Ultrasonography-physics-1

48 Questions  I  By Taofu2009la
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Sonography Quizzes & Trivia
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  • 1. 
    The edge shadowing occurs in which of following situations
    • A. 

      Small interfaces

    • B. 

      Large interfaces

    • C. 

      Curved interfaces

    • D. 

      Smooth interfaces


  • 2. 
    A large, smooth interface is usually called
    • A. 

      Specular reflector

    • B. 

      Impedance

    • C. 

      Absorption

    • D. 

      Scattering


  • 3. 
    What system control can you adjust to compensate for the effect of sound attenuation  in the body
    • A. 

      Dynamic range

    • B. 

      TGC

    • C. 

      Frame averaging

    • D. 

      Depth

    • E. 

      Line density


  • 4. 
    Which of the following interation of sound and tissue decreases the intensity of the transmitted beam
    • A. 

      Absorption

    • B. 

      Reflection

    • C. 

      Scattering

    • D. 

      Conversion of sound to heat

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 5. 
    An another term for nonspecular reflection is
    • A. 

      Destructive interference

    • B. 

      Refraction

    • C. 

      Diffraction

    • D. 

      Scattering

    • E. 

      Attenuation


  • 6. 
    Which of the following will not cause a redirection of part of the ultrasound energy?
    • A. 

      Reflection

    • B. 

      Scattering

    • C. 

      Divergence

    • D. 

      Absorption

    • E. 

      Refraction


  • 7. 
    Which of the following are you most likely to encounter when you scan a large fat mass
    • A. 

      Posterior acoustic shadowing caused by increased attenuation through fat

    • B. 

      Axial misregistration of objects distal to the mass on the screen caused by the slower propagation speed through fat

    • C. 

      Lateral misregistration of the mass on the screen because of refraction

    • D. 

      Total reflection of the sound beam caused by a large acoustic impedance mismatch

    • E. 

      Diffraction of the sound beam due to a virtual small aperture through the mass


  • 8. 
    When the sound beam is refracted during a sonographic examination, which of the following might you detect on the ultrasound image?
    • A. 

      Axial misregistration

    • B. 

      Lateral misregistration

    • C. 

      Reverberations osterior to a reflector

    • D. 

      Enchancement of a reflector

    • E. 

      Electrical interference


  • 9. 
    What interaction of ultrasound and tissue  is primarily responsible for imaging the internal structure of organs?
    • A. 

      Scattering

    • B. 

      Specular reflection

    • C. 

      Refraction

    • D. 

      Diffraction

    • E. 

      Destructive interference


  • 10. 
    If the number of cycles in a pulse is increased but the wavelength remains the same, which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      The frequency is increased

    • B. 

      The propagation speed is increased

    • C. 

      The pulse duration is increased

    • D. 

      The period is increased

    • E. 

      The bulk modulus is decreased


  • 11. 
    True or False The frequency and wavelength  of a sound will change when it propagates through tissue.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 12. 
    Bandwidth refers to:
    • A. 

      Number of cycles per pulse

    • B. 

      Range of frequencies in a pulse

    • C. 

      Rate of pulse repetition frequency

    • D. 

      Range of pulse in a frame

    • E. 

      Number of wavelengths in one second


  • 13. 
    Interference patterns of reflected waves causes
    • A. 

      Acoustic speckle

    • B. 

      Acoustic enhancement

    • C. 

      Rarefaction

    • D. 

      Volume averaging

    • E. 

      All of above


  • 14. 
    The impedance of a transducer active element is 1,900,000 rays, and the impedance of the skin is 1,400,000 rays. What is an acceptable impedance for the matching layer? 
    • A. 

      1,200,000 Rays

    • B. 

      1,400,000 Rays

    • C. 

      1,726,000 Rays

    • D. 

      1,950,000 Rays


  • 15. 
    Which of the following crystals will produce sound with the lowest frequency?
    • A. 

      Thin and with a low speed

    • B. 

      Thin and with a high speed

    • C. 

      Thick and a low speed

    • D. 

      Thick and with a speed


  • 16. 
    True or FalseImaging transducers are usually of high rather than low bandwidth.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 17. 
    True or False?A pulse with a long pulse duration is likely to have a narrow badwidth?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 18. 
    True or FalseThe spatial pulse length usually decrease when operating frequency is changed to high
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 19. 
    True or FalseAxial resolution is improved in the focal zone.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 20. 
    True or False?Lateral resolution is decided by the beam diameter.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 21. 
    True or False?Lateral resolution improves with frequency.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 22. 
    True or False?Grating lobes are essential for the proper operation of a linear phased array.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 23. 
    True or False?Electronically steered scanners always produce higher resolution images thant do mechanically steered scanners.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 24. 
    The number of frames per second necessary for a real-time image to be flicker free is
    • A. 

      More than 15

    • B. 

      Less than 10

    • C. 

      Between 6 and 10

    • D. 

      Between 3 and 6


  • 25. 
    True or False?The SPTA intensity will always be larger than the SATA intensity.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 26. 
    True or False?The intensity of the ultrasound beam is increased by 4 times if the amplitude is doubled.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 27. 
    True or False?In a pulse-echo system, the quality factor should be made as large as possible.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 28. 
    The transducer that would be best suited for intercostal scanning is
    • A. 

      Linear-sequenced array real-time

    • B. 

      Mechanical sector real-time transducer

    • C. 

      Static with with large diameter

    • D. 

      No type of transducer can scan between the intercostal space


  • 29. 
    The normal range of wave length in medical application  is
    • A. 

      0.1-1.5 mm

    • B. 

      1.5-2mm

    • C. 

      2-5mm

    • D. 

      5.5-15mm


  • 30. 
    Which of the following combinations of frequency and intensity would most likely result in cavitaion?
    • A. 

      High frequency and low intensity

    • B. 

      Low frequency and high intensity

    • C. 

      High frequency and high intensity

    • D. 

      Intensity has no effect on cavitation


  • 31. 
    What is distinction between real-time scans and B-scans?
    • A. 

      No distinction; real-time scans are B-scans

    • B. 

      Real-time scans display gray-scale scans; whereas, b-scans display bistable images

    • C. 

      Real time scans exhibit static images; whereas, B-scans exhibit static images

    • D. 

      B-scans are specific for static scanners; real-time scans are not.


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is not a component of the time-gain compensation (TGC) curve?
    • A. 

      Grey scale

    • B. 

      Far gain

    • C. 

      Knee

    • D. 

      Delay


  • 33. 
    The range of pulse repetition frequencies used in diagnostic ultrasound is
    • A. 

      0.5-4 kHz

    • B. 

      1-10 MHz

    • C. 

      1-7 kHz

    • D. 

      10-15 MHz


  • 34. 
    True or FalseA videotape recorder records at a rate of 30 frames/s and therefore cannot be used to record images from a mechanical scanner operating a lower frame  rates
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 35. 
    Beam steering is achieved in a linear phase array by
    • A. 

      Mechanical motion

    • B. 

      Electronic time-delay pulsing

    • C. 

      An acoustic lens

    • D. 

      Dynamic focusing


  • 36. 
    Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      SPTA is always equal to or greater than SPTP

    • B. 

      SPTP is always equal to or greater than SPTA

    • C. 

      SATA is always equal to or greater than SATP

    • D. 

      SPTA is always equal to or greater than SATP


  • 37. 
    A transducer with a large bandwidth is likely to have
    • A. 

      Good axial resolution

    • B. 

      A large ring-down time

    • C. 

      Poor resolution

    • D. 

      A high Q factor


  • 38. 
    An annular array real-time scanner
    • A. 

      Is steered electronically

    • B. 

      Is steered mechanically

    • C. 

      Is not capable of electronic focusing

    • D. 

      Is not used with digital-scan converters


  • 39. 
    True or False?The transducer produces more than one frequency.  The shorter the pulse, the more of these spectrum of other frequencies are also produced.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 40. 
    True or False?Mechanical transducers are mechanically steered (MS) and mechanically focused (MS).
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 41. 
    True or False?The synchronous signal processing uses a Doppler carrier frequency that is the same as the imaging center operating frequency
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 42. 
    True or False?A measurement of the peak systolic frequency in  a carotid artery with a single-point spectrum will be lower than a measurement of the color-encoded frequency at the same point.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 43. 
    Changes in the Doppler shift frequencies within a color flow image sample site appear in the image as
    • A. 

      Nothing; the image only shows changes in phase

    • B. 

      Different colors(hues)

    • C. 

      Different levels of color saturation (purity)

    • D. 

      Different colors (hues) or different levels of saturation (purity)


  • 44. 
    One begins reading a color flow image by
    • A. 

      Determining the maximum systolic frequency

    • B. 

      Knowing the position of position of the scan plane on the patient's body

    • C. 

      Knowing the direction of flow relative to the transducer

    • D. 

      Determining the Doppler carrier frequency


  • 45. 
    True or False?The shape of the sample volume in pulsed Doppler has a major effect on the content of the Doppler signal.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 46. 
    Power Doppler imaging is a good choice when you
    • A. 

      Want to show tissue perfusion

    • B. 

      Want to show tissue velocity

    • C. 

      Want to easily separate blood flow form simple tissue otion

    • D. 

      A and B


  • 47. 
    Turbulence in a vascular color flow image appears as
    • A. 

      A mottled pattern of colors

    • B. 

      A mottled pattern of read and blue with changing saturations

    • C. 

      A mottled green region

    • D. 

      A or B


  • 48. 
    True or False?The color coding of red arteries and blue veins and the slow high-resolution frame rates make the identity of arteries and veins in the abdomen direct and easy.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


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