 

      Boiling-point no elevation

    • C. 

      Boiling-point some elevation

  • 37. 
    a.The presence of a solute in water disrupts the formation of orderly patterns as the solution is cooled to the freezing point of pure water. b. More kinetic energy must be withdrawn from a solution than from a pure solvent in order for the solution to solidify. c. The freezing point of the solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent. 
    • A. 

      The gas point of a solution formed by a liquid solvent and nonvolatile solute are above

    • B. 

      The boiling point of a solution formed by a liquid solvent and nonvolatile solute are above

    • C. 

      The freezing point of a solution formed by a liquid solvent and nonvolatile solute are above

  • 38. 
    One mole of which substance, glucose or sodium chloride, will produce more freezing-point depression when added to equal amounts of water? Why? 
    • A. 

      Sodium sulfate because it produces twice as many particles per formula unit in solution than glucose.

    • B. 

      Sodium chloride because it produces twice as many particles per formula unit in solution than glucose.

    • C. 

      Sodium hydrate because it produces twice as many particles per formula unit in solution than glucose.

  • 39. 
    For a solution, the ratio of moles of solute to mass of solvent in kilograms, represented by lower-case “m,” is the solution’s ______________________ .  
    • A. 

      Molality

    • B. 

      Meter

    • C. 

      Mass

  • 40. 
    Molarity and molality are ___________ the same for a solution. 
    • A. 

      Sometimes

    • B. 

      Never

    • C. 

      Always

  • 41. 
    What is the molality of a solution prepared by adding 1.0 mol of sodium chloride to 2.0 kg of water? _____________________ 
    • A. 

      50.m

    • B. 

      0.50m

    • C. 

      5.0m

  • 42. 
    Assuming a solute is molecular and not ionic, the magnitude of the boiling-point elevation of the solution, ΔTb, is directly proportional to  
    • A. 

      The molal concentration of the solvent (m)

    • B. 

      The molal concentration of the solution (m)

    • C. 

      The molal concentration of the solute (m)

  • 43. 
    Look at Table 18.2 on page 523. What is the molal boiling-point elevation constant, Kb, for water?  
    • A. 

      0.512 °C/m

    • B. 

      0.712 °C/m

    • C. 

      0.521 °C/m

  • 44. 
    You need to find the freezing point of a 1.50m aqueous NaCl solution. You calculate ΔTf to be 1.86 °C/m  3.00m or 5.86 °C. What is the temperature at which the solution freezes? 
    • A. 

      6.85 °C

    • B. 

      5.68 °C

    • C. 

      5.86 °C

  • 45. 
    Explain how you could use freezing-point depression to compute an unknown molar mass of a compound. 
    • A. 

      A known mass of the compound sometimes be dissolved in a known mass of solvent with a known Kf value. Carefully measure the change in freezing point. From this data, the molar mass can be computed.

    • B. 

      A known mass of the compound couldn't be dissolved in a known mass of solvent with a known Kf value. Carefully measure the change in freezing point. From this data, the molar mass can be computed.

    • C. 

      A known mass of the compound could be dissolved in a known mass of solvent with a known Kf value. Carefully measure the change in freezing point. From this data, the molar mass can be computed.

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