Hohenfelsusgovt12 Flashcards Table View

     

1) At the most basic level, a political party seeks to
A) distribute perquisites to a broad swath of the public.
B) bring financial rewards to voters and candidates.
C) reduce the influence of officeholders and restore influence to the public.
D) gain and exercise power through the electoral process.
E) inform and educate the public.
D

The office holders who run under the banner of a political party are called the
A) party in the electorate.
B) organizational party.
C) campaign party.
D) governmental party.
E) party's ideological base.
D
Who of the following is not part of the political party?
A) voters who associate themselves with a particular party
B) precinct captains
C) the Speaker of the House
D) the board of directors of the American Civil Liberties Union
E) the chairs of the DNC and the RNC
D
4) What did George Washington say about political parties in his farewell address?
A) Washington warned the nation against parties.
B) "Democracy is unthinkable save in terms of parties."
C) Washington begged his fellow countrymen to disband the Federalist Party and institute the Whig Party.
D) "My fellow Americans, I must warn you that the party is over."
E) "It has become increasingly clear to me that the party has just begun! Long live American political parties."
A

5) In his farewell address, ________ warned the nation against political parties.
A) James Madison
B) John Adams
C) John Quincy Adams
D) Thomas Jefferson
E) George Washington
E
6) The farewell address of which early president warned the nation against political parties?
A) Andrew Jackson
B) George Washington
C) Abraham Lincoln
D) James Madison
E) John Adams
B
7) Who was the first president elected as the nominee of a party?
A) Martin Van Buren
B) Alexander Hamilton
C) John Quincy Adams
D) Andrew Jackson
E) Thomas Jefferson
E

8) Which of the following statements about political parties is accurate?
A) Third parties have frequently captured the White House.
B) The U.S. has never had a third party.
C) The Democratic and Republican Parties have been on the presidential ballot for every election since George Washington.
D) Third parties are prohibited by the Constitution.
E) While the Democrats and Republicans have dominated American politics, they have also seen competition from a wide variety of third parties.
E
9) Party politics were nearly suspended at the national level during the
A) Post-World War II Era.
B) Era of Good Feelings.
C) Roaring Twenties.
D) Populist Era.
E) Progressive Era.
B
10) What does the Constitution say about political parties?
A) "Congress shall organize itself by Majority and Minority Party, in accordance with the Results of the most recent Election."
B) The Constitution does not mention political parties.
C) "The number of Political Parties shall not be limited, but no Party shall gain access to any Ballot or Ticket without the receipt of five per cent of the Vote in the preceding Election."
D) "As Democracy is unthinkable save in terms of Parties, the Right of the People to form and keep Parties shall not be abridged."
E) "Elections shall be Mediated by exactly two Political Parties."
B

11) What does the Constitution say about political parties?
A) It notes the direct link between parties and democracy.
B) It establishes a two-party system.
C) The Constitution does not mention political parties.
D) It mandates that political parties use primaries to select their candidates.
E) It prohibits the major political parties from hindering the "natural development of Third Parties."
C
12) During the 1820s through 1840s, the number of eligible voters increased due in part to
A) slaves gaining the right to vote.
B) the establishment of universal suffrage for all U.S. citizens.
C) the abolition of property requirements for males.
D) lowering the voting age to 18.
E) women gaining the right to vote.
C

13) The first president to win as a nominee from a national presidential convention was
A) Thomas Jefferson
B) Martin Van Buren
C) Andrew Jackson
D) Alexander Hamilton
E) John Quincy Adams
C
14) The first major national presidential nominating convention was held in
A) 1796. B) 1968. C) 1832. D) 1892. E) 1924.
C
15) Political machines recruit party members
A) by threatening physical violence.
B) in machinist shops and other factories.
C) abroad.
D) by offering them tangible incentives, such as jobs.
E) by providing tremendous leeway in how party members serve the party.
D

16) A party organization that recruits its members with tangible incentives such as jobs and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity is called a
A) boss. B) machine. C) mob. D) patriarch. E) patron.
B

17) From 1874 to 1912 the political parties were stable, well organized, and influential. For these reasons, this period is sometimes called the
A) Era of Good Feelings.
B) Christian Democratic Party Era.
C) Age of Aquarius.
D) Responsible Party System.
E) Golden Age of parties.
E

18) The period from 1874 to 1912 was often called the Golden Age of parties because the political parties were
A) stable, well organized, and influential.
B) progressive, prospective, and prolific.
C) alchemist, ancient, and robust.
D) anarchistic, boisterous, and cautious.
E) responsible, retrospective, and reactive.
A
19) The Republican Party was established in
A) 1916. B) 1820. C) 1896. D) 1932. E) 1854.
E
20) The selection of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters is called a
A) party conference.
B) disenfranchisement caucus.
C) coronation convention.
D) direct primary.
E) party referendum.
D
21) In a direct primary system, who selects party candidates?
A) party bosses
B) party leaders
C) party conventions
D) political machines
E) qualified voters
E
22) Where would you be most likely to find a political machine?
A) in rugged, sparely populated areas of the West
B) in the Northwest Territory
C) in big cities
D) in rural areas
E) in small towns
C

23) The Progressive movement embraced
A) strong political parties.
B) political machines.
C) party conventions.
D) civil service laws.
E) patronage.
D
24) The era of machine politics was replaced with
A) civil service laws which created a professional bureaucracy.
B) the rise of issue-oriented politics
C) the rise of candidate-centered politics
D) a direct nomination system.
E) All of the above.
E
25) The era of machine politics was replaced with
A) patronage.
B) party-centered party politics.
C) smoke-filled rooms.
D) candidate-centered politics.
E) All of the above.
D
26) Civil service laws require
A) compulsory education through the tenth grade.
B) ticket splitting.
C) patronage.
D) compulsory voting.
E) appointment based on merit.
E
27) The Progressive era reform ushered in
A) party machines.
B) candidate-centered politics.
C) logrolling.
D) secular realignment.
E) party dealignment.
B
28) Which of the following is an example of ticket-splitting?
A) voting for a Democratic presidential candidate and a Republican congressional candidate
B) voting for the presidential candidate but not voting for any down-ballot elections
C) voting for a Democratic presidential candidate in 2004 and a Republican presidential candidate in the general election
D) voting for Democratic candidates for every office
E) voting for a Democratic presidential candidate in the primary and the Republican candidate in the general election
A

29) According to Figure 12.2, which presidential candidate won the largest percentage of the Electoral College vote?
A) Herbert Hoover 1932
B) John Adams in 1800
C) Thomas Jefferson in 1800
D) Abraham Lincoln in 1860
E) Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932
E
30) According to Figure 12.2, which presidential candidate won the largest percentage of the popular vote?
A) John Adams in 1800
B) Thomas Jefferson in 1800
C) Abraham Lincoln in 1860
D) Herbert Hoover 1932
E) Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932
E

31) Which of the following best describes the party system currently used in the United States?
A) multimember, plurality districts
B) proportional representation
C) machine politics
D) a two-party system
E) a strong party system
D
32) Civil service laws severely limited opportunities for
A) third-party activity.
B) the growth of the federal bureaucracy.
C) patronage.
D) merit employment.
E) campaigning.
C
33) Parties were weakened by
A) a decline in the number of lobbyists.
B) decreases in district size.
C) the rise of machine politics.
D) the movement of people to urban areas.
E) the Progressive movement.
E
34) A shifting of party coalitions in the electorate that remain in place for several elections is called
A) a misalignment.
B) a transition.
C) an electoral shift.
D) a realignment.
E) a temporary mandate.
D
35) A sudden shift of party coalition groupings in the electorate, such as Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal coalition in the 1930s, is referred to as a
A) critical realignment.
B) ticket split.
C) party realignment.
D) graduation realignment.
E) secular realignment.
C

36) A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections is known as
A) an electoral tsunami.
B) ticket splitting.
C) a coalitional government.
D) party realignment.
E) punctuated misalignment.
D
37) Which of the following was a critical election?
A) Dwight Eisenhower in 1952
B) James Polk in 1844
C) Grover Cleveland in 1884
D) Franklin Roosevelt in 1932
E) Franklin Pierce in 1852
D
38) Which of the following was a critical election?
A) Bill Clinton's victory in 1992
B) Herbert Hoover's victory in 1928
C) Dwight D. Eisenhower's victory in 1952
D) Abraham Lincoln's victory in 1860
E) James Madison's victory in 1812
D

39) An election that signals a lasting change in party coalitions is most accurately called
A) a significant election.
B) a crucial election.
C) a critical election.
D) a tumultuous election.
E) a consequential election.
C
40) Which of the following is most likely to characterize a secular realignment?
A) precipitated by a momentous event
B) immediate
C) gradual
D) liberal
E) conservative
C

41) A gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based on demographic shifts rather than shocks to the political system, is referred to as a
A) critical realignment.
B) gradual realignment.
C) secular realignment.
D) convolution.
E) party realignment.
C
42) When is a realignment unlikely to occur?
A) when there is a major economic crisis
B) when there is a war
C) when there is a sudden shifting in the coalitions that support each party
D) when there is a critical election
E) when party attachments are relatively weak
E
43) Get out the vote drives have been an increasingly effective means of
A) winning elections.
B) increasing the number of self-identified partisans.
C) increasing the number of candidates.
D) increasing voter apathy.
E) All of the above.
A
44) Prior to 2008, which party has been more successful in their get-out-the-vote drives?
A) the Democratic Party
B) the Republican Party
C) Neither party experienced success with their GOTV drives.
D) Both parties had equal success in their GOTV drives.
E) Third parties have had the most success in their GOTV drives.
B
45) Presidents are inclined to push policies similar to those advocated by
A) the homeless.
B) the opposition party's platform.
C) nonvoters.
D) their party's congressional leaders.
E) the opposition party's political action committees.
D
46) Which of the following is not a function of political parties in the United States? 46) ______
A) formulating and promoting policy
B) mobilizing support for issues and candidates
C) provide a cue for voters
D) interpreting laws and exercising judicial review
E) providing a force for stability and moderation
D

47) A statement of general and specific philosophy and policy goals for a party that is formulated at a convention is known as a
A) platform.
B) agenda.
C) plank.
D) memo of commitment.
E) communiqué.
A
48) Third parties are rarely rooted in
A) economic protest.
B) charismatic personalities.
C) emotional issues.
D) multi-issue politics.
E) sectionalism.
D
49) Where can one find proportional representation?
A) the California legislature
B) the Nebraska legislature
C) the presidency
D) Europe
E) the Senate
D
50) The U.S. has a "single member, plurality" system, often referred to as
A) winner-take-some.
B) proportional representation.
C) winner-take-most.
D) winner-take-all.
E) direct representation.
D
51) Congressional elections use a
A) multi-member, majority system.
B) platform party system.
C) proportional representation system.
D) single-member, plurality system.
E) party machine system.
D
52) Third parties are likely to be rooted in
A) sectionalism.
B) issues.
C) economic protest.
D) charismatic personalities.
E) All of the above.
E
53) Who ran for office under the Reform Party?
A) Jesse Ventura
B) Pat Buchanan
C) Ross Perot
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.
D
54) The American Independent Party enjoyed a modicum of success because of
A) a sedate issue with civil rights.
B) a dynamic leader in George Wallace.
C) a firm geographic base in the North.
D) a realignment.
E) All of the above.
B
55) How many independents were there in the 111th Congress?
A) two, and both caucus with the Democrats
B) eighteen in the House and none in the Senate
C) two, and both caucus with the Republicans
D) none
E) four in the House and none in the Senate
A
56) A party's precinct and ward committees are ________ party organizations.
A) local
B) congressional district
C) national
D) state
E) regional
A

57) Which of the following is the smallest level of the party organization and is comprised of the foot soldiers for the party?
A) city B) state C) precinct D) county E) district
C
58) A party meeting held to nominate a candidate and formulate a platform is known as a
A) coalition
B) conclave.
C) convocation.
D) convention.
E) convection.
D
59) Every four years, the parties nominate their presidential candidates through
A) party platforms.
B) smoke-filled rooms.
C) conference committees.
D) national nominating committees.
E) national conventions.
E
60) The head of the Democratic National Committee is
A) Hillary Clinton.
B) Howard Dean.
C) Barack Obama.
D) Bill Clinton.
E) Nancy Pelosi.
B
61) The head of the national party is the
A) party's most recent former president of the United States.
B) secretary of the party.
C) party's most recently defeated presidential candidate.
D) national convention chair.
E) chairperson of the national committee.
E
62) Which of the following is a responsibility of the chair of the party's national committee?
A) selecting the opposing party's presidential candidate
B) instigating disputes among the different candidates
C) instigating factionalism within the party
D) fundraising
E) selecting the party's presidential candidate
D
63) Which of the following best describes Howard Dean's strategy for building the Democratic Party?
A) a "spoonful-of-sugar strategy" to help the American public recover from the George W. Bush presidency
B) a "chicken-in-every-pot strategy" to reach out to poor and struggling working-class families
C) a "birds-of-prey strategy" to swoop down and capture the congressional seats of fledgling freshmen Republicans
D) a "fifty-state strategy" to build the party organization nationwide, including in red states
E) a "bassackward strategy" to depress Republican voter registration and encourage disaffected Republicans to change their registration to independent
D
64) Why were some congressional Democrats upset with Howard Dean's leadership? 6
A) They thought the party should focus on winning congressional seats in swing states.
B) They thought the party should focus on shoring up the base.
C) They thought the party should build up the party organization in blue states.
D) They were disappointed that Dean was indicted on corruption charges, even though the charges were eventually dropped.
E) They thought the party should build up the party organizations in red states.
A
65) What is the most important function of the national party chair?
A) to draft the platform
B) to recruit candidates
C) to distribute patronage
D) to organize workshops for party volunteers
E) to raise money
E
66) What are the two most important functions of the national party chair?
A) protecting the party from patronage and enhancing the authority of state chairs
B) drafting the platform and disciplining wayward partisans
C) distributing patronage and soliciting donations
D) raising money and enforcing message discipline
E) canvassing and phone banking
D

67) An institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics, acting as a source of ideas and solutions for policy problems, is referred to as a
A) think tank.
B) coalitional government.
C) citizen's advisory panel.
D) brain trust.
E) independent regulatory commission.
A
68) Think tanks influence
A) party positions.
B) campaign funding.
C) congressional reformation.
D) secular realignments.
E) social capital.
A
69) Political parties are most visible and important in the
A) bureaucracy.
B) state governments.
C) executive branch.
D) legislative branch.
E) judiciary.
D
70) The party is most visible and vital in which branch of the government?
A) legislative
B) presidential
C) bureaucratic
D) judicial
E) executive
A
71) Which of the following was virtually unregulated?
A) soft money
B) hard money
C) campaign contributions to a political action committee
D) campaign contributions to a political party
E) campaign contributions to a candidate
A
72) Which of the following most accurately describes fundraising in the 2006 midterm elections?
A) Democrats raised nearly $100 million more than Republicans raised.
B) Democrats and Republicans raised nearly equal amounts of money.
C) Democrats raised about half as much money as Republicans raised.
D) Republicans raised nearly $100 million more than Democrats raised.
E) Republicans raised more money than the Democrats because Republicans accepted soft money while Democrats did not.
D
73) Howard Dean revolutionized the use of
A) the plum book for rewarding patronage.
B) soft money.
C) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac
D) the Internet for raising campaign money.
E) EMILY's List.
D
74) Which of the following limits congressional parties from acting in a coordinated and cohesive fashion?
A) a separate executive branch
B) the decentralization of Congress's work
C) the growing individualism of members of Congress
D) the bicameral nature of Congress
E) All of the above
E
75) Which of the following has contributed to increased congressional party unity?
A) earmarks
B) increasing ideological heterogeneity
C) divided government
D) the increasing conservativeness of southern Democrats
E) partisan gerrymandering
E

76) Which of the following best describes changes in congressional party unity since the 1970s?
A) Party unity has increased among Republicans but decreased among Democrats.
B) Party unity has increased rapidly among Republicans and increased slowly among Democrats.
C) Party unity has increased considerably among both Democrats and Republicans.
D) Party unity has increased among Democrats but decreased among Republicans.
E) Party unity has increased slowly among Republicans and increased rapidly among Democrats.
C

77) Which of the following presidents made the strongest concerted effort to help increase the influence of his political party?
A) Dwight D. Eisenhower
B) Jimmy Carter
C) Ronald Reagan
D) Richard Nixon.
E) Lyndon Johnson.
C
78) ________ has a nonpartisan legislature.
A) Pennsylvania
B) Vermont
C) Nebraska
D) Rhode Island
E) Utah
C

79) Which of the following helps explain why most ballots contain only Democratic and Republican candidates?
A) the legal institutionalization of the two major parties
B) the inertia of political tradition
C) restrictive ballot laws
D) campaign finance rules
E) All of the above.
E
80) Why do most ballots contain only Democratic and Republican candidates?
A) the legal institutionalization of the two major parties
B) the entropy of ideology
C) public campaign financing
D) liberal ballot access laws
E) All of the above.
A
1) The single greatest influence on young citizens' initial party identification is their
A) income. B) parents. C) age. D) gender. E) race.
B
82) In which presidential election did the first big gender gap occur?
A) 1984 (Reagan vs. Mondale)
B) 1960 (Kennedy vs. Nixon)
C) 1992 (Clinton vs. Bush)
D) 1976 (Carter vs. Ford)
E) 1980 (Reagan vs. Carter)
C
83) Members of which of the following groups are most likely to be Democrats?
A) men
B) the working class
C) Asians
D) middle-aged Americans
E) the wealthy
B

84) According to Table 12.2, members of which of the following groups are most likely to identify themselves as independents?
A) Protestants
B) men
C) Hispanics
D) Catholics
E) those with a college degree
C
85) According to Figure 12.6, in which of the following election years was the gender gap the biggest?
A) 1980 B) 1984 C) 2004 D) 1996 E) 1976
D
86) According to Figure 12.6, in which of the following election years was the gender gap the smallest?
A) 1976 B) 2004 C) 1984 D) 1996 E) 1980
A
87) Africans Americans are most likely to identify with
A) the Green Party.
B) the Republican Party.
C) independent candidates.
D) the Democratic Party.
E) the Libertarian Party.
D
88) Hispanic voters
A) generally identify with the Democratic Party, except for Cubans.
B) generally identify with the Republican Party, except Mexicans.
C) generally identify with the Democratic Party, except for recent immigrants.
D) generally identify with the Democratic Party, except for Puerto Ricans.
E) generally identify with the Republican Party.
A
89) In 2004, how much success did George W. Bush have in winning the Hispanic vote?
A) He had very little success, failing to win more than 5% of the vote.
B) He had modest success, winning about 20% of the vote.
C) He had more success winning the Hispanic vote in 2004 than he did in 2000.
D) He had moderate success, winning most of the Hispanic vote.
E) He had tremendous success, winning about 80% of the Hispanic vote.
C
90) Which of the following best describes the voting behavior of Hispanics?
A) They support Republicans by a margin of 2 to 1, but Cuban Americans heavily support Democrats.
B) Hispanics are split approximately equally between the two parties.
C) They support Democrats by a margin of 3 to 1.
D) They support Republicans by a margin of 3 to 1.
E) They support Republicans by a margin of 3 to 1, but Cuban Americans heavily support Democrats.
C
91) Which cohort of young voters was most likely to support the Republican Party?
A) those who grew up with peacenik parents in the 1960s
B) those who grew up in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks
C) those who grew up during Ronald Reagan's tenure in office
D) those who grew up during Watergate
E) those who grew up during Jimmy Carter in the 1970s
C
92) Which of the following presidential candidates won the highest percentage of the youth vote?
A) Al Gore (in 2000)
B) George W. Bush (in 2004)
C) Bill Clinton (in 1996)
D) George W. Bush (in 2000)
E) George H.W. Bush (in 1992)
C
93) A member of which of the following groups is most likely to be a Democrat?
A) those with a bachelor's degree
B) Cuban-Americans
C) stay-at-home moms
D) unmarried women
E) professionals.
D

94) A citizen's personal affinity for a political party that usually results in a citizen voting for candidates of that political party is known as party
A) coalition.
B) registration.
C) representation.
D) identification.
E) alignment.
D
95) Of the following factors, which has the biggest influence on one's party identification?
A) marital status
B) favorite color
C) weight
D) hair length
E) height
A
96) Dealignment is
A) the difficulty political parties have winning two consecutive presidential elections.
B) a rapid breakdown in a party's electoral coalitions from one election to the next.
C) when one party controls the House and the other party controls the Senate.
D) a major reason why African Americans tend to vote for Democratic candidates.
E) general decline in partisan identification and loyalty.
E

97) Many Americans do not associate with either major political party and instead claim to "vote for the ________ and not the ________."
A) person; party
B) challenger; incumbent
C) free-rider; policy entrepreneur
D) underdog; front runner
E) party; person
A