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AP Psychology ChAPter 7

100 Questions
Psychology Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Modeling.

    • C. 

      Experience.

    • D. 

      Intrinsic motivation.

    • E. 

      Maturation.

  • 2. 
    By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of
    • A. 

      Habituation.

    • B. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • C. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • D. 

      Observational learning.

    • E. 

      Operant conditioning.

  • 3. 
    Seals in an aquarium will repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them a herring. This best illustrates
    • A. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • B. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • C. 

      Observational learning.

    • D. 

      Latent learning.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 4. 
    Conditioning is the process of
    • A. 

      Discrimination.

    • B. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • C. 

      Learning associations.

    • D. 

      Observational learning.

    • E. 

      Generalization.

  • 5. 
    Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
    • A. 

      Intrinsic motivation.

    • B. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • E. 

      Latent learning.

  • 6. 
    Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Extrinsic motivation.

    • C. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • D. 

      Observational learning.

    • E. 

      Negative reinforcement.

  • 7. 
    The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
    • A. 

      Watson.

    • B. 

      Skinner.

    • C. 

      Bandura.

    • D. 

      Pavlov.

    • E. 

      Deci.

  • 8. 
    The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is
    • A. 

      Thorndike.

    • B. 

      Deci.

    • C. 

      Skinner.

    • D. 

      Bandura.

    • E. 

      Pavlov.

  • 9. 
    Who introduced the term behaviorism?
    • A. 

      Garcia

    • B. 

      Skinner

    • C. 

      Watson

    • D. 

      Bandura

    • E. 

      Pavlov

  • 10. 
    John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n)
    • A. 

      Physiological psychologist.

    • B. 

      Cognitive psychologist.

    • C. 

      Behaviorist.

    • D. 

      Psychoanalyst.

    • E. 

      Operant conditioner.

  • 11. 
    The “psychic secretions” that interfered with Pavlov's experiments on digestion were
    • A. 

      Unconditioned responses.

    • B. 

      Primary reinforcers.

    • C. 

      Conditioned responses.

    • D. 

      Conditioned stimuli.

    • E. 

      Conditioned reinforcers.

  • 12. 
    A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n)
    • A. 

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • B. 

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • C. 

      Unconditioned response.

    • D. 

      Conditioned response.

    • E. 

      Neutral stimulus.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
    • A. 

      Playing jump rope

    • B. 

      Running through a maze to get a food reward

    • C. 

      Sweating in hot weather

    • D. 

      Clapping after a thrilling concert performance

    • E. 

      Getting money as a reward

  • 14. 
    In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
    • A. 

      Conditioned response.

    • B. 

      Unconditioned response.

    • C. 

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • D. 

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • E. 

      Neutral stimulus.

  • 15. 
    In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
    • A. 

      Conditioned response.

    • B. 

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • C. 

      Unconditioned response.

    • D. 

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • E. 

      Neutral stimulus.

  • 16. 
    In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
    • A. 

      US; CS

    • B. 

      UR; CR

    • C. 

      CS; US

    • D. 

      CR; UR

    • E. 

      US; CR

  • 17. 
    A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly
    • A. 

      After an appropriate UR.

    • B. 

      After an appropriate US.

    • C. 

      Before an appropriate UR.

    • D. 

      Before an appropriate US.

    • E. 

      After an appropriate CS.

  • 18. 
    For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented
    • A. 

      Shortly after the CR.

    • B. 

      Shortly after the US.

    • C. 

      Shortly before the US.

    • D. 

      At the same time as the US.

    • E. 

      Shortly before the CR.

  • 19. 
    An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light
    • A. 

      Five seconds before the food.

    • B. 

      A half-second before the food.

    • C. 

      At precisely the same time as the food.

    • D. 

      A half-second after the food.

    • E. 

      Five seconds after the food.

  • 20. 
    After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
    • A. 

      Generalization

    • B. 

      Negative reinforcement

    • C. 

      Latent learning

    • D. 

      Extinction

    • E. 

      Discrimination

  • 21. 
    The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
    • A. 

      Generalization.

    • B. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • C. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

    • D. 

      Latent learning.

    • E. 

      Shaping.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during extinction?
    • A. 

      Latent learning

    • B. 

      Partial reinforcement

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D. 

      Generalization

    • E. 

      Discrimination

  • 23. 
    Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
    • A. 

      UR; CR

    • B. 

      CS; UR

    • C. 

      US; UR

    • D. 

      CS; US

    • E. 

      NS: NR

  • 24. 
    Spontaneous recovery refers to the
    • A. 

      Expression of learning that had occurred earlier but had not been expressed because of lack of incentive.

    • B. 

      Organism's tendency to respond spontaneously to stimuli similar to the CS as though they were the CS.

    • C. 

      Return of a response after punishment has been terminated.

    • D. 

      Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

    • E. 

      Tendency of organisms to generalize conditioned responses.

  • 25. 
    Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates
    • A. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • B. 

      Continuous reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Latent learning.

    • D. 

      Generalization.

    • E. 

      Habituation.

  • 26. 
    Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
    • A. 

      Generalization.

    • B. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Shaping.

    • D. 

      Intermittent reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 27. 
    The tendency for a CR to be evoked by stimuli similar to the CS is called
    • A. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • B. 

      Conditioned reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Latent learning.

    • D. 

      Generalization.

    • E. 

      Shaping.

  • 28. 
    After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress. Vaclav's reaction best illustrates
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Extinction.

    • C. 

      Latent learning.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • E. 

      Generalization.

  • 29. 
    An allergy attack triggered by the sight of plastic flowers best illustrates the process of
    • A. 

      Latent learning.

    • B. 

      Delayed reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Generalization.

    • D. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 30. 
    Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of
    • A. 

      Generalization.

    • B. 

      Latent learning.

    • C. 

      Shaping.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • E. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

  • 31. 
    The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Acquisition.

    • C. 

      Discrimination.

    • D. 

      Generalization.

    • E. 

      Latent learning.

  • 32. 
    Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
    • A. 

      Latent learning.

    • B. 

      Shaping.

    • C. 

      Intermittent reinforcement.

    • D. 

      Discrimination.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 33. 
    Some of Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to other tones. This illustrates the process of
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Latent learning.

    • C. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

    • D. 

      Discrimination.

    • E. 

      Extinction.

  • 34. 
    After recovering from a serious motorcycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a motorcycle but not a bicycle. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Conditioned reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Discrimination.

    • E. 

      Negative reinforcement.

  • 35. 
    The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning.
    • A. 

      Shaping

    • B. 

      Discrimination

    • C. 

      Generalization

    • D. 

      Cognitive processes

    • E. 

      Intermittent reinforcement

  • 36. 
    Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Cognitive processes.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Shaping.

    • E. 

      Continuous reinforcement.

  • 37. 
    The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on
    • A. 

      An organism's active behavioral responses to environmental stimulation.

    • B. 

      The amount of time between the presentation of the CS and the US.

    • C. 

      How frequently an organism is exposed to an association of a CS and a US.

    • D. 

      An organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS.

    • E. 

      The expectation of a reward for behavior being fulfilled.

  • 38. 
    Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Survival.

    • C. 

      Extrinsic motivation.

    • D. 

      Prosocial behavior.

    • E. 

      Social interaction.

  • 39. 
    Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
    • A. 

      Loud sounds.

    • B. 

      Bright lights.

    • C. 

      Novel tastes.

    • D. 

      High-pitched sounds.

    • E. 

      Acrid smells.

  • 40. 
    Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
    • A. 

      Cognitive processes.

    • B. 

      Biological predispositions.

    • C. 

      Environmental factors.

    • D. 

      Continuous reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Latent learning.

  • 41. 
    Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.
    • A. 

      Spontaneous recovery

    • B. 

      Conditioned reinforcers

    • C. 

      Shaping

    • D. 

      Cognitive processes

    • E. 

      Biological predispositions

  • 42. 
    After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
    • A. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Generalization.

    • C. 

      Shaping.

    • D. 

      Latent learning.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 43. 
    Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
    • A. 

      Can interfere with the process of learning.

    • B. 

      Can be used as negative reinforcers.

    • C. 

      Are acquired through observational learning.

    • D. 

      May be produced through classical conditioning.

    • E. 

      Are highly hereditable from biological parents.

  • 44. 
    To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a
    • A. 

      US.

    • B. 

      UR.

    • C. 

      CS.

    • D. 

      CR.

    • E. 

      NS.

  • 45. 
    Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of
    • A. 

      Generalization.

    • B. 

      Extinction.

    • C. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • D. 

      Latent learning.

    • E. 

      Operant conditioning.

  • 46. 
    Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • B. 

      Latent learning.

    • C. 

      Observational learning.

    • D. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • E. 

      Cognition.

  • 47. 
    Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. His change in behavior best illustrates the value of
    • A. 

      Primary reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • E. 

      Latent learning.

  • 48. 
    Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • C. 

      Conditioned reinforcers.

    • D. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • E. 

      Observational learning.

  • 49. 
    B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Behaviorism.

    • C. 

      Observational learning.

    • D. 

      The law of effect.

    • E. 

      Latent learning.

  • 50. 
    A Skinner box is a(n)
    • A. 

      Soundproofed cubicle in which organisms are classically conditioned in the absence of distracting noise.

    • B. 

      Aversive or punishing event that decreases the occurrence of certain undesirable behaviors.

    • C. 

      “slot machine” used to study the effects of partial reinforcement on human gambling practices.

    • D. 

      Chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

    • E. 

      Television projection device designed for use in laboratory studies of observational learning.

  • 51. 
    The psychologist most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was
    • A. 

      Skinner.

    • B. 

      Pavlov.

    • C. 

      Watson.

    • D. 

      Bandura.

    • E. 

      Garcia.

  • 52. 
    The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called
    • A. 

      Generalization.

    • B. 

      Intermittent reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Shaping.

    • D. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Modeling.

  • 53. 
    In order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • B. 

      Delayed reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Latent learning.

    • D. 

      Generalization.

    • E. 

      Shaping.

  • 54. 
    Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
    • A. 

      Positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

    • B. 

      Primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer

    • C. 

      Immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer

    • D. 

      Reinforcement; punishment

    • E. 

      Partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

  • 55. 
    Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?
    • A. 

      Positive reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding.

    • B. 

      Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding.

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding.

    • D. 

      Positive reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding.

    • E. 

      Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding.

  • 56. 
    Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ________ reinforcer.
    • A. 

      Positive

    • B. 

      Negative

    • C. 

      Secondary

    • D. 

      Partial

    • E. 

      Delayed

  • 57. 
    An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n)
    • A. 

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • B. 

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • C. 

      Reinforcer.

    • D. 

      Operant behavior.

    • E. 

      Discrimination.

  • 58. 
    Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • B. 

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcer.

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcer.

    • E. 

      Positive punishment.

  • 59. 
    Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • B. 

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcer.

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcer.

    • E. 

      Positive punishment.

  • 60. 
    Money is to food as ________ is to ________.
    • A. 

      Delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer

    • B. 

      Secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer

    • C. 

      Discrimination; generalization

    • D. 

      Partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

    • E. 

      Operant conditioning; classical conditioning

  • 61. 
    A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
    • A. 

      Delayed

    • B. 

      Negative

    • C. 

      Partial

    • D. 

      Conditioned

    • E. 

      Positive

  • 62. 
    The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of good grades as ________ is to ________.
    • A. 

      Delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer

    • B. 

      Primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

    • C. 

      Discrimination; generalization

    • D. 

      Partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

    • E. 

      Operant conditioning; classical conditioning

  • 63. 
    Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?
    • A. 

      Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?

    • B. 

      A spanking for eating cookies before dinner

    • C. 

      A cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day

    • D. 

      Termination of shock after removing one's finger from a live electric wire

    • E. 

      Pudding for eating all your peas at supper

  • 64. 
    In order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning rather than operant conditioning.

    • B. 

      Partial reinforcement rather than continuous reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Latent learning rather than shaping.

    • D. 

      Immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.

    • E. 

      Negative reinforcers rather than positive reinforcers.

  • 65. 
    A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.
    • A. 

      Positive; negative

    • B. 

      Negative; positive

    • C. 

      Primary; secondary

    • D. 

      Partial; continuous

    • E. 

      Continuous; partial

  • 66. 
    The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
    • A. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • B. 

      Partial reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Generalization.

    • D. 

      Shaping.

    • E. 

      Continuous reinforcement.

  • 67. 
    A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
    • A. 

      Specified time period has elapsed.

    • B. 

      Unpredictable time period has elapsed.

    • C. 

      Specified number of responses have been made.

    • D. 

      Unpredictable number of responses have been made.

    • E. 

      Specific number of rewards and punishments are applied.

  • 68. 
    Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcers.

    • B. 

      Generalization.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Punishment.

    • E. 

      Secondary reinforcers.

  • 69. 
    An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcer.

    • B. 

      Punishment.

    • C. 

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • D. 

      Delayed reinforcer.

    • E. 

      Secondary reinforcer.

  • 70. 
    The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.
    • A. 

      Positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

    • B. 

      Acquisition; extinction

    • C. 

      Reinforcement; punishment

    • D. 

      Generalization; discrimination

    • E. 

      Primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer

  • 71. 
    Which of the following is true of negative reinforcement and punishment?
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding.

    • B. 

      Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments increase the rate of operant responding.

    • C. 

      Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding.

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease the rate of operant responding.

    • E. 

      Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments have no effect on the rate of operant responding.

  • 72. 
    The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
    • A. 

      Acquisition; extinction

    • B. 

      Negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer

    • C. 

      Primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer

    • D. 

      Punishment; reinforcement

    • E. 

      Partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement

  • 73. 
    Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Positive reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Negative punishment.

    • D. 

      Positive punishment.

    • E. 

      Punishing reinforcer.

  • 74. 
    For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of
    • A. 

      Shaping over modeling.

    • B. 

      Reinforcement over punishment.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery over extinction.

    • D. 

      Classical conditioning over operant conditioning.

    • E. 

      Primary reinforcers over secondary reinforcers.

  • 75. 
    Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
    • A. 

      Secondary reinforcers

    • B. 

      Cognitive processes

    • C. 

      Biological predispositions

    • D. 

      Intrinsic motivation

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery

  • 76. 
    If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Latent learning.

    • C. 

      Delayed reinforcement.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • E. 

      Modeling.

  • 77. 
    Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of
    • A. 

      Primary reinforcers.

    • B. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Cognitive processes.

    • E. 

      Conditioned reinforcers.

  • 78. 
    Elijah has learned to expect that whenever he studies diligently for tests, he will receive good grades. This suggests that associative learning involves
    • A. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • B. 

      Cognitive processes.

    • C. 

      Primary reinforcers.

    • D. 

      Intermittent reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Shaping.

  • 79. 
    Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called
    • A. 

      Primary reinforcers.

    • B. 

      Successive approximations.

    • C. 

      Discriminative stimuli.

    • D. 

      Cognitive maps.

    • E. 

      Intrinsic motivations.

  • 80. 
    The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Generalization.

    • C. 

      Latent learning.

    • D. 

      Secondary reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 81. 
    Promising people monetary rewards for doing what they already enjoy doing is most likely to undermine
    • A. 

      Latent learning.

    • B. 

      Intrinsic motivation.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Generalization.

    • E. 

      Discrimination.

  • 82. 
    Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
    • A. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • B. 

      Continuous reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Latent learning.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • E. 

      Intrinsic motivation.

  • 83. 
    It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
    • A. 

      Primary reinforcement

    • B. 

      Generalization

    • C. 

      Biological predispositions

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery

  • 84. 
    It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
    • A. 

      Primary reinforcers

    • B. 

      Generalization

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery

    • D. 

      Biological predispositions

    • E. 

      Shaping

  • 85. 
    After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
    • A. 

      Conditioned reinforcement

    • B. 

      Spontaneous recovery

    • C. 

      Latent learning

    • D. 

      Generalization

    • E. 

      Biological predispositions

  • 86. 
    Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
    • A. 

      Latent learning.

    • B. 

      Instinctive drift.

    • C. 

      The law of effect.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • E. 

      Operant conditioning.

  • 87. 
    According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
    • A. 

      Biological predispositions.

    • B. 

      External influences.

    • C. 

      Emotions.

    • D. 

      Unconscious motives.

    • E. 

      Conscious thoughts.

  • 88. 
    In explaining prosocial behavior, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
    • A. 

      Genetic influences.

    • B. 

      Empathy and compassion.

    • C. 

      An unconscious need for social approval.

    • D. 

      The internalization of moral values.

    • E. 

      The beneficial consequences of prosocial behavior.

  • 89. 
    B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's
    • A. 

      Personal freedom.

    • B. 

      Early childhood experiences.

    • C. 

      Pleasure-seeking tendencies.

    • D. 

      Cultural background.

    • E. 

      Past behaviors.

  • 90. 
    B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both
    • A. 

      Continuous reinforcement and latent learning.

    • B. 

      Positive reinforcement and punishment.

    • C. 

      Classical and operant conditioning.

    • D. 

      Shaping and immediate reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Observational learning and spontaneous recovery.

  • 91. 
    Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • B. 

      Immediate reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Modeling.

    • E. 

      Shaping.

  • 92. 
    Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older stumptail macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Observational learning.

    • B. 

      Immediate reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • E. 

      Shaping.

  • 93. 
    The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Shaping.

    • B. 

      Modeling.

    • C. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • D. 

      Immediate reinforcement.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 94. 
    Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
    • A. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • B. 

      Prosocial behavior.

    • C. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • D. 

      Observational learning.

    • E. 

      Classical conditioning.

  • 95. 
    Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Observational learning.

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • C. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • D. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • E. 

      Discrimination.

  • 96. 
    The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • B. 

      Immediate reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D. 

      Primary reinforcers.

    • E. 

      Observational learning.

  • 97. 
    In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Operant conditioning.

    • C. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • D. 

      Observational learning.

    • E. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

  • 98. 
    Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
    • A. 

      Punishing.

    • B. 

      Extinguishing.

    • C. 

      Discriminating.

    • D. 

      Modeling.

    • E. 

      Generalizing.

  • 99. 
    Bandura's experiments indicate that ________ is important in the process of learning.
    • A. 

      Shaping

    • B. 

      Generalization

    • C. 

      Modeling

    • D. 

      Respondent behavior

    • E. 

      Secondary reinforcement

  • 100. 
    Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Delayed reinforcement.

    • B. 

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • C. 

      Observational learning.

    • D. 

      Respondent behavior.

    • E. 

      Shaping.