First Aid Class Flashcards Table View


Barriers to Action
Reasons for not acting or for hesitating to act in an emergency situation
Citizen Responder
A layperson (someone who does not have special or advance medical training) who recognizes an emergency and decides to act
Emergency A situation requiring immediate action
Emergency medical Services (EMS) personnel
Trained and equipped community-based personnel who provide emergency care for ill or injured victims and who are often dispatched through a local emergency number
Emergency medical services (EMS) system
a network of community resources and medical personnel that provides emergency care to victims of injury or sudden illness
Emergency medical technician (EMT)
a person who has successfully completed a state approved emergency medical technician training program.
First Aid
immediate care given to a victim of injury or sudden illness until more advance care can be obtained
First Responder
a person trained in emergency care that may be called to give such as a routine part of his her job
Good Samaritan Laws
Laws that protect people who willingly give first aid without accepting anything in return
Injury damage that occurs when the body is subjected to an external force such as a blow, a fall, collision, an electrical current or temperature at extremes
Life-threatening emergency
an illness or injury that impairs a victim's ability to circulate oxygenated blood to all the parts of his or her body
Non-life threatening emergency
a situation that does not have an immediate impact on a victim's ability to circulate oxygenated blood, but still requires medical attention
Sudden illness
a physical condition requiring immediate medical attention
The EMS System
1. EMS Call Taker
2. First Responder
3. Emergency medical technicians- Determine victims condition
4. Emergency Medical Technician- Basic- care for both life and non life threatening conditions
5. Emergency medical technician-intermediate- perform techniques
6. EMT-Paramedics
Citizen Responder Role
1. Recognizing that an emergency exists
2. Deciding to act
3. Taking action by calling 911 or local emergency number
4. Giving care until medical help arrives
Ways bystanders can help
1. calling
2. meeting and directing the ambulance
3. keeping the area free of unnecessary traffic
4. giving first aid
5. go for supplies or comfort
6. may be able to give valuable information
Consent Permission to give care, given by the victim to the rescuer
Emergency action steps
Three basic steps you should take in any emergency: CHECK-CALL-CARE
Signs of Life
Normal breathing or movement
Checking the Scene
1. Is the scene safe?
2. What happened?
3. How many victims are there?
4. Are bystanders available to help?
Checking the Victim (Four Conditions Life Threatening)
1. Unconsciousness
2. Trouble breathing
3. No signs of life(normal breathing or movement), and for children and infants, no pulse
4. Severe bleeding
Direct contact transmission
occurs when infected blood or body fluids from one person enter another person's body at a correct entry site
Disease transmission
the passage of a disease from one person to another
Implied consent
legal concept that assumes a person would consent to receive emergency care if he or she were physically able to do so
Indirect contact transmission
occurs when a person touches objects that have the blood or body fluid or an infected person, and that infected blood or body fluid enters the body through a correct entry site
Personal protective equipment
the equipment and supplies that help prevent the rescuer from directly contacting infected materials
Standard precautions
safety measures taken to prevent exposure to blood and body fluids when giving care to ill or injured persons
To get Consent tell the victim 1. Who you are
2. Your level of training
3. The care you would like to give
4 Common types of emergency moves
1. walking assist-
2. pack-strap carry
3. two-person seat carry
4. clothes drag
Airway the pathway for air from the mouth and nose to the lungs
arteries large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
body system
a group of ograns and other structures that work together to carry out specific functions
bone dense, hard tissue that forms the skeleton. Over 200 bones
brain the center of the nerves system
cells the basic units of all living tissue
heart a muscular organ that circulates blood throughout the body
lungs a pair of light, spongy organs in the chest that provide the mechanism for taking oxygen in and removing carbon dioxide during breathing
a fibrous tissue that is able to contract allowing and causing movement of organs and body parts
nerve a part of the nervous system that sends impulses to and from the brain and all body parts
organ a collection of similar tissues acting together to perform specific body functions
pulse the beat you feel with each heart contraction
skin the tough, supple membrane that covers the surface of the body
spinal cord
a bundle of nerves extending from the brain at the base of the skull to the lower back; protected by the spinal column
tissue a collection of similar cells that act together to perform specific body functions
veins blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from all parts of the body to the heart
cranial cavity
located in the head, contains the brain and is protected by the skull
spinal cavity
extending from the bottom of the skull to the lower back. Contains the spinal cord and is protected by the bones of the spine
thoracic cavity
located in the trunk. Contains the heart, lungs, and other important structures, protected by the rib cage and upper spine
abdominal cavity
located in the trunk between the diaphragm and the pelvis it contains many organs including liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, stomach, kidneys, and spleen
pelvic cavity
located in the pelvis, the lowest part of the trunk, it contains the bladder, rectum and reproductive organs it is protected by the pelvic bones and the lower portion of the spine
Vital organs
perform functions that are essential for life include brain, heart and lungs
Circulatory system
keeps all parts of the body supplied with oxygen-rich blood
Includes heart, blood, and blood vessels
Respiratory system
supplies the body with oxygen through breathing
a tube that carries food and liquid from the mouth to the stomach
covers the trachea when you swallow to keep food and liquids out of the lungs
Respiratory distress
trouble breathing
Cardiac arrest
heart stops beating or beats too weakly to pump blood effectively
Nervous system
the most complex and delicate of all body systems, is one of the body's two major regulating and coordinating systems
Musculoskeletal system
is made up of the bones, ligaments, muscles, and tendons and compromises most of the body's weight. Responsible for posture and other body movements.
integumentary system
consists of skin, hair, and nails, the skin protects the body and helps keep fluids within the body. It prevents infection by keeping out disease-producing microorganisms or pathogens
Endocrine system
is the second of the two regulatory systems in the body. it coordinates the activities of other body systems
are organs that release substances into the blood or onto the skin
Diabetes condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin and blood sugar is abnormally high
Digestive system
contains mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, gallbladder, and liver. Breaks down food into usable form to supply the rest of the body with energy
Genitourinary system
contains 2 systems; Kidneys and bladder which removes waste from the circulatory system and regulates water balance

Uterus and genitalia which performs the process of sexual reproduction
Head-tilt/chin-lift technique
technique used to open a victims airway by pushing down on the forehead while pulling up on the bony part of the jaw
Signs of life
normal breathing or movement
Shock when the body fails to circulate oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body
Airway obstruction
complete or partial blockage of the airway, which prevents air from reaching a person's lungs; the most common cause of respiratory emergencies
Anatomical airway obstruction
complete or partial blockage of the airway by the tongue or swollen tissues of the mouth and throat
inhalation of blood, vomit or other foreign material into the lungs
bluish discoloration of the skin around the mouth or the fingerprints resulting from a lack of oxygen in the blood
mechanical airway obstruction
complete or partial blockage of the airway by a foreign object, such as a piece of food or a small toy, or by fluids such as vomit or blood
rescue breathing
a technique of breathing for a non-breathing child or infant
respiratory arrest
a condition in which breathing has stopped
respiratory distress
a condition in which breathing is difficult
stoma an opening in the front of the neck through which a person whose larynx has been removed breathes
asthma is a condition that narrows the air passages and makes breathing difficult
Emphysema a disease in which the lungs and alveoli lose their ability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen effectively. Is a chronic disease and will worsen over time
Bronchitis a condition resulting in inflammation of the lining of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
anaphylactic shock
is a severe allergic reaction
occurs when breathing is faster than normal
Croup is a viral infection that causes swelling of the tissues around the vocal cords
a bacterial infection that causes a severe inflammation of the epiglottis
Angina pectoris
chest pain that comes and goes at different times; commonly associated with cardiovascular disease
asystole a condition where the heart has stopped generating electrical activity
atherosclerosis a condition in which fatty deposits build up on the walls of the arteries
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
a technique that combines chest compressions and rescue breathing for a victim whose heart and breathing have stopped
cardiovascular disease
disease of the heart and blood vessels
cholesterol a fatty substance made by the body and found in certain foods; too much in the blood can cause fatty deposits on artery walls that may restrict or block blood flow
coronary arteries
blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood
coronary heart disease
occurs when the coronary arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle become hardened or narrowed from the build up of fatty deposits
defibrillation an electrical shock that disrupts the electrical activity of the heart long enough to allow the heart to spontaneously develop an effective rhythm on its on
heart attack
a sudden illness involving the death of heart muscle tissue when it does not receive oxygen-rich blood; also known as myocardial infarction
risk factors
conditions or behaviors that increase the chance that a person will develop a disease
ventricular fibrillation (V-fib)
an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by disorganized electrical activity, which results in the quivering of the ventricles
ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)
an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid contractions of the ventricles
Signals of heart attack
1. trouble breathing
2. breathing faster than normal
3. pulse may be faster or slower
4. pale skin
5. may vomit
Nitroglycerin commonly prescribed as a small tablet that dissolves under the tongue. This dilates the blood vessels to make it easier for blood to reach heart muscle tissue, relieving the chest pain
Four Life threatening conditions
1. unconscious
2. no pulse
3. severe bleeding
4. trouble breathing
Situations to move a victim
1. Fire
2. toxic gas
3. risk of drowning
4. risk of explosion
Four limitations to consider when moving a victim
1. size
2. condition of scene
3.physical ability
4. victims condition
Four guidelines when moving a victim
1.only attempt to move someone if you feel comfortable
2. bend your body at knees and hips
3. lift your legs
4. walk carefully using short steps
Signals of Cardiac Arrest
1. absence of life
2. skin may be pale
3. ashen or bluish
4. skin may be moist