AP Psychology ChAPter 7

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1.  In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
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2.  Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
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3.  Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
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4.  Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
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5.  The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of
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6.  After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress. Vaclav's reaction best illustrates
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7.  For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented
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8.  According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
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9.  The psychologist most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was
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10.  Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of
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11.  After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
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12.  After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
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13.  Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?
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14.  The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
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15.  Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.
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16.  The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
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17.  Conditioning is the process of
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18.  To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a
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19.  Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
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20.  Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves
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21.  Who introduced the term behaviorism?
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22.  Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older stumptail macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of
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23.  Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
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24.  Elijah has learned to expect that whenever he studies diligently for tests, he will receive good grades. This suggests that associative learning involves
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25.  The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called
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26.  Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
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27.  The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
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28.  If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates
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29.  B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's
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30.  Spontaneous recovery refers to the
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31.  Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
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32.  Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote
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33.  The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called
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34.  Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?
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35.  A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n)
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36.  A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.
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37.  An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n)
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38.  Seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illustrates
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39.  In order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as
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40.  It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
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41.  A Skinner box is a(n)
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42.  The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as ________ is to ________.
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43.  The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is
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44.  Which of the following is true of negative reinforcement and punishment?
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45.  A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
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46.  The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.
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47.  An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of
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48.  Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of
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49.  The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of
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50.  Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of
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51.  Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.
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52.  Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
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53.  Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
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54.  Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
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55.  Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
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56.  In order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
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57.  By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of
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58.  Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
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59.  Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
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60.  The “psychic secretions” that interfered with Pavlov's experiments on digestion were
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61.  For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of
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62.  Money is to food as ________ is to ________.
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63.  An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a
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64.  Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of
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65.  It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
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66.  The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of
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67.  B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
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68.  Some of Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to other tones. This illustrates the process of
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69.  The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning.
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70.  Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
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71.  Bandura's experiments indicate that ________ is important in the process of learning.
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72.  Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
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73.  After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates
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74.  Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called
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75.  Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?
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76.  Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates
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77.  B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both
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78.  The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
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79.  The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
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80.  A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly
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81.  In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
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82.  Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of
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83.  Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of
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84.  Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of
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85.  Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
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86.  After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
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87.  John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n)
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88.  Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
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89.  An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light
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90.  Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
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D.
E.
91.  Promising people monetary rewards for doing what they already enjoy doing is most likely to undermine
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D.
E.
92.  A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
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93.  Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
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94.  Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
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95.  The tendency for a CR to be evoked by stimuli similar to the CS is called
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D.
E.
96.  In explaining prosocial behavior, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
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97.  Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
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98.  In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
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B.
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D.
E.
99.  In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on
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B.
C.
D.
E.
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