1) Russia withdrew from World War I as a result of a major revolution in
A) 1905 B) 1914 C) 1917 D) 1919 E) 1929
2) One of the reasons that Soviet history had such importance in wider world history during the 20th century was
A) the peaceful nature of the soviet revolution
B) the fact that it led to unprecedented demilitarization
C) its ability to maintain the peasantry while undergoing modest industrialization
D) that it served as an example of revolution in China, Cuba, and elsewhere
E) the immense size of the Russian economy
3) After 1945, the Soviet Union emerged as one of two great world powers along with
B) the United States
5) What common theme of Russian history was resumed in the post-revolutionary decades?
A) parliamentary government
B) tsarist absolutism
C) ethnic unity
D) territorial expansion
E) ties to the East
6) The key theme of Russian history from 1985 forward has been
A) the strengthening of the Russian economy
B) the reestablishment of tsarist absolutism
C) the overcoming of ethnic and religious differences
D) the dissolution of the communist system
E) enlargement of the public sector
7) In what city did the Russian revolution of 1917 begin
A) St. Petersburg
8) The revolutionary political regimes were based on councils of workers or
11) Which of the following was NOT a cause of the failure of the initial revolutionary government?
A) It did not wish to establish parliamentary government
B) It wanted to continue Russian participation in World War I
C) The leaders hesitated to enact massive land reform laws
D) Liberalism was not deeply rooted in Russia due to the lack of a substantial middle class
E) People believed they were traitors to the allies
12) What group succeeded the initial revolutionary government of Russia?
A) Bakunin’s anarchists
B) Kerensky’s liberals
C) Lenin’s Bolsheviks
D) Molotov’s Mensheviks
E) Nicholas’s Monarchists
13) What was Lenin’s solution to Russian participation in World War I?
A) He launched a massive offensive campaign that carried Russian forces deep within Germany
B) He immediately demanded that his British and French allies send humanitarian, economic, and military aid tot eh eastern front
C) He negotiated a peace treaty with the Germans and surrendered huge amounts of land on Russia’s western border.
D) He successfully achieved a significant role at the Versailles peace negotiations
E) He appealed to the United States for military aid
14) Lenin’s power in 1917 was based on his control of the
D) Council of People’s Commissars
15) Which of the following statements concerning the political situation in Russia after Lennin’s seizure of power is most accurate?
A) Lenin hoped to establish a majority party based almost entirely on the Russian peasantry
B) the first parliamentary election following the revolution returned a majority for the Social Revolutionary Party, not Lenin’s Bolsheviks
C) Lenin remained completely dedicated to the principles of parliamentary government, a position that garnered him the support of Russian liberals
D) Lenin abandoned power in the face of a popular plebiscite for another form of government
E) Lenin was immediately challenged by Trotsky
16) What response did the Russian revolution provoke elsewhere in Europe?
A) Britain, France, the US, and Japan all invaded Russia
B) Russia was immediately allied with Britain, France, and the US against continued German aggression
C) Franc supported the revolution: Britain and the US remained neutral
E) the European war came to a halt
17) Which of the following groups did NOT participate in the internal civil war against the Communist government?
A) tsarist generals
B) religiously faithful peasants
C) minority nationalities
D) the Red Army
E) the orthodox church
18) The first head of the Red Army was
19) Lenin's first attempt at improving the Russian economy in 1921 was called the
A) First Five-Year Plan.
C) March on Hunger.
20) Which of the following statements concerning the Supreme Soviet is most accurate?
A) The Supreme Soviet was elected by a tiny minority of the Russian population.
B) It featured so many political parties that it was virtually powerless competition in elections was normally prohibited, which meant that the Communist Party easily controlled the body.
C) The Supreme Soviet almost never met.
D) It opposed the leadership of Lenin.
21) How did Stalin's view of communism differ from that of Lenin?
A) Lenin was only interested in the Russian revolution and did not visualize any further revolutionary process.
B) Lenin was more interested in including a broad swath of the Russian population in the communist movement.
C) Stalin represented a strongly nationalist version of communism and concentrated on "socialism in one country."
D) Stalin was not a member of the Communist Party.
E) Stalin believed in worldwide revolution.
22) The international office established to encourage communist parties in the West was called
A) Western International.
C) Leninista internationale.
23) The wealthy, commercially oriented peasants who controlled most of Russian land were called
24) What was the Soviet agricultural policy immediately following Stalin's concentration of power in 1928?
A) equitable redistribution of land among all peasants
C) free-market structure
25) Which of the following resulted from Stalin's agricultural policies?
A) Peasants were presented with real market incentives for increased production.
B) Kulaks were able to achieve control over most of the agricultural lands of Russia.
C) Agricultural production remained a major weakness in the Soviet economy, demanding a higher percentage of the work force than was common under industrialization.
D) Agricultural planning was non-existent, as small farmers continued to control most of Russian productivity.
E) The Soviet Union became self-sufficient in food production.
26) Stalin's system of economic planning occurred under the
B) five-year plans.
E) New Deal
27) Which of the following eastern European nations developed an advanced industrialization program, extensive urban culture, and preference for Western models and interaction following World War I?
A) the Soviet Union
29) All of the following policies were followed by Soviet-sponsored regimes in eastern Europe EXCEPT
A) attacks on potential political rivals, including the Catholic Church.
B) the initiation of five-year plans.
C) the establishment of parliamentary democracies.
D) collectivization of agriculture.
E) closed borders with the West.
30) Despite the loosening of Soviet control over eastern Europe following Stalin's death, what aspects of Soviet domination continued to be enforced?
A) single-party dominance and military alignment with the Soviet Union
B) centralized economic planning
C) total rejection of Catholicism
D) agricultural collectivization
E) cultural exchange with the West
31) The independent labor movement in Poland that challenged Soviet dominance was called
A) Comintem. B) Solidarity. C) Izvestia. D) Pravda. E) Gdansk.
33) The Soviet bureaucracy under Stalin
A) was composed of powerful commissars who were virtually independent of the central administration.
B) was particularly innovative in proposing new solutions to the endemic problems of Soviet society.
C) was composed of colorless figures hesitant to initiate, but loyal to Stalin and official ideology.
D) was an open institution filled by the numerous new admissions to the Communist Party.
E) was an innovative, popular group.
32) The Communist party was run by a top committee, the
D) Supreme Soviet.
E) Security Council.
34) Which of the following statements concerning the Orthodox Church under Stalin's regime is most accurate?
A) The regime appointed the Orthodox Church the only approved religion within the state.
B) The Orthodox Church became the primary instrument of the regime's policy of education.
C) The Orthodox Church ceased to exist during the Stalinist regime.
D) Loyalties to Orthodoxy persisted, but they were concentrated in a largely elderly minority.
E) The Orthodox Church disappeared
35) The artistic style that received official state preference under Stalin was
A) "Socialist realism."
D) modeled almost entirely on Western imitations of Western functionalism.
36) What Russian author of Gulag Archipelago was exiled to the West, but found life there too materialistic?
37) Which of the following was NOT typical of the Soviet economy?
A) control of virtually all economic sectors
B) emphasis on heavy industrial goods
C) need to create a massive armaments industry
D) ready availability of consumer goods
E) frequent shortages of all kinds of goods
38) Which of the following was NOT a source of pressure on the Soviet family?
A) religious constraints imposed by the Orthodox Church
B) crowded housing
C) loss of ties to extended family life of the countryside
D) mothers who worked long hours away from the home E) competition for scarce goods
39) In what way did the social organization of the industrialized Soviet Union come to resemble that of the West?
A) emphasis on service industries and managerial hierarchies
B) the division of urban society between workers and a managerial middle class
C) the absence of a true proletariat
D) lack of a peasantry
E) emergence of a large wealthy class
40) By the 1970s, the Russian rate of population growth was
A) much less than that of the West.
B) about the same as that of China.
C) about the same as that of the West.
D) much greater than the West.
E) virtually nonexistent.
41) Women in Russian industrialized society
A) rapidly reached the same status as males.
B) were less likely to be in the work force than women in the West.
C) dominated some professions, such as medicine.
D) were afforded the same type of domestic idealization typical of women in the West.
E) had the same roles as before the revolution.
42) Immediately after Stalin's death in 1953, what form of government was established?
A) a liberal democracy
B) a ruling committee rather than single-man rule
C) autocracy under Leonid Brezhnev
D) rule by the Supreme Soviet
E) a new totalitarian regime under Sta1in’s son
43) What leader emerged to take primary power in.1956?
A) Joseph Stalin
B) Mikhail Gorbachev
C) Yuri Andropov
D) Nikita Khrushchev
E) Konstantin Chemenko
44) Which of the following was a Soviet success during the years of Khrushchev's dominance?
A) the Cuban missile crisis
B) the development of agriculture in Siberia
C) the launching of Sputnik
D) increases in overall agricultural productivity
E) creation of a consumer society
45) Which of the following statements concerning the Soviet military following Stalin's death is most accurate?
A) Overall the Soviet Union played a cautious diplomatic game, almost never engaging in warfare but maintaining a high level of preparedness.
B) The continued growth of the Soviet military led to an increasing willingness on the part of Russian rulers to engage in direct military intervention around the globe.
C) Following Stalin's death, subsequent Soviet rulers enacted a policy of progressive demilitarization.
D) Following World War II, the Soviet military played no significant role in subsequent Russian history.
E) Russian forces occupied all of Germany.
46) What Russian leader significantly altered political, diplomatic, and economic policies in the Soviet Union after 1985?
B) Leonid Brezhnev
C) Mikhail Gorbachev
D) Yuri Gagarin
E) Alexsei Kosygin
47) The term perestroika refers to
A) a new freedom to comment and criticize the Soviet government.
B) economic restructuring and more leeway for private ownership.
C) the Soviet space program.
D) the establishment of a liberal democracy.
E) the Soviet goal of world domination.
48) In which of the following nations did outright violence and revolution lead to the overthrow of an authoritarian communist leader?
C) East Germany