1. | What does the picture of the sugar cube suspended in water tell you about where on a solid sample the solution process takes place? |
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2. | The conditions that causes sugar to dissolve faster in water are |
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3. | Finely ground particles dissolve more rapidly than larger particles because finer particles expose a greater surface area to the colliding solvent molecules. |
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4. | Three factors that influence the rate at which a solute dissolves in a solvent are |
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5. | Finely ground particles dissolve more rapidly than larger particles because finer particles expose a greater surface area to the ___________________. |
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6. | The amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a constant temperature is called the substance’s ______________________ . |
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7. | If a solution contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent at a constant temperature, it is called a(n) ______________________ solution. |
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8. | The total amount of dissolved solute remains constant. The total mass of undissolved crystals remains constant. When the rate of solvation equals the rate of crystallization, a state of dynamic equilibrium exists. |
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9. | If two liquids dissolve each other, they are said to be ______________________ . |
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10. | Vinegar is water-based, and oil and water are ________________. The less dense oil floats on the water-based solution. |
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11. | The solubility of sodium chloride in water _________________ to 39.2 g per 100 g of water at 100 °C from 36.2 g per 100 g of water at 25 °C. |
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12. | How does the solubility of solid substances change as the temperature of the solvent increases? |
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13. | _________ is the solid substance that is nearly insoluble at any temperature? |
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14. | How does the solubility of a gas change with an increase in temperature? |
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15. | The directly proportional relationship between the solubility of a gas in a liquid and the pressure of the gas above the liquid is known as ___________________________. |
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16. | In the closed bottle, the pressure is high and lots of CO2 is dissolved in the carbonated beverage. Once the cap is removed, the___________________, allowing more CO2 in the carbonated beverage to escape. |
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17. | The greater the pressure and _____________and the lesser the pressure and ______________. |
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18. | How does a solution become supersaturated? |
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19. | A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent is the ______________________ of a solution. |
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20. | The most important unit of concentration in chemistry is ______________________ . |
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21. | Molarity is the number of ________ of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. |
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22. | The best procedure for making a 0.50-molar (0.50M) solution in a 1.0-L volumetric flask is |
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23. | List the information needed to find the molarity of a 2.0-L solution containing 0.50 mol of sodium chloride. Known __________ of solution __________of sodium chloride ___________________________ molarity (M) ___________________ liters of solution |
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24. | How do you make a solution less concentrated? |
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25. | What happens to the number of moles of solute present in the solution when the volume doubles? |
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26. | The correct description of the change in molarity of a solution when the volume doubles is |
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27. | List the information you need to find how many milliliters of a stock solution of 2.00M MgSO4 you would need to prepare 100.0 mL of 1.00M MgSO4. Known Unknown M1 ___________________________ V1 ? mL of 2.00M MgSO4 M2 ___________________________ V2 ___________________________ M1 ____________ ____________ |
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28. | List the information needed to find the percent by volume of ethanol in a solution when 50 mL of pure ethanol is diluted with water to a volume of 250 mL. Known Unknown Volume of ethanol __________ % ethanol by volume ? % Volume of solution __________ % (v/v) _____________________________ |
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29. | Properties of a solution that depend only on the number of particles dissolved, but not the identity of solute particles in the solution are called |
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30. | A ____________ substance is one that does not vaporize easily. |
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31. | The _______________is disturbed as solvent particles form shells around solute particles. |
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32. | Equilibrium is eventually re-established at a ____________________. |
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33. | The decrease in vapor pressure is proportional to the number of particles the solute makes in_____________. |
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34. | Solutes with more particles per formula unit produce a larger __________ in vapor pressure. |
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35. | a.The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. b. Adding a nonvolatile solute decreases the vapor pressure. c. Because of the decrease in vapor pressure, additional kinetic energy must be added to raise the vapor pressure of the liquid phase to atmospheric pressure. d. The boiling point of the solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent. |
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36. | The difference between the boiling point of a solution and that of the pure solvent is called the _________________________________________________________ . |
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37. | a.The presence of a solute in water disrupts the formation of orderly patterns as the solution is cooled to the freezing point of pure water. b. More kinetic energy must be withdrawn from a solution than from a pure solvent in order for the solution to solidify. c. The freezing point of the solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent. |
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38. | One mole of which substance, glucose or sodium chloride, will produce more freezing-point depression when added to equal amounts of water? Why? |
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39. | For a solution, the ratio of moles of solute to mass of solvent in kilograms, represented by lower-case “m,” is the solution’s ______________________ . |
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40. | Molarity and molality are ___________ the same for a solution. |
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41. | What is the molality of a solution prepared by adding 1.0 mol of sodium chloride to 2.0 kg of water? _____________________ |
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42. | Assuming a solute is molecular and not ionic, the magnitude of the boiling-point elevation of the solution, ΔTb, is directly proportional to |
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43. | Look at Table 18.2 on page 523. What is the molal boiling-point elevation constant, Kb, for water? |
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44. | You need to find the freezing point of a 1.50m aqueous NaCl solution. You calculate ΔTf to be 1.86 °C/m 3.00m or 5.86 °C. What is the temperature at which the solution freezes? |
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45. | Explain how you could use freezing-point depression to compute an unknown molar mass of a compound. |
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