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AP Psychology ChAPter 7

100 Questions  I  By Thancock01
AP psychology chAPter 7

  
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1.  Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as ________ is to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  The psychologist most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  In order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older stumptail macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Spontaneous recovery refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Elijah has learned to expect that whenever he studies diligently for tests, he will receive good grades. This suggests that associative learning involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Who introduced the term behaviorism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Bandura's experiments indicate that ________ is important in the process of learning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Conditioning is the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  In order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Promising people monetary rewards for doing what they already enjoy doing is most likely to undermine
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Money is to food as ________ is to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  A Skinner box is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  The “psychic secretions” that interfered with Pavlov's experiments on digestion were
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress. Vaclav's reaction best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  In explaining prosocial behavior, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following is true of negative reinforcement and punishment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Some of Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to other tones. This illustrates the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  The tendency for a CR to be evoked by stimuli similar to the CS is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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