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AP Psychology ChAPter 13

95 Questions
AP Psychology Quizzes & Trivia
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
    • A. 

      Moral integrity.

    • B. 

      Self-consciousness.

    • C. 

      Behavioral consistency.

    • D. 

      Self-actualization.

    • E. 

      Gender identity.

  • 2. 
    Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms
    • A. 

      Resulted from the physical abuse they received from their parents during childhood.

    • B. 

      Reflected an internal locus of control.

    • C. 

      Illustrated a reciprocal determinism.

    • D. 

      Made no neurological sense.

    • E. 

      Were passed down genetically.

  • 3. 
    Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
    • A. 

      Genetic defects.

    • B. 

      An inferiority complex.

    • C. 

      Psychological processes.

    • D. 

      An internal locus of control.

    • E. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

  • 4. 
    Free association is central to the process of
    • A. 

      Factor analysis.

    • B. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • C. 

      Psychoanalysis.

    • D. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • E. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

  • 5. 
    Who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders?
    • A. 

      Allport

    • B. 

      Freud

    • C. 

      Bandura

    • D. 

      Maslow

    • E. 

      Rogers

  • 6. 
    A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as
    • A. 

      Fixation.

    • B. 

      Free association.

    • C. 

      Factor analysis.

    • D. 

      Hypnosis.

    • E. 

      Projection.

  • 7. 
    In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the
    • A. 

      Ego.

    • B. 

      Superego.

    • C. 

      Instincts.

    • D. 

      Unconscious.

    • E. 

      Psychosexual stages.

  • 8. 
    Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be
    • A. 

      Displaced.

    • B. 

      Projected.

    • C. 

      Preconscious.

    • D. 

      Fixated.

    • E. 

      Unconscious.

  • 9. 
    Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?
    • A. 

      Fixation

    • B. 

      Factor analysis

    • C. 

      Projective testing

    • D. 

      Free association

    • E. 

      The Barnum effect

  • 10. 
    According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
    • A. 

      Id.

    • B. 

      Ego.

    • C. 

      Superego.

    • D. 

      Erogenous zones.

    • E. 

      Unconscious.

  • 11. 
    According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
    • A. 

      Collective unconscious.

    • B. 

      Ego.

    • C. 

      Self-concept.

    • D. 

      Id.

    • E. 

      Superego.

  • 12. 
    No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn't studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a
    • A. 

      Weak id.

    • B. 

      Weak ego.

    • C. 

      Weak superego.

    • D. 

      Strong id.

    • E. 

      Strong superego.

  • 13. 
    According to Freud, understanding how the id, ego, and superego interact is essential to grasping the nature of
    • A. 

      Self-actualization.

    • B. 

      The collective unconscious.

    • C. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • D. 

      Motivational conflict.

    • E. 

      An inferiority complex.

  • 14. 
    According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by
    • A. 

      The reality principle.

    • B. 

      The ego.

    • C. 

      The superego.

    • D. 

      The id.

    • E. 

      Anal instincts.

  • 15. 
    According to Freud's theory, the ego
    • A. 

      Is the executive part of personality.

    • B. 

      Develops before the id.

    • C. 

      Operates on the pleasure principle.

    • D. 

      Is the major source of guilt feelings.

    • E. 

      Operates only on a conscious level.

  • 16. 
    While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on “wine, women, and song.” Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n)
    • A. 

      Strong ego.

    • B. 

      Inferiority complex.

    • C. 

      Weak id.

    • D. 

      Electra complex.

    • E. 

      Weak superego.

  • 17. 
    During the early psychosexual stages, the id's psychic energy is focused on
    • A. 

      Free associations.

    • B. 

      Defense mechanisms.

    • C. 

      Erogenous zones.

    • D. 

      Attributional styles.

    • E. 

      Complexes.

  • 18. 
    According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the
    • A. 

      Eyes.

    • B. 

      Mouth.

    • C. 

      Bowels.

    • D. 

      Breasts.

    • E. 

      Urethra.

  • 19. 
    Freud suggested that in the process of development, people pass through
    • A. 

      A genital stage before they enter a latency stage.

    • B. 

      A latency stage before they enter a phallic stage.

    • C. 

      A genital stage before they enter a phallic stage.

    • D. 

      A latency stage before they enter a genital stage.

    • E. 

      A phallic stage before they enter an oral stage.

  • 20. 
    Freud suggested that the superego develops through the process of
    • A. 

      Self-actualization.

    • B. 

      Fixation.

    • C. 

      Free association.

    • D. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • E. 

      Identification.

  • 21. 
    Freud emphasized that unresolved childhood conflicts often lead to
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • B. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • C. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

    • D. 

      An external locus of control.

    • E. 

      Fixation.

  • 22. 
    Ingrid is a married woman who pursues sexual gratification by means of kissing rather than through sexual intercourse. According to Freud, this illustrates a(n)
    • A. 

      Oedipus complex.

    • B. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • C. 

      Fixation.

    • D. 

      Projection.

    • E. 

      Rationalization.

  • 23. 
    Byron is always looking to others for advice, approval, and affection. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Byron is most likely fixated at the ________ stage.
    • A. 

      Phallic

    • B. 

      Anal

    • C. 

      Latency

    • D. 

      Genital

    • E. 

      Oral

  • 24. 
    According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with
    • A. 

      An oral fixation.

    • B. 

      Free association.

    • C. 

      Learned helplessness.

    • D. 

      The Oedipus complex.

    • E. 

      The genital stage.

  • 25. 
    Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of
    • A. 

      The Oedipus complex.

    • B. 

      Free association.

    • C. 

      The superego.

    • D. 

      Erogenous zones.

    • E. 

      An inferiority complex.

  • 26. 
    Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit
    • A. 

      Passive dependence.

    • B. 

      An inferiority complex.

    • C. 

      An Electra complex.

    • D. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • E. 

      Messiness and disorganization.

  • 27. 
    Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an incomplete
    • A. 

      Fixation.

    • B. 

      Displacement.

    • C. 

      Rationalization.

    • D. 

      Projection.

    • E. 

      Repression.

  • 28. 
    Freud would have suggested that an excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to
    • A. 

      Reaction formation.

    • B. 

      Regression.

    • C. 

      Learned helplessness.

    • D. 

      An Electra complex.

    • E. 

      Self-serving bias.

  • 29. 
    Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of
    • A. 

      Projection.

    • B. 

      Regression.

    • C. 

      Rationalization.

    • D. 

      Reaction formation.

    • E. 

      Displacement.

  • 30. 
    The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
    • A. 

      Projection.

    • B. 

      Displacement.

    • C. 

      Fixation.

    • D. 

      Reaction formation.

    • E. 

      Rationalization.

  • 31. 
    The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
    • A. 

      Projection.

    • B. 

      Reaction formation.

    • C. 

      Rationalization.

    • D. 

      Displacement.

    • E. 

      Identification.

  • 32. 
    Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of
    • A. 

      Free association.

    • B. 

      Self-actualization.

    • C. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

    • D. 

      Defense mechanisms.

    • E. 

      Learned helplessness.

  • 33. 
    According to Freud, the defense mechanism that underlies all others is
    • A. 

      Regression.

    • B. 

      Reaction formation.

    • C. 

      Projection.

    • D. 

      Displacement.

    • E. 

      Repression.

  • 34. 
    Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier, more infantile stage of development is called
    • A. 

      Fixation.

    • B. 

      Projection.

    • C. 

      Reaction formation.

    • D. 

      Regression.

    • E. 

      Displacement.

  • 35. 
    Displacement refers to the process by which people
    • A. 

      Offer self-justifying explanations in place of real, but unacceptable, unconscious reasons for action.

    • B. 

      Consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable, unconscious impulses.

    • C. 

      Disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

    • D. 

      Retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development.

    • E. 

      Redirect aggressive or sexual impulses toward less threatening targets.

  • 36. 
    Reaction formation refers to the process by which people
    • A. 

      Disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.

    • B. 

      Consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.

    • C. 

      Retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development.

    • D. 

      Offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action.

    • E. 

      Banish anxiety-producing wishes from our conscious mind.

  • 37. 
    The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
    • A. 

      Projection.

    • B. 

      Denial.

    • C. 

      Rationalization.

    • D. 

      Displacement.

    • E. 

      Reaction formation.

  • 38. 
    Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from
    • A. 

      An Electra complex.

    • B. 

      The spotlight effect.

    • C. 

      An oral fixation.

    • D. 

      Feelings of inferiority.

    • E. 

      The Barnum effect.

  • 39. 
    Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized that personality development is strongly influenced by feelings of inferiority?
    • A. 

      Jung

    • B. 

      Allport

    • C. 

      Horney

    • D. 

      Maslow

    • E. 

      Adler

  • 40. 
    Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of
    • A. 

      The unconscious dynamics underlying behavior.

    • B. 

      Childhood sexual instincts.

    • C. 

      Anxiety and defense mechanisms.

    • D. 

      Distinguishing between id, ego, and superego.

    • E. 

      Unconscious impulses and anxieties.

  • 41. 
    Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women
    • A. 

      Have weak superegos.

    • B. 

      Suffer an Electra complex.

    • C. 

      Often experience learned helplessness.

    • D. 

      Have stronger sexual instincts than men.

    • E. 

      Never experience a phallic stage of development.

  • 42. 
    Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
    • A. 

      Jung

    • B. 

      Adler

    • C. 

      Horney

    • D. 

      Maslow

    • E. 

      Bandura

  • 43. 
    Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning.
    • A. 

      Social interest

    • B. 

      Inferiority feelings

    • C. 

      Psychosexual stages

    • D. 

      The collective unconscious

    • E. 

      Unconditional positive regard

  • 44. 
    Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to
    • A. 

      Adler.

    • B. 

      Rogers.

    • C. 

      Allport.

    • D. 

      Jung.

    • E. 

      Horney.

  • 45. 
    Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
    • A. 

      Self-reference phenomenon.

    • B. 

      Defense mechanism.

    • C. 

      Collective unconscious.

    • D. 

      Psychosexual stages.

    • E. 

      Superego.

  • 46. 
    Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to disagree with Freud's assumption that
    • A. 

      Much of our mental functioning is unconscious.

    • B. 

      People often struggle with conflicting wishes.

    • C. 

      Childhood experiences influence our adulthood relationships.

    • D. 

      Sexual drives are central to personality development.

    • E. 

      Repression occurs due to unbearable anxiety and stress.

  • 47. 
    Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called ________ tests.
    • A. 

      Empirical

    • B. 

      Projective

    • C. 

      Multiphasic personality

    • D. 

      Factor analytic

    • E. 

      Aptitude

  • 48. 
    The Thematic Apperception Test requires people to respond to
    • A. 

      Incomplete sentences.

    • B. 

      Ambiguous pictures.

    • C. 

      Unfamiliar melodies.

    • D. 

      Meaningless inkblots.

    • E. 

      Focus questions.

  • 49. 
    The Thematic Apperception Test is a(n)
    • A. 

      Factor analytic test.

    • B. 

      Projective test.

    • C. 

      Personality inventory.

    • D. 

      Empirically derived test.

    • E. 

      Trait theory test.

  • 50. 
    The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that
    • A. 

      No computer-aided tool has been designed to facilitate scoring of the test.

    • B. 

      Only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity.

    • C. 

      The test discourages individuals from communicating openly in clinical interviews.

    • D. 

      The test can be used effectively only with individuals who are severely maladjusted.

    • E. 

      Only a few people have the intellectual and creative ability to truly take the test.

  • 51. 
    Survivors' memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of
    • A. 

      Fixation.

    • B. 

      Repression.

    • C. 

      The Oedipus complex.

    • D. 

      Motivational conflict.

    • E. 

      Learned helplessness.

  • 52. 
    According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates our pursuit of
    • A. 

      Self-esteem.

    • B. 

      Parallel processing.

    • C. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • D. 

      The collective unconscious.

    • E. 

      An external locus of control.

  • 53. 
    People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of
    • A. 

      Displacement.

    • B. 

      Reaction formation.

    • C. 

      Regression.

    • D. 

      Projection.

    • E. 

      Fixation.

  • 54. 
    Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it
    • A. 

      Underestimates the importance of biological contributions to personality development.

    • B. 

      Is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the human capacity for destructive behavior.

    • C. 

      Is overly reliant upon observations derived from Freud's use of projective tests.

    • D. 

      Offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity.

    • E. 

      Relies on overly simplistic explanations of behaviors and conditioning.

  • 55. 
    The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
    • A. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • B. 

      Self-determination.

    • C. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • D. 

      Factor analysis.

    • E. 

      Free association.

  • 56. 
    Abraham Maslow studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • B. 

      An internal locus of control.

    • C. 

      Self-actualization.

    • D. 

      The false consensus effect.

    • E. 

      Defense mechanisms.

  • 57. 
    Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by
    • A. 

      An external locus of control.

    • B. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

    • C. 

      Collective unconscious.

    • D. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • E. 

      Free association.

  • 58. 
    Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by
    • A. 

      Selectively studying people with qualities he admired.

    • B. 

      Interpreting their flattering self-descriptions as a self-serving bias.

    • C. 

      Overemphasizing the value of their loyalty to cultural norms.

    • D. 

      Using projective tests to assess their motives.

    • E. 

      Using free association and dream analysis.

  • 59. 
    Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of
    • A. 

      An internal locus of control.

    • B. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • C. 

      Social influence.

    • D. 

      The spotlight effect.

    • E. 

      Individualism.

  • 60. 
    Morris is hostile, aggressive, and socially destructive. According to Carl Rogers, this behavior pattern results from
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • B. 

      Cultural influences.

    • C. 

      The collective unconscious.

    • D. 

      Inborn personality traits.

    • E. 

      An internal locus of control.

  • 61. 
    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by
    • A. 

      Gordon Allport.

    • B. 

      Carl Jung.

    • C. 

      Albert Bandura.

    • D. 

      Carl Rogers.

    • E. 

      Abraham Maslow.

  • 62. 
    Which of the following tests characteristically describes personality in flattering terms?
    • A. 

      Rorschach inkblot test

    • B. 

      Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

    • C. 

      Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    • D. 

      MMPI

    • E. 

      TAT

  • 63. 
    Characteristic patterns of behavior and conscious motives are called
    • A. 

      Manifest content.

    • B. 

      Fixations.

    • C. 

      Projections.

    • D. 

      Traits.

    • E. 

      Self-actualizations.

  • 64. 
    Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as
    • A. 

      Unstable-introverted.

    • B. 

      Internal-impulsive.

    • C. 

      Manic-depressive.

    • D. 

      External-dependent.

    • E. 

      Passive-aggressive.

  • 65. 
    The MMPI is an example of a(n)
    • A. 

      Projective test.

    • B. 

      Personality inventory.

    • C. 

      Inkblot test.

    • D. 

      Self-esteem test.

    • E. 

      Humanistic test.

  • 66. 
    The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
    • A. 

      The MMPI.

    • B. 

      Free association.

    • C. 

      Projective tests.

    • D. 

      Factor analysis.

    • E. 

      Thematic apperception tests.

  • 67. 
    Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
    • A. 

      Extraversion.

    • B. 

      Openness.

    • C. 

      Neuroticism.

    • D. 

      Conscientiousness.

    • E. 

      Agreeableness.

  • 68. 
    The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
    • A. 

      The halo effect.

    • B. 

      The Barnum effect.

    • C. 

      Projection.

    • D. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • E. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

  • 69. 
    In convincing people that they can accurately assess their personalities, astrologers, palm readers, and graphologists take advantage of
    • A. 

      The spotlight effect.

    • B. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • C. 

      The Barnum effect.

    • D. 

      Free association.

    • E. 

      Factor analysis.

  • 70. 
    The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to
    • A. 

      Allport.

    • B. 

      Rogers.

    • C. 

      Adler.

    • D. 

      Bandura.

    • E. 

      Jung.

  • 71. 
    Which perspective most clearly emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and situations on human behavior?
    • A. 

      Trait perspective

    • B. 

      Psychoanalytic perspective

    • C. 

      Social-cognitive perspective

    • D. 

      Humanistic perspective

    • E. 

      Functionalist perspective

  • 72. 
    Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism?
    • A. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • B. 

      Social-cognitive

    • C. 

      Trait

    • D. 

      Humanistic

    • E. 

      Functionalist

  • 73. 
    Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • B. 

      The Barnum effect.

    • C. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • D. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • E. 

      Reaction formation.

  • 74. 
    Within the framework of Bandura's reciprocal determinism, an external locus of control refers to a(n)
    • A. 

      Behavior.

    • B. 

      Genetic predisposition.

    • C. 

      Environmental factor.

    • D. 

      Cognitive factor.

    • E. 

      Defense mechanism.

  • 75. 
    According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among
    • A. 

      Mind, body, and behavior.

    • B. 

      Thoughts, emotions, and actions.

    • C. 

      Behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.

    • D. 

      Id, ego, and superego.

    • E. 

      Learned helplessness, locus of control, and optimism.

  • 76. 
    The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • B. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • C. 

      An external locus of control.

    • D. 

      The pleasure principle.

    • E. 

      The spotlight effect.

  • 77. 
    Sasha believes that the questions on college tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • B. 

      The false consensus effect.

    • C. 

      An external locus of control.

    • D. 

      The spotlight effect.

    • E. 

      The Barnum effect.

  • 78. 
    Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
    • A. 

      Reaction formation.

    • B. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • C. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

    • D. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • E. 

      An internal locus of control.

  • 79. 
    An individual who perceives an internal locus of control would most likely show signs of a
    • A. 

      Weak id.

    • B. 

      Strong id.

    • C. 

      Weak ego.

    • D. 

      Strong ego.

    • E. 

      Weak superego.

  • 80. 
    The perception that one can strongly influence the outcome and destiny of one's own life exemplifies
    • A. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • B. 

      The spotlight effect.

    • C. 

      The reality principle.

    • D. 

      An internal locus of control.

    • E. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

  • 81. 
    Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are
    • A. 

      Likely to experience low self-esteem.

    • B. 

      Extremely introverted personalities.

    • C. 

      Likely to be academically successful.

    • D. 

      Not easily able to delay gratification of their personal desires.

    • E. 

      Likely to experience depression.

  • 82. 
    Researchers have observed that the experience of repeated uncontrollable traumatic events contributes to
    • A. 

      The false consensus effect.

    • B. 

      Learned helplessness.

    • C. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • D. 

      An internal locus of control.

    • E. 

      Reaction formation.

  • 83. 
    Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as:
    • A. 

      Optimism.

    • B. 

      Projection.

    • C. 

      The Barnum effect.

    • D. 

      External locus of control.

    • E. 

      Free association.

  • 84. 
    The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her
    • A. 

      Ideal self.

    • B. 

      Gender identity.

    • C. 

      Attributional style.

    • D. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

    • E. 

      Self-esteem.

  • 85. 
    The trait of optimism is most closely related to a strong sense of
    • A. 

      Conditional positive regard.

    • B. 

      Free association.

    • C. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • D. 

      Personal control.

    • E. 

      Gender identity.

  • 86. 
    Unrealistic optimism could best be described as a(n)
    • A. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • B. 

      Reaction formation.

    • C. 

      Fixation.

    • D. 

      Self-reference phenomenon.

    • E. 

      External locus of control.

  • 87. 
    The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's
    • A. 

      Current feelings of personal control.

    • B. 

      Specific political goals for the future.

    • C. 

      General feelings of optimism about the future.

    • D. 

      Past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

    • E. 

      Personality traits as revealed by the MMPI.

  • 88. 
    According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the best ways to predict a person's future behavior is to
    • A. 

      Identify that person's most central traits by having him or her take a personality inventory.

    • B. 

      Observe that person's behavior in various relevant situations.

    • C. 

      Assess that person's general level of self-esteem

    • D. 

      Uncover that person's hidden motives, as revealed by projective tests.

    • E. 

      Measure that person's unconscious conflicts and use of defense mechanisms

  • 89. 
    Medical students earn higher grades if they have a clear vision of themselves as successful doctors. This best illustrates the motivational significance of
    • A. 

      Possible selves.

    • B. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

    • C. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • D. 

      An internal locus of control.

    • E. 

      The spotlight effect.

  • 90. 
    Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
    • A. 

      Work persistently at difficult tasks.

    • B. 

      Experience an external locus of control.

    • C. 

      Dismiss flattering descriptions of themselves as untrue.

    • D. 

      Underestimate the accuracy of their own beliefs.

    • E. 

      Associate with people whose attitudes and personality are very similar to their own

  • 91. 
    Low self-esteem is associated with
    • A. 

      An internal locus of control.

    • B. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • C. 

      Unhappiness.

    • D. 

      Unconditional positive regard.

    • E. 

      Extraversion.

  • 92. 
    People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to
    • A. 

      Experience an internal locus of control.

    • B. 

      Overestimate the accuracy of their beliefs.

    • C. 

      Manifest self-serving bias.

    • D. 

      Succumb to conformity pressures.

    • E. 

      Have a strong ego.

  • 93. 
    A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
    • A. 

      Demonstrate an independence from social pressure to conform.

    • B. 

      Criticize the shortcomings of others.

    • C. 

      Lack a clear sense of gender identity.

    • D. 

      Experience an internal locus of control.

    • E. 

      Be motivated by a desire for self-actualization.

  • 94. 
    Which of the following is most likely to be associated with high self-esteem?
    • A. 

      The spotlight effect

    • B. 

      An Electra complex

    • C. 

      Self-serving bias

    • D. 

      An external locus of control

    • E. 

      Reciprocal determinism

  • 95. 
    The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for one's successes than for one's failures best illustrates
    • A. 

      Reaction formation.

    • B. 

      An external locus of control.

    • C. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • D. 

      The self-reference phenomenon.

    • E. 

      The spotlight effect.

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