Epidemiology Exam 1

251 Questions  I  By Hillard
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Epidemiology Quizzes & Trivia
Epidemiology Review for Midterm #1

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1.  Incidence of a disease in a population
2.  Degree to which a measurement or an estimate based on measurements represents the true value of the attribute that is being measured
3.  ACE
4.  ACHR
5.  Rate of outcome after controlling for a variable(s) across the entire population or both groups of comparison
6.  Subject to which an outcome is attributable (e.g. bacteria, virus, chemicals, etc)
7.  AJE
8.  Finding an association when one does not exist; error of rejecting a true null hypothesis;
9.  AmJPH
10.  Analysis of variance
11.  APHA
12.  Systematic failure to represent equally all classes of cases or persons supposed to be represented in a sample
13.  # of new cases in a time period divided by population at risk in the same period } x100defined as the number of people at risk who develop a certain disease divided by the total number of people at risk
14.  Proportion used to calculate the attributable risk (often used synonymously with attributable risk)
15.  Amount or proportion of disease incidence that can be attributed to a specific exposure
16.  Used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic of the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals
17.  Form of selection bias with hospital patients
18.  Error of failing to reject a false null hypothesis; not finding an association when one actually exists
19.  Systematic error in design, conduct or analysis of a study that results in mistaken estimate of an exposure's effect on the risk of disease
20.  Distribution in which there are two peaks
21.  Criterion that an observed, presumably or putatively causal association fits previously existing biological or medical knowledge
22.  Population born during a particular period and identified by period of birth so that the characteristics can be ascertained as it enters successive time and age periodsb
23.  Keeping the observer(s) and/or subjects ignorant  of the group to which the subjects are being assigned
24.  Person in the population or study group identified as having the particular disease, health disorder, or condition under investigation
25.  Study in which cases are defined as those with the disease and controls are those without the disease; can study the significance between exposure & non-exposure from the two groups (this study begins with diseased and non-diseased people...current and past)
26.  # of deaths due to disease in time period # of ppl w/disease int hat time period          x100determines what percentage of people diagnosed as having a certain disease die within a certain time after diagnosis
27.  Alternative to randomization  in that no comparison is made with an untreated group or with a group receiving some other treatment
28.  Incidence in exposed    -    incidence in non-exposed
29.  Incidence in exposed  -  incidence in non-exposed             incidence in exposed                                   x100
30.  Incidence in population   -   incidence in non-exposed
31.  Incidence in population   -   incidence in non-exposed                incidence in population                             x100
32.  Data that can be separated into different categories distinguished by a nonnumeric characteristic
33.  Factors that increase risk for an event
34.  CCDM
35.  CDC
36.  Loss of subjects from a follow-up study
37.  Disease that will last for a considerable amount of time
38.  CIOMS
39.  Bias due to misclassification  (ex. measurement error)
40.  Disease characterized by signs and symptoms
41.  Form of study that utilizes randomly assigned data in establishing sound cause-effect association(s) of agent or factor to a disease, condition or death
42.  Set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly interrelated subgroups
43.  Study that compares the incidence of disease between a group of exposed individuals and a group of non-exposed individuals (study begins with exposed and non-exposed individuals) - today & future
44.  Outbreak due to exposure of a group of persons to a noxious influence that is common to the individuals in the group
45.  Experiment in which the prevention or therapy is administered to the entire community (example fluoridation of drinking water)
46.  Computed interval with a given probability
47.  Computed interval with a given probability
48.  Term used when variables or factors known to be related or associated with can influence the state of subjects being studiedthe confusion or distortion of measures of association between exposure and outcome due to a third (or more) variable(s)
49.  A variable which is not the exposure of interest or the outcome variable that causes confounding.
50.  Table of observed frequencies
51.  Cox regression is a type of _________ model
52.  Bias due to aggregation at the population level of causes and/or effects that are unlike at the individual level, occurring in ecological studies
53.  Method of comparing two or more treatments or interventions by completing one treatment and switching to another
54.  Method for determining which of the possible agents is likely to be the cause when confronted with several possible causal agents
55.  Method for determining which of the possible agents is likely to be the cause when confronted with several possible causal agents
56.  Incidence is calculated by using a period of time during which all of the individuals in the population are considered to be at risk for the outcome
57.  Analyses are done on a post hoc basis without the benefit of prestated hypothesis; usually considered unacceptable
58.  Difference between a true value and that obtained as a result of faulty design of a study
59.  Bias due to systematic error in methods of ascertainment, diagnosis or verification of cases in an epidemiological study
60.  Process of determining health status and the factors responsible for producing it
61.  Variable in which there are only two levels or categories
62.  One determinant is directly associated with an outcome
63.  A relationship in which  a change in amount, intensity or duration of exposure is associated with a change in risk of a specified outcome
64.  Bias that may occur because an association observed between variables on an aggregate level does not necessarily represent the association that exists at an individual level.
65.  Study in which the units of analysis are populations or groups of people rather than individuals
66.  Change of one factor alters the outcome involved
67.  Extent to which a specific intervention, procedure, regimen or service produces a beneficial result under ideal conditions
68.  EGRET
69.  ELISA
70.  EIS
71.  Usual occurrence of a given disease within such an area
72.  EPI
73.  EpiInfo
74.  Occurrence in a community or region of a group or illnesses clearly in excess of normal expectancy
75.  Study of distribution and determinants of health-related states or events
76.  All that is external to the individual human host
77.  Graphic plotting for the distribution of cases by times of onset
78.  The proportion used to calculate the attributable risk
79.  The cause of disease
80.  The absolute difference between the rates of disease in the entire population and the rates of disease among the non-exposed
81.  The ability to generalize your treatment over an entire population based on the results of your sample study population
82.  People who have the disease and who are erroneously called negative for the disease
83.  People who do not have the disease and who are erroneously called positive by the test
84.  # of ppl who ate the food & became ill        # of ppl who ate the food                  x100
85.  Four parts to a scientific manuscript
86.  Cohort study on cardiovascular disease which begun in 1948 in Massachusetts
87.  GIS
88.  ___________ was the first to create vital statistics table
89.  A mathematical modeling technique that allows one to analyze prospectively (Cohort studies)  collected data
90.  Resistance of a group to a disease attack
91.  Father of medical statistics
92.  __________ is also known as retrospective cohort study
93.  ___________ is also known as historical study
94.  A group from the past which is being used as a comparison group
95.  Constant or uniform measures or variances across strata
96.  Transmission from one person to another, directly or indirectly
97.  Person or other living animal that provides lodgement for infectious agent under natural conditions
98.  Study design which is a combination of more than one standard study design
99.  ICD
100.  Concept used that suggests that the visible or clinical cases of disease represents a small fraction of the actual prevalence
101.  IEA
102.  Forcing in values for missing data
103.  Number of new cases among person time
104.  Number of new cases of disease that occur during a specified period of time; measurement of riski
105.  The interval from receipt of infection to the time of onset of clinical illness
106.  First case in a family or other defined group to come to the attention of the investigator
107.  One determinant is indirectly associated with an outcome usually with intermediate determinants
108.  Transmission of an agent from host to susceptible by means of a vector (ex: water)
109.  Illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or reservoir to a susceptible host.
110.  A flaw in measuring exposure or outcome data that results in different quality of information between comparison groups
111.  Voluntary consent given by a subject for participation in a study after being informed of the purpose and risks
112.  Incidence rate of disease in the presence of two or more risk factors differ from the incidence rate expected to result form their individual effects
113.  Systematic error due to interviewers' subconscious or conscious gathering of selective data
114.  IRB
115.  JAMA
116.  Pioneered studies in vaccination.
117.  Measure of the degree of nonrandom agreement between observers of the same categorical variable
118.  List of postulates that should be met before causative relationship can be accepted
119.  Infection with no active multiplication of the agent; only genetic message present in the host, not the viable organism
120.  Overestimation of survival time due to backward shift of starting point
121.  Systematic error due to selection of disproportionate numbers of long-duration cases in one group but not another
122.  Summarizing technique used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations
123.  Conducted one of the first randomized trials on scurvy by administering lemons randomly to the crew
124.  Statistical analysis which determines an individual's risk of the outcome as a function of a risk factor; outcome of interest has two categories
125.  Study in which the exposure and non-exposure groups are ascertained. Groups are then followed up for several years into the future and incidence is measured
126.  Study subject(s) who cannot or do not complete participation in a study for whatever reason
127.  Allows a summary of multiple findings/stratum/relationships. an odds ratio that summarizes a number of odds ratios from a group of stratified contingency tables.
128.  Analysis in which the study group and the control group are comparable with respect to extraneous factors
129.  Systematic error from inaccurate measurements of subjects on study variables
130.  Statistical analysis of a large collection of analyses resulting from individual studies for the purpose of integrating the findings
131.  Dirty air makes people sick
132.  Bias that occurs when a person is classified into the wrong category
133.  MMWR
134.  They way a infectious agent is transmitted
135.  Departure from a state of mind or body well being
136.  Resulting in death
137.  Total # of deaths from a specified causetotal population at midpoint of specific time period    x100
138.  MRFIT
139.  Statistical analysis which uses more than on variable
140.  Systematic difference between a true value and that actually observed, due to observer variation
141.  Probability that event will occurprobability that even will not occur
142.  (a/b)     =   (ad) (c/d)          (bc)        OR
143.  Data that may be arranged in order but values can't be determined or meaningless
144.  Epidemic limited or localized increase in incidence
145.  Research on outcomes of interventions usually used to describe the results of treatment in clinical or surgical setting
146.  Extreme data values that may be correct but may disguise the true nature of the distribution when illustrated though histogram. (Dr. Yu says this)
147.  When groups are match too elaborately, can mess up evidence
148.  PAHO
149.  Worldwide epidemic
150.  Immunity you get from antibody produced by another host and acquired naturally by infant from mom or artificially.
151.  Mechanism by which etiologic agent produces disease
152.  A measure of how many individuals  were affected with disease during a specified time period
153.  Infection that persists for years and sometimes life
154.  Sum of individual units of time that persons in the study population have been exposed to condition of interest.
155.  Clinical pharmacologic studies of 20-80 patients that look at pharmacologic and toxic effects
156.  Each event or variable is independent from one another.
157.  NCHS
158.  Proportion of patients who test negative that do not have disease
159.  Hybrid study design in which a case-control study is nested in a cohort study
160.  NHANES
161.  NIH
162.  May include preclinical, subclinical, persistent (chronic), and latent disease
163.  Issue sometimes found during studies where patients either drop out of study or may stop taking agent and not admit it to researcher
164.  ________________________________ same as retrospective cohort study
165.  Hospital acquired infection
166.  Statistical hypothesis that one variable has no association with another; or two or more population distributions do not differ from one another
167.  Clinical investigations of 100-200 patients for effectiveness and relative safety
168.  Large-scale randomized controlled trials for effectiveness and relative safety, which often multi-centered
169.  Postmarketing surveillance that is important for monitoring new agents as they come into general use by the public
170.  Inert substance
171.  Prevalence of disease at point in time
172.  Proportion of patients who test positive that actually have the disease in question
173.  1 - BThe ability of a study to demonstrate an association if one exists
174.  Disease that is not yet clinically apparent, but will eventually progress to clinical disease
175.  Precision + validity = ___________
176.  Reduction of random error; lack of random error
177.  Ability of measurement tool to distinguish between who has the disease and who does not
178.  Incidence  x Duration of disease = ________# of affected persons present in the population at a specific time    x100            # of persons in the population at that time
179.  Person who introduces the disease
180.  Action taken to prevent the development of a disease in a person who is well and does not have the disease in question (condom use, vaccine)
181.  When sign and symptoms of disease first appear
182.  Probable or likely projection of the course in which the disease will travel from the time of diagnosis to either the termination of the disease or death
183.  Epidemic that progresses though a community or population; not from a single source
184.  Tendency for publications to report positive findings and  not publish  articles that do not yield significant results
185.  Method for sampling people in telephone surveys in which telephone numbers are randomly dialed
186.  Unpredictable assignment of subjects
187.  Form of study design (trial) where a defined population is split into two groups:1) those that will receive the new tx2) those that will receive the current txthen, comparison will be done on who improved & who didn't between the 2 groups
188.  Measure of frequency of occurence
189.  Value obtained by dividing one quantity by another
190.  Systematic error due to differences in accuracy or completeness of recall to memory of past events or experiences
191.  Systematic error due to the differences in accuracy or completeness of recall to memory of past events or experiences
192.  Systematic error due to the inconsistent recruitment of subjects based on the identification of subjects by clinicians and other study subjects
193.  Incidence rate of disease w/exposureincidence rate of disease w/o exposure
194.  The ratio of risk (incidence) between two populations, groups or exposure categories
195.  Degree of stability exhibited when a measurement is repeated under identical conditions
196.  Selective revealing or suppression of information about past medical histroy
197.  Systematic error due to differences in characteristics between those that choose or volunteer to take part in a study and those who do not.
198.  # of completed or returned surveys divided by the total # of persons who would have been surveyed if all had partcipated
199.  Follow a cohort from some point in the past to a predetermined stopping point. investigator can then compare the significance of who acquired the disease and who did not from the exposed and non-exposed
200.  Probability that event will occur
201.  Process of determining risks to health attributable to environmental or other hazards
202.  Factors that increase a person's risk for a disease
203.  A selected subset of a population
204.  Systematic error due to study of a nonrandom sample of a population
205.  Complete list of individual entities to be sampled from
206.  Individual entity that makes up the study sample
207.  Commonly used statistical software program
208.  # of exposed to primary case with diseease     total # of exposed to primary case             x100
209.  The identification of people who have already developed a disease, at an early stage in the disease's natural history (screening and early intervention)
210.  The way in which cases and controls, or exposed and non-exposed people were selected in such a way that an apparent association is observed even if, in reality exposure and disease are not associated. Apparent association is called __________________
211.  Ability of a test to identify correctly those who have the disease              TP                            TP  + FN
212.  The ability of a test to identify correctly those who do not have the disease               TN                               TN + FP
213.  Condition that can be used to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population by monitoring mortality stats
214.  SER
215.  Visible indications that help confirm diagnosis of a disease (ex: rash)
216.  SMR
217.  SMSA
218.  Cholera in London, England: attributed disease to contaminated water. Solved historical epidemiological investigation.
219.  True negative
220.  SPSS
221.  Observed # of deaths per yearexpected # of deaths per year
222.  Analyzing data where the sample is separated into several subsamples according to specified criteria such as age groups, socioeconomic status, etc
223.  Magnitude of the measure of association
224.  Disease that is not clinically apparent and not destined to become clinically apparent.
225.  Ascertainment is considerably better with a closely monitored population. May lead to an erroneous estimate of the relative risk or odds ratio
226.  Time of identification of an outcome to death is __________ time
227.  Degree at which a person is at risk for certain disease or outcome
228.  Indicators, not necessarily visible. Help confirm diagnosis of disease or outcome
229.  Combined effect is greater than solitary effects
230.  Limiting disability after disease already occured
231.  The amount of time from subject identificaiton to the occurrence of the outcome
232.  Time from identification of an outcome to death
233.  A type of contingency table
234.  Type I error; occurs when one concludes that treatments are different when in reality they're not
235.  Type II error; occurs when one concludes that treatments are not different when in reality they are
236.  Chronic carrier of salmonella typhi
237.  Disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly or indirectly to death or the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the final injury
238.  Distribution with one peak
239.  Statistical analysis which uses one independent variable
240.  The ability of a test to distinguish between who has disease and who does not
241.  Something that transports an infectious agent from an infected individual or its waste to a susceptible individual
242.  Denotes transmission from one generation to another; primarily genetic transmission
243.  Degree of pathogenecity
244.  Certificates of birth, death, marriage, and divorce
245.  Systematic error attributed to differences in the reasons why people volunteer for a study
246.  Current theory explaining causation
247.  WHO
248.  Recognizes that death occurring in the person at a younger age clearly involves a greater loss of future productive years than were it to occur at an older age
249.  Infection or infectious disease transmissible under normal conditions from vertebrate animals to humans
250.  How you collect data
251.  Current & past; no incidence measurement = 0 risk (aka retrospective)
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