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AP Psychology ChAPter 13

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1.  According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among
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2.  Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism?
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3.  Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women
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4.  Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
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5.  Survivors' memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of
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6.  According to Freud, understanding how the id, ego, and superego interact is essential to grasping the nature of
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7.  Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning.
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8.  Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of
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9.  Freud would have suggested that an excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to
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10.  Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
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11.  Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by
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12.  The trait of optimism is most closely related to a strong sense of
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13.  The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
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14.  The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
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15.  Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to disagree with Freud's assumption that
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16.  Freud emphasized that unresolved childhood conflicts often lead to
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17.  The MMPI is an example of a(n)
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18.  The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
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19.  Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier, more infantile stage of development is called
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20.  Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to
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21.  Which of the following is most likely to be associated with high self-esteem?
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22.  In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the
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23.  According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with
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24.  Within the framework of Bandura's reciprocal determinism, an external locus of control refers to a(n)
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25.  An individual who perceives an internal locus of control would most likely show signs of a
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26.  Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
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27.  During the early psychosexual stages, the id's psychic energy is focused on
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28.  Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
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29.  Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of
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30.  Displacement refers to the process by which people
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31.  According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates our pursuit of
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32.  The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her
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33.  Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be
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34.  Free association is central to the process of
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35.  Freud suggested that the superego develops through the process of
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36.  The Thematic Apperception Test requires people to respond to
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37.  Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of
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38.  The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
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39.  Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms
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40.  Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called ________ tests.
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41.  People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of
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42.  Which perspective most clearly emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and situations on human behavior?
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43.  The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects
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44.  Low self-esteem is associated with
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45.  In convincing people that they can accurately assess their personalities, astrologers, palm readers, and graphologists take advantage of
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46.  A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
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47.  While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on “wine, women, and song.” Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n)
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48.  The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
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49.  Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as:
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50.  Medical students earn higher grades if they have a clear vision of themselves as successful doctors. This best illustrates the motivational significance of
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51.  The perception that one can strongly influence the outcome and destiny of one's own life exemplifies
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52.  Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized that personality development is strongly influenced by feelings of inferiority?
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53.  The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's
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54.  The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
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55.  According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
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56.  Unrealistic optimism could best be described as a(n)
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57.  Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an incomplete
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58.  Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from
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59.  The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by
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60.  The Thematic Apperception Test is a(n)
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61.  Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of
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62.  Ingrid is a married woman who pursues sexual gratification by means of kissing rather than through sexual intercourse. According to Freud, this illustrates a(n)
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63.  Byron is always looking to others for advice, approval, and affection. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Byron is most likely fixated at the ________ stage.
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64.  Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by
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65.  Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as
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66.  Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are
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67.  Characteristic patterns of behavior and conscious motives are called
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68.  Sasha believes that the questions on college tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
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69.  According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
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70.  Researchers have observed that the experience of repeated uncontrollable traumatic events contributes to
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71.  Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of
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72.  According to Freud's theory, the ego
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73.  Morris is hostile, aggressive, and socially destructive. According to Carl Rogers, this behavior pattern results from
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74.  The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
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75.  Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of
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76.  Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
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77.  No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a
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78.  Who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders?
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79.  According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the best ways to predict a person's future behavior is to
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80.  According to Freud, the defense mechanism that underlies all others is
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81.  Freud suggested that in the process of development, people pass through
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82.  Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it
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83.  The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for one's successes than for one's failures best illustrates
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84.  Which of the following tests characteristically describes personality in flattering terms?
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85.  People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to
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86.  The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to
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87.  Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit
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88.  A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as
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89.  According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the
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90.  Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?
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91.  Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
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92.  According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by
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93.  The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that
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94.  Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of
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95.  Reaction formation refers to the process by which people
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